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Table 2 List of wild plants used as foodstufs in Yeşilli District

From: Wild edible plants in Yeşilli (Mardin-Turkey), a multicultural area

Scientific name
Family name
Voucher number (ISTE) Local name (Languages; A, K, S) Ethnic groups (Ar, As, Ku) (Number of interviewes) Life form Plant part used Modes of consumption CI Previous ethnobotanical literature records
Allium ampeloprasum L.
Amarylidaceae
115232 Summe (A),
Sirik (K)
As (1), Ku (18) Herb Leaves, Bulbs Boiled then added to yogurt and bulgur soup, added into cheese
Raw as salad
0.31 [44, 52, 60, 70, 81]
Allium chloranthum Boiss.
Amarylidaceae
115738 Serspik Sirik, Sirim (K) Ku (10) Herb Leaves Added into cheese, raw, added to salad 0.16 Not reported
Allium wendelboanumKollmanna
Amarylidaceae
115 737 Serspik, Sirik, Sirim (K) Ku (6) Herb Leaves Added into cheese
Raw as salad
0.09 Not reported
Amaranthus retroflexus L.
Amaranthaceae
115734 Koksor (K) Ku (25) Herb Aerial parts Boiled then fried with egg, cooked as soup with yogurt and bulgur 0.40 [32, 33, 37, 40,41,42, 50, 51, 69, 80,81,82, 94]
Anchusa strigosa Banks & Sol.
Boraginaceae
115247 Hımhım (A), Gûrîz (K) Ar (11), As (5), Ku (39) Herb Young leaves
Flowers nectar
Boiled then fried with onion, medicinal
Its nectar sucked
0.88 [26, 31, 94]
Arum rupicola Boiss.
Araceae
116014 Kardi (K) Ar (3), Ku (10) Herb Leaves Boiled then fried with onion, medicinal 0.21 [55, 70, 72, 94, 98]
Capparis sicula subsp. sicula Veill.
Capparaceae
115267 Kebere (K) Ar (2), As (4), Ku (14) Shrub Buds Raw as salad, pickled 0.32 [26,27,28, 41, 52, 56, 65]
Celtis tournefortii Lam.
Cannabaceae
115293 Gernoso (S)
Gıngırêz (A)
Teêv, Tuêv (K)
As (5), Ku (20) Tree Fruits Raw as a snack, prepared a mixture, medicinal 0.40 [28, 40, 49, 81, 82]
Centaurea hyalolepis Boiss.
Asteraceae
115257 Sitrîzerk(K) Ku (9) Herb Young leaves Raw as salad 0.14 [26]
Centaurea virgata Lam.
Asteraceae
115268 Deqnişeh (A), Tal (K) As (2) Herb Young leaves Raw as salad 0.03 Not reported
Cerasus mahaleb var. mahaleb (L.) Mill.
Rosaceae
115684 Mahlab (S)
Mahlep, Mahleb (A-K)
As (5)
As (5), Ku (4)
Shrub Fruits Prepared liqueur and wine
Raw as a snack, medicinal
0.08
0.15
[70]
Cerasus microcarpa subsp. microcarpa (C.A.Mey.) Boiss.
Rosaceae
115677 Fıkt (A) As (3), Ku (26) Shrub Fruits Raw as a snack, medicinal 0.29 [49, 60, 94]
Cerasus prostrata var. prostrata (Labill.) Ser.
Rosaceae
115732 Belalûk (K)
Fıkt (A)
Ĥorişmê (S)
Ku (11) Shrub Fruits Raw as a snack, medicinal 0.18 Not reported
Chenopodium album L.
Amaranthaceae
115729 Serbîmast (K) Ku (12) Herb Young aerial parts Boiled and then fried eggs added, cooked a soup with yogurt and bulgur 0.19 [30, 32,33,34, 37, 38, 42, 43, 49, 53, 54, 59, 63, 65, 69, 71, 72, 78,79,80,81,82, 84, 88, 89, 92,93,94]
Chondrilla juncea var. juncea L.
Asteraceae
115248 Ilke (A) Ku (9) Herb Young leaves Raw as salad, added to salad 0.14 [33, 38, 41, 42, 50, 65, 78,79,80, 94]
Convolvulus arvensis L.
Convolvulaceae
115674 Lavlavk (K), Lıblebê (A) As (3), Ku (16) Herb Aerial parts Boiled and then fried eggs added, cooked a soup with yogurt and bulgur 0.19 [27, 32, 37, 58, 59, 63, 65, 74, 75, 78, 89, 92, 94]
Crataegus azarolus var. azarolus L.
Rosaceae
115250 Givîj, Gîjok, Gûhîj (K), Ğızran (A) As (5), Ku (33) Tree Fruits Raw as a snack 0.61 [52, 82, 96]
Crocus cancellatus Herbert subsp. damacenus (Herbert) Mathew
Iridaceae
115940 Hılhılêye (A)
Pîvok (K)
As (3), Ku (35) Herb Corm Raw as a snack after pelling off the outher part 0.61 [26,27,28, 79, 94]
Echinophora tenuifolia L. subsp. sibthorpiana (Guss.) Tutin
Apiaceae
115670 Mırbela (A) As (5) Herb Young stems Raw as a snack after peeling off the outher part 0.08 [26, 27, 41,42,43, 49, 58, 74, 78, 81, 92]
Echinops orientalis Trautv.
Asteraceae
115703 Gelo helvo pevero (S) As (5)
Ku (21)
Herb Receptacle
Dried latex
Raw as a snack 0.16 [27, 40, 60, 70, 78]
Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. bithynicus (Boiss.) Greuter
Asteraceae
115283 Gelo helvo pevero (S) As (5) Herb Receptacle
Dried latex
Raw as a snack 0.08 [40]
Echium italicum L.
Boraginaceeae
115234 Hımhım (A), Mijok (K) As (2), Ku (9) Herb Flowers, nectar Its nectar sucked, medicinal 0.18 [26, 40,41,42]
Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
Elaeagnaceae
115235 Sinç (K) Ku (31) Shrub Fruits
Flowers
Raw as a snack
As tea
0.50 [32, 36, 37, 49, 52, 69, 78, 79, 93, 94]
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér
Geraniaceae
116438 Derzikepire (K) Ar (5), Ku (15) Herb Leaves, fruits,
stems
Eaten raw
Raw as a snack after pelling off the outher part
0.32 [26, 31, 41, 42, 50, 57, 58, 65, 73, 75, 89, 99]
Eryngium creticum Lam.
Apiaceae
115236 Beektire/Ekkeyde (A) Ar (15), As (4) Herb Petioles
Young stem, young roots
Raw as a snack
Raw as a snack after pelling off the outher part, medicinal
0.29 [48, 49, 73]
Euphorbia helioscopia subsp. helioscopia L.
Euphorbiaceae
115254 Lahye (A) As (2), Ku (8) Herb Aerial parts Added to molasses, to improve the test of molasses, direct or dry 0.16 [41]
bFicus carica subsp. carica L.
Moraceae
115943 Hejîr (K)
Tin (A)
Ar (15), As (5), Ku (39) Tree Fruits Raw as a snack, dried eaten 0.96 [20, 26, 37, 38, 40, 43, 50, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 62, 63, 72, 75, 82, 86, 92, 96]
Ficus carica L. subsp. rupestris (Hausskn.) Browicz
Moraceae
115699 Kerik hejîr (K), Tin (A) As (5), Ku (15) Shrub Fruits Raw as a snack, dried eaten 0.32 [27, 40, 94]
Gagea villosa (M.Bieb.) Sweet
Liliaceae
116418 Şeqılarab(A)Şînêrak(K) Ku (10) Herb Corm Raw as a snack after peeling off the outher part 0.16 Not reported
Geocaryum cynapioides (Guss.) Engstrand subsp. macrocarpum (Boiss. & Spruner) Menemen
Apiaceae
115681 Ceviz il arz (A)
Gûzê ardê (K)
As (5) Herb Tubers Raw as a snack 0.08 Not reported
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Fabaceae
115 667 Meyan/Sus/ Sûs (A-K) Ar (12), As (5), Ku (34) Herb Roots Prepared as syrup, medicinal 0.83 [26, 27, 32, 41, 48, 52, 78, 79, 81, 82, 93]
Gundelia tournefortii L.
