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Table 1 Inventory of plants used to make medicinal soups by the Hakka people in West Fujian, China

From: Diversity and use of medicinal plants for soup making in traditional diets of the Hakka in West Fujian, China

Scientific name Family name Local name Plant type Part used Time of Harvest Match Medicinal Properties Specimen number
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Saururaceae [ɡie53tiŋ53tsɿ53] Herb Whole plant Summer Crucian Clear heat, induce diuresis, boost immunity HKSP-02
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Lauraceae [tsʰuŋ55tsɿ53fo55ɡæn55] Shrub Root Whole year Chicken, pig feet Treat puerperal fever, treat rheumatism, relieve swelling and pain HKSP-40
Smilax glabra Roxb. Smilacaceae [ŋɔn55pʰoŋ53tʰie11] Shrub Rhizome Summer and fall Pork ribs Detoxify, treat rheumatism HKSP-36
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. Orchidaceae [tɕaŋ55ɕin241liŋ11] Herb Whole plant Summer and fall Chicken, pig heart Clear heat, treat cancer, treat bronchitis, reduce blood pressure HKSP-18
Pholidota chinensis Lindl. Orchidaceae [soɡ24kɔŋ55lan11] Herb Whole plant Fall Pig bone, duck Clear heat, nourish the stomachache, nourish yin, eliminate phlegm and stop cough HKSP-16
Hemerocallis citrina Baroni Xanthorrhoeaceae [tɕaŋ55tsaŋ55tsʰu241] Herb Flower June to September Pork Detoxify, induce diuresis, diminish inflammation, calm the nerves HKSP-19
Juncus effusus L. Juncaceae [tæŋ55sɑŋ55tsʰau53] Herb Stem pith Summer and fall Pig heart Clear heat, induce diuresis HKSP-17
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Nelumbonaceae [liŋ11tsɿ53] Herb seed Summer pork ribs, duck Clear heat, nourish yin HKSP-07
Abrus cantoniensis Hance Fabaceae [ɡai55ku53tsʰau53] Shrub Whole plant Whole year Pork, pork ribs, pigs feet Clear heat, detoxify, treat hepatitis HKSP-31
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi Fabaceae [ku53] Liana Root Fall and winter Pork ribs, duck Treat fever, prevent alcoholism, resolve phlegm to relive cough HKSP-28
Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi Fabaceae [soɡ24kiɛ53sæb24] Shrub Leaf and root Summer and fall Pork Improve digestion, clear heat, induce diuresis HKSP-38
Uraria crinita (L.) DC. Fabaceae [lau24vu53len11] Shrub Whole plant Whole year Pork, young chicken Clear heat, improve digestion HKSP-34
Phymatopteris hastata (Thunb.) Pic. Serm. Polypodiaceae [aɡ53tʃuo53tsʰau53] Herb Whole plant Summer and fall Pork Clear heat, induce diuresis HKSP-01
Polygala fallax Hemsl. Polygalaceae [kuŋ55iɑŋ55tsʰu241] Shrub Root Summer and fall Chicken, pork Nourