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Table 1 Inventory of plants used to make medicinal soups by the Hakka people in West Fujian, China

From: Diversity and use of medicinal plants for soup making in traditional diets of the Hakka in West Fujian, China

Scientific name

Family name

Local name

Plant type

Part used

Time of Harvest

Match

Medicinal Properties

Specimen number

Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Saururaceae

[ɡie53tiŋ53tsɿ53]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer

Crucian

Clear heat, induce diuresis, boost immunity

HKSP-02

Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.

Lauraceae

[tsʰuŋ55tsɿ53fo55ɡæn55]

Shrub

Root

Whole year

Chicken, pig feet

Treat puerperal fever, treat rheumatism, relieve swelling and pain

HKSP-40

Smilax glabra Roxb.

Smilacaceae

[ŋɔn55pʰoŋ53tʰie11]

Shrub

Rhizome

Summer and fall

Pork ribs

Detoxify, treat rheumatism

HKSP-36

Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.

Orchidaceae

[tɕaŋ55ɕin241liŋ11]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer and fall

Chicken, pig heart

Clear heat, treat cancer, treat bronchitis, reduce blood pressure

HKSP-18

Pholidota chinensis Lindl.

Orchidaceae

[soɡ24kɔŋ55lan11]

Herb

Whole plant

Fall

Pig bone, duck

Clear heat, nourish the stomachache, nourish yin, eliminate phlegm and stop cough

HKSP-16

Hemerocallis citrina Baroni

Xanthorrhoeaceae

[tɕaŋ55tsaŋ55tsʰu241]

Herb

Flower

June to September

Pork

Detoxify, induce diuresis, diminish inflammation, calm the nerves

HKSP-19

Juncus effusus L.

Juncaceae

[tæŋ55sɑŋ55tsʰau53]

Herb

Stem pith

Summer and fall

Pig heart

Clear heat, induce diuresis

HKSP-17

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

Nelumbonaceae

[liŋ11tsɿ53]

Herb

seed

Summer

pork ribs, duck

Clear heat, nourish yin

HKSP-07

Abrus cantoniensis Hance

Fabaceae

[ɡai55ku53tsʰau53]

Shrub

Whole plant

Whole year

Pork, pork ribs, pigs feet

Clear heat, detoxify, treat hepatitis

HKSP-31

Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi

Fabaceae

[ku53]

Liana

Root

Fall and winter

Pork ribs, duck

Treat fever, prevent alcoholism, resolve phlegm to relive cough

HKSP-28

Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi

Fabaceae

[soɡ24kiɛ53sæb24]

Shrub

Leaf and root

Summer and fall

Pork

Improve digestion, clear heat, induce diuresis

HKSP-38

Uraria crinita (L.) DC.

Fabaceae

[lau24vu53len11]

Shrub

Whole plant

Whole year

Pork, young chicken

Clear heat, improve digestion

HKSP-34

Phymatopteris hastata (Thunb.) Pic. Serm.

Polypodiaceae

[aɡ53tʃuo53tsʰau53]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer and fall

Pork

Clear heat, induce diuresis

HKSP-01

Polygala fallax Hemsl.

Polygalaceae

[kuŋ55iɑŋ55tsʰu241]

Shrub

Root

Summer and fall

Chicken, pork

Nourish, clear damp, postpartum recover, nourish the kidney and liver

HKSP-33

Rosa laevigata Michx.

Rosaceae

[tʰuŋ11kuŋ24tsɿ53]

Shrub

Fruit, root

October to November

Pig kidney

Tonify kidney, tonify Yang

HKSP-39

Berchemia lineata (L.) DC.

Rhamnaceae

[lo24tsʰea53xen53]

Shrub

Root

Fall and winter

Pig bone

Detoxify, diminish inflammation, treat rheumatism, treat hepatitis, treat hernia

HKSP-35

Ficus gasparriniana Miq. var. laceratifola (Levl. et Vant.) Corner

Moraceae

[pʰoɡ24fo55ŋie11nen241ɡæn55]

Shrub

Root

Whole year

Pig bone, chicken

Clear heat, nourish yin, improve digestion, treat gynopathy

HKSP-37

Ficus hirta Vahl

Moraceae

[eŋ55tsɿ53mau11tʰau11]

Shrub

Root

Whole year

Chicken

Improve eyesight, nourish yin, improve digestion, dispel dampness

HKSP-30

Morus alba L.

Moraceae

[suŋ55]

Tree

Root

Whole year

Pork

Clear heat, treat rheumatism

HKSP-42

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

Cucurbitaceae

[eŋ53nit24samŋ11]

Shrub

Stem and leaf

Summer and fall

Chicken

Diminish inflammation, resolve phlegm to relive cough, treat diabetes, depress blood pressure

HKSP-29

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

[pi24mo11ɡɔŋ53]

Herb

Stem

The Winter Solstice

Female duck

Clear heat, clear damp, nourish yin

HKSP-13

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk.