Asteraceae
115711 Arkue (A),
Êrgudê (S)
Kereng, Herşev (K),
Ar (6), As (5), Ku (39) Herb Petioles
Roots, stems
Raw as a snack
Young stems and roots are eaten after pelling off the outher part as a snack, boiled and then fried, eggs added, boiled and then the soup is preparedby adding yogurt and bulgur
0.80 [26, 27, 31, 33, 40,41,42, 52, 55, 60, 65, 70, 72, 78, 80,81,82, 84, 86, 89, 94, 96, 98, 99]
Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Foss.
Brassicaceae
115307 Herdlo (S)
Xerdel (A-K)
Ku (7) Herb Young aerial parts Raw as a snack, as salad, medicinal 0.11 [107]
Iris persica L.
Iridaceae
116013 Birbîzêk,
Birbîzêka mîha (K),
Birxızeylê (A)
As (2)
Ku (8)
Herb Tepals Raw as a snack 0.16 [82, 94]
Iris reticulata M. Bieb.
Iridaceae
116000 Birbîzêk,
Birbîzêka bizina (K),
Birxızeylê (A)
As (2),
Ku (8)
Herb Tepals Raw as a snack 0.16 [31, 82]
bJuglans regia L.
Juglandaceae
115679 Cevz (A)
Gûz (K)
Ar (12), As (5), Ku (28) Tree Seeds Eaten as dried nuts 0.73 [20, 28, 35,36,37,38, 40, 41, 49, 55, 57, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70,71,72, 82, 92, 94]
Lathyrus cassius Boiss.
Fabaceae
115721 Baqilê bizinan (K) Ku (10) Herb Young seeds Raw as a snack 0.16 Not reported
Lepidium draba L.
Brassicaceae
115252 Qınêber (K) Ar (18), As (5), Ku (37) Herb Young aerial parts Raw as a snack, as salad, fried with salad and eggs added 0.96 [26, 27, 31, 32, 42, 44, 53, 55, 69, 81, 84, 89, 93]
Malva neglecta Wallr.
Malvaceae
115242 Hıbbeze (A), Tolig, Tolik (K) Ar (10), As (4), Ku (34)
Ku (30)
Herb Young aerial parts
Fruit
Boiled and then fried with onion, medicinal
Raw as a snack
0.77 [26, 28, 30,31,32,33,34, 36, 38, 40, 44, 47,48,49, 51,52,53,54,55, 59, 62, 65, 76, 78,79,80,81,82, 84, 88, 89, 94, 98, 99]
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.
Lamiaceae
115243 Nahne, Nınha (A),
Pûng (K)
Ar (18), As (3), Ku (26) Herb Leaves, young aerial parts As spices, medicinal
As tea
0.75 [32,33,34, 38, 40, 44, 47,48,49, 51,52,53,54, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65, 69, 70, 72, 74,75,76, 78, 80,81,82, 84,85,86,87,88,89, 94, 96, 98, 99]
Nasturtium officinale R.Br., Aiton
Brassicaceae
115903 Tûzik (K) Ku (31) Herb Young aerial part Raw as a snack, as salad 0.50 [41,42,43, 51, 55, 59, 64, 71, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 98, 99]
Notobasis syriaca (L.) Cass.
Asteraceae
116415 Aynbeloqê (A)
Kelbeşe belek (K)
Ar (7), As (4), Ku (39) Herb Young stems Raw as a snack after pelling off the outher part 0.80 [26, 28, 50, 96]
bOlea europaea L.
