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Table 1 Geo-relations of six villages in the research area

From: Changes in traditional ecological knowledge of forage plants in immigrant villages of Ningxia, China

Ecological immigrant typeEcological immigration locationMigration distanceMigration dateNeighboring village of the emigration area
Immigrants from the Liupan Mountain water conservation areaVillage a, Liushutai Village Group 2 in Xinzhuang, inhabited by people who moved from Shangwan Village in Xinmin, Jingyuan County, GuyuanApproximately 300 km2006Village e: Zhangtai Village Team 3 in Xinmin, Jingyuan County, Guyuan, which is an unmoved neighboring village of the original Shangwan Village in Xinmin, Jingyuan County, Guyuan
Immigrants from loess hilly areasVillage b: Yongxin Village Xinquan Group in Liuquan, inhabited by people who moved from Talachuan in Hechuan Village, Jiatang, Haiyuan County, ZhongweiApproximately 200 km1999Village f: Chenwan Team of Baotai Village in Jiatang, Haiyuan County, Zhongwei, which is an unmoved neighboring village of the original Talachuan natural village of Hechuan Village in Jiatang, Haiyuan County, Zhongwei
Immigrants from key arid and sandstorm control areas under dryland–to–nearby wetland migration projectsVillage c: Xiangyuan Village Xiangyuan Group in Dahe, inhabited by people who moved from Shuayishan Village in Shitangou Town, Tongxin County, WuzhongApproximately 20 km2000No residents near the emigration area
Immigrants from key arid and sandstorm control areas under dryland–to–nearby wetland migration projectsVillage d: Shuitao Village Group 1 in Liuquan, inhabited by people who moved from Shuitao Village - Wanghutai Village in Weizhou, Tongxin County, WuzhongApproximately 2 km2000No residents near the emigration area
  1. The dryland-to-nearby wetland migration projects resettle immigrants from deep mountain areas lacking water sources and transportation to nearby flat areas with water sources, with the migration distance less than 20 km
  2. Neighboring village of the emigration area refers to the village that remains in the vicinity of the immigrants’ original residence