Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected studies of E. marginatus in Brazil (I): growth [Southern Brazil & lab]

From: Fishers and groupers (Epinephelus marginatus and E. morio) in the coast of Brazil: integrating information for conservation

Location of interviews/sampling
[Total fishers]
Local knowledge on biology and ecology (excluding folk taxonomy) Reference
Atlantic Forest Coast, Sao Paulo and Southern Rio de Janeiro States)
[937]
Cited by 19% as recommended to be eaten during illness Begossi et al. (2004) [56] (Ecological Applications)
Bahia coast, Sao Paulo coast
[67]
Habitat and reproduction:
 67% said live in reefs/reefs crevices/islands/
 23% reproduce in summer (most do not know)
Spawning calendar
 54% spring months (Sept., Oct., Nov.)
 46% summer months (Dec., Jan., Feb.)
Silvano et al. (2006) [57](Environ. Biol. Fishes).
Northern, Southern and South of Brazil
(Direct obs RJ and SP)
[Set 1 = 92, Set 2 = 49]
Fishing spots (maps)
Stomach contents
 Crabs [65%] and fish [40%] (stomachs not empty = 40)
Interviews (set 1)
 Diet – 19% crustacea, only 4% crabs; 50% fish, mostly sardines; 32% mollusks (n = 88)
 Habitat – 100% reefs, rocks, caves or islands (97% reefs, rocks) (n = 88).
Interviews (set 2)
 Diet – 22% crustacea, 12% crabs; 55% fish, mostly sardines; 29% mollusks (n = 49)
 Bait – 45% sardines, 25% bonito, 18% crustaceans, 8% crabs (n = 49)
 Habitat – 96% reefs, rocks, caves or islands (78% reefs, rocks) (n = 49)
 Spawning – 49% do not know; 64% in summer-spring months (n = 25)
“Gonads were not macroscopically visible, and we estimated they could be in the category F-1 (resting female) or J-1 (immature females)”.
Begossi and Silvano (2008) [8] (Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine)
Paraty, southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State
Systematic sampling (n = 220)
Stomach contents: 35% crabs, 15% fish and 58% empty (n = 220)
Fishing spots (maps)
Grouper production: 16 months, 220 groupers, 164 kg (4 days / month of sampling)
Begossi et al. (2012, 2014:63 )[19, 58]
Science Journal of Agricultural Research and Management
2014: Book on Paraty.
Coast of Brazil.
1986–2009, 14 sites: snappers and groupers
14 fishing communities: a total of 585 fishers were interviewed, 1453 fish were collected, and 1761 fish landings were recorded from 2002 to 2009 (Table, slide) Begossi et al. (2012) [19]
In: Global Progress in Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management. Alaska Sea Grant.
2013–2015
21 months
(n = 796)
Copacabana, Rio (RJ)
Groupers 45-65 cm
Fishing spots
Diving
Begossi et al. (2016) [2]
J Coast Zone Manag.
Other studies
Southern Brazil
Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve (SC – Brazil)
(n = 206)
The first maturation size was determined for females (L50 = 470 mm; r2 = 0.99).
The relationship between the length and weight was W = 9 · 10−6 · TL3.1149 (r2 = 0.998; n = 246).
Andrade et al. (2003) [34] Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
Southern Brazil (SC)
Babitonga Bay
2002–2004
(n = 193)
Collaborative approach
The regression equation of the relationship between TL (mm) and TW (g) (TW = aTLb) was: TW = 4.4 × 10− 5 TL2.8, R2 = 0.97.
Gerhardinger et al., (2006) [36, 37]
Santa Catarina State
1998–1999
Habitat uses
Water temperature
Machado et al. (2003) [59]
Itajái, SC Food
Cronius ruber (crab)
Daros (2005) [60]
(undergraduate thesis)
Lab. Exp.
(n = 27)
Instituto Pesca, SP
Sexual inversion Sanches (2009)
(master thesis)
Patos Lagoon, South of Brazil (n = 108) Otolith and gonads (growth and reproduction): “K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087) and southeast Africa (0.09)”
“The current L 50 estimate of 451.3 mm indicates that most individuals captured in this area are immature.”
Seyboth et al. (2011) [61]
South of Brazil, Carpinteiro Bank
(n = 201)
Age and growth
150–1160 mm
Otoliths 1–40 years
Condini, Albuquerque & M. Garcia. Fishery Bulletin. 2014.
Southern coast Mercury contamination in this species was correlated both with site locations and body sizes. Mature larger-body indi- viduals (N 650 mm and N 8 years old) exhibited the highest mercury concentrations (harmful to humans). Condini et al. (2016) Marine Pollution Bulletin
Paraty and Copacabana, RJ Grouper genetics
 Connected populations (Paraty and Ubatuba coasts)
J Coast Zone Manag 2016, 19:2
These values suggest that within the geographic distribution of E. marginatus from Paraty to Rio de Janeiro, there are no subdivisions of the population.
The effective population size (Ne) was calculated for the only genetically differentiated group, K = 1, and resulted in 663 individuals between the Paraty (RJ) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ) populations.
Priolli et al. (2016) [35] (Scientia Marina)