Oleaceae
115262 Zeitûn (A-K) Ar (8), As (5), Ku (20) Tree Fruit, oil Eaten conserved, medicinal 0.50 [37, 38, 42, 50, 71, 92]
Onopordum carduchorum Bornm. & Beauverd
Asteraceae
116442 Kelbeşakaran (K) Ar (6), As (5), Ku (39) Herb Young stems Raw as a snack after pelling off the outher part 0.80 [28, 31, 55]
Onosma roussaei DC.
Boraginaceae
115712 Hımhım (A), Mîjok (K) Ku (7) Herb Flowers nectar Its nectar sucked 0.12 [31]
Onosma alborosea Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Boraginaceae
115316 Hımhım (A),
Mîjok (K)
As (2), Ku (10) Herb Flowers nectar Its nectar sucked 0.19 Not reported
Papaver glaucum Boiss. & Hausskn. Ex Boiss.
Papaveraceae
115249 Kulîlka Bûk û Zava, Kulîlka Nisanê, Kulîlka erebo (K), Qırçeh (A) Ku (12) Herb Young leaves Raw as salad, fried, medicinal 0.19 Not reported
Papaver macrostomum Boiss. & A.Huet
Papaveraceae
115680 Kulîlka Nisanê (K) As (3), Ku (32) Herb Young leaves Raw as salad, fried, medicinal. 0.22 [65, 78, 94, 99]
Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler
Anacardiaceae
115944 Batmê (S)
Bittim (K)
Bıttım (A)
Ar (10), As (4), Ku (16) Shrub Unripe fruits Raw as a snack or preparing a coffee 0.48 [30, 38, 41,42,43, 50, 52, 56, 59, 60, 65, 75, 78, 81, 86]
Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm.
Fabaceae
115724 Baqilê xatûnî (K) Ku (10) Herb Young seeds Raw as a snack 0.16 Not reported
Polygonum cognatum Meissn.
Polygonaceae
115275 Casûrik (K) Ar (5) Herb Young aerial parts Raw as a snack, as salad, fried or boiled then added to yogurt 0.08 [32,33,34,35,36, 40,41,42,43,44, 48, 49, 52, 54, 55, 58, 59, 65, 70, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 84, 88, 89, 93, 94]
Portulaca oleracea L.
Portulacaceae
115241 Pirpar (A-K), Parparık (K) As (5), Ku (19) Herb Aerial parts Raw in salads, cooked as vegetable, medicinal. 0.38 [31, 33, 55, 59, 70, 75, 82, 96, 98]
Quercus brantii Lindl.
Fagaceae
115902 Berû (K) As (1), Ku (17) Tree Seed Roasted in embers, medicinal 0.29 [31, 38, 52]
Rosa canina L.
Rosaceae
115255 Gulşîlav (K) As (5), Ku (28) Shrub Fruits Raw as a snack, medicinal 0.53 [20, 32,33,34,35,36, 38, 40, 41, 47,48,49, 51,52,53, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 69,70,71,72, 74, 75, 78, 81, 82, 86, 93, 94, 96]
Rosa foetida J. Herrm.
Rosaceae
116444 Verdasfar (A), Gulşîlave zer (K) As (4), Ku (36) Shrub Petals Raw as a snack 0.65 Not reported
Rosularia radiciflora Borris.
Crassulaceae
116459 Tirîke pîrê (K)
Tulfilasfor (A)
As (2), Ku (5) Herb Leaves Raw as a snack 0.11 Not reported
Rhus coriaria L.
Anacardiaceae
115280 Sımaq (A-K) Ar (18), As (5), Ku (32) Shrub Fruit As spice 0.88 [20, 28, 31, 34, 38, 41, 52, 55, 60, 65, 66, 71, 75, 78, 81, 82, 86, 92, 96]
Rubus sanctus Schreb.
Rosaceae
115306 Durîreşk, Durîhişhişok (K) As (3), Ku (30) Shrub Fruits Raw as a snack 0.54 [20, 30, 31, 37, 38, 49, 50, 55, 60, 63, 66, 71, 75, 81, 82, 92]
Rumex crispus L.
Polygonaceae
115271 Sumaksevaqi (A), Tirşuq (K) As (3), Ku (9) Herb Young leaves As a wrapping material for ‘sarma’ 0.19 [32, 33, 36, 37, 41,42,43, 49, 52,53,54,55, 58, 65, 69, 71, 75, 76, 78, 80, 84, 88, 96, 98]
Rumex obtusifolius L. subps. subalpinus (Schur) Celak.
Polygonaceae
115309 Sumaksevaqi (A), Sabûna leglegê (K) As (3), Ku (12) Herb Young leaves As a wrapping material for ‘sarma’ 0.24 [41, 45, 75]
Rumex tuberosus L. subsp. horizantalis (Koch) Rech.
Polygonaceae
115256 Sumaksevaqi (A), Tirşuq (K) As (4), Ku (7) Herb Young aerial parts Raw as a snack 0.18 [30, 32, 36, 44, 47, 53, 59, 60, 70, 72, 76, 94]
Salvia syriaca L.
Lamiaceae
115671 Carboe (A) Ar (14) Herb Gall Raw as a snack 0.23 [31, 52, 94]
Sedum pallidum Bieb.
Crassulaceae
116434 Tirîke pîrê (K)
Tulfilasfor (A)
As (2), Ku (5) Herb Leaves Raw as a snack 0.11 Not reported
Silene dichotoma Erh.
Caryophyllaceae
116417 Şekirok (K) As (5) Herb Young seeds Raw as a snack 0.08 [31, 33, 55]
Sinapis alba subsp. alba L.
Brassicaceae
115315 Xerdel (A-K) Ar (18), As (4), Ku (29) Herb Young aerial parts
Young leaves
Fried with onion
Raw as a snack
0.82 [26, 28, 41, 42, 92, 99]
Thymbra spicata subsp. spicata L.
Lamiaceae
115700 Cehter, Cahter (K) As (4), Ku (25) Shrub Aerial parts As spice 0.46 [28, 30, 31, 38, 43, 55, 74, 78, 86]
Thymus kotschyanus subsp. kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen.
Lamiaceae
115706 Cehter, Cahter (K) Ku (9) Shrub Aerial parts As spice 0.14 [32, 38, 60, 62, 70, 74, 78, 81, 82]
Tragopogon latifolius Boiss. var. angustifolius Boiss.
Asteraceae
115687 Gezrik (K) Ku (7) Herb Young leaves and roots Raw as a snack 0.11 [33, 42, 58, 65, 89, 94]
Tragopogon porrifolius L. subsp. longirostris (Sch. Bip.) Greuter
Asteraceae
116428 Gezrik (K) Ku (6) Herb Young leaves and roots Raw as a snack 0.10 [31, 41, 42, 99]
Urtica dioica L.
Urticaceae
115253 Gezgezik (K)
Kırays (A)
Ar (14), As (5), Ku (26) Herb Young aerial parts Fried with onion and then eggs added, medicinal 0.72 [20, 26, 28, 30,31,32,33,34, 36, 40, 42,43,44, 48,49,50, 52,53,54,55, 58,59,60, 62,63,64,65, 69,70,71,72, 75,76,77,78,79,80,81, 86, 88, 89, 92, 94, 98]
Urtica pilulifera L.
Urticaceae
115258 Gezgezok (K) Ku (15) Herb Young aerial parts Raw as a snack, fried with onion and then eggs added, medicinal 0.24 [30, 33, 36, 55]
Vicia palaestina Boiss.
Fabaceae
115723 Baqilê çukan (K) Ku (11) Herb Young seed Raw as a snack 0.18 [26]
Vicia pannonica var. pannonica Crantz
Fabaceae
115716 Baqilê gan (K) Ku (10) Herb Young seed Raw as a snack 0.16 [31]
Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. var. nigra
Fabaceae
115722 Baqilê maran (K) Ku (18) Herb Young seed Raw as a snack 0.29 [27, 49, 52, 63]
  1. ISTE Herbarium of Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, A Arabic, Ar Arab, As Assyrian, K Kurdish, Ku Kurd, S Syriac
  2. aEndemic
  3. bBoth cultivated and wild plants