Myrtaceae

[tuŋ24liŋ11tsɿ53]

Shrub

Root

Whole year

Pigs feet

Treat chronic diarrhea, treat rheumatism, treat hepatitis, reduce blood fat

HKSP-41

Osbeckia chinensis L.

Melastomataceae

 

Herb

Whole plant

May and June

Pork

Clear heat, improve digestion, treat hepatitis, treat enteritis

HKSP-25

Thlaspi arvense L.

Brassicaceae

[kʰea53tsa55]

Herb

Leaf

Summer and fall

Pig bag, pork intestine

Clear heat, improve digestion, detoxify, treat diabetes

HKSP-05

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

Amaranthaceae

[poɡ24fo55tsɿ53], [ma53tʰin55sɑŋ55]

Herb

Root

Whole year

Pork, pork ribs

Clear heat, improve digestion, treat hepatitis, treat toothache

HKSP-14

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Amaranthaceae

[læ53ɕiŋ241], [io5553ɕiŋ241]

Herb

Root

Spring, summer and fall

Pork ribs, pork intestine

Clear heat, diminish inflammation, treat cholecystitis, treat cholelithiasis

HKSP-06

Portulaca oleracea L.

Portulacaceae

[mo55tsʰɿ53xae53]

Herb

Whole plant

Spring and summer

Pork, pork ribs

Clear heat, induce diuresis, detoxify, diminish inflammation

HKSP-08

Lysimachia clethroides Duby

Primulaceae

 

Herb

Whole plant

Fall

Pork and pork liver

Nourish women, induce diuresis

HKSP-26

Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

Rubiaceae

[pʰoɡ24fo552424tsʰau53]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer and fall

Chicken

Clear heat, induce diuresis, prevent and treat cancer, diminish inflammation

HKSP-12

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.

Rubiaceae

[ɡie53pʰi24tʰɛn11]

Liana

Root

Summer and fall

Pork ribs, fish

Clear heat, induce diuresis, postpartum recovery

HKSP-27

Lycium chinense Mill.

Solanaceae

[ɡie53tɕiɡ53]

Shrub

Leaf

Summer and fall

Mutton, dog meat

Nourishing, tonify kidney and liver

HKSP-32

Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y.Hu

Lamiaceae

[i24mea55tsʰau53]

Herb

Whole plant

Spring and summer

Old hen

Relieve cough, treat cold, treat gynecopathy, postpartum recovery

HKSP-04

Prunella vulgaris L.

Lamiaceae

[hɔ53kʰeat55sʰau53]

Herb

Whole plant

July to August

Pork

Clear heat, improve eyesight, treat mumps, treat toothache

HKSP-03

Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) H.Hara

Lamiaceae

[tʰea53vuŋ11liŋ11]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer and fall

Fish

Clear heat, treat hepatitis, treat cholecystitis

HKSP-20

Scutellaria barbata D. Don

Lamiaceae

[pɑn241tɕi55liŋ11]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer and fall

Pork ribs, rabbit

Diminish inflammation, relieve swelling and pain, treat traumatic injury

HKSP-10

Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot

Asteraceae

[ŋai241tsʰau53]

Herb

Whole plant

May to August

Chicken

Clear heat, treat rheumatism, diminish inflammation, stop cough

HKSP-09

Elephantopus scaber L.

Asteraceae

[tʰi55dɑn31tʰiɛ11]

Herb

Root

Summer and fall

Duck

Clear heat, detoxify, stop cough, induce diuresis and reduce edema

HKSP-21

Gnaphalium affine D. Don

Asteraceae

[poɡ24tʰiɛ11ɡɑŋ55]

Herb

Whole plant

Spring

Pork ribs, rabbit

Stop cough, treat tracheitis and bronchitis, treat rheumatism

HKSP-15

Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC.

Asteraceae

[vu55tʃuo53ɡai55]

Herb

Root

Summer and fall

Pork

Dispel wind and relieve pain, detoxify, treat rheumatism

HKSP-23

Laggera alata Nanth.

Asteraceae

[yŋ2453saŋ55tiŋ55]

Herb

Whole plant

Summer and fall

Rabbit

Clear heat, diminish inflammation, treat cold, stop cough, treat rheumatism

HKSP-24

Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.

Asteraceae

[pɑu214pɑu214tæŋ55]

Herb

Whole plant

Whole year

Pork ribs

Clear heat, detoxify, induce diuresis and reduce edema, treat hepatitis

HKSP-11

Eryngium foetidum L.

Apiaceae

[tsʰɿ24tɕʰiɑŋ11]

Herb

Stem and leaf

Whole year

Pig bone

Tonify stomach, treat cold, diminish inflammation

HKSP-22

  1. The order of species is followed by APG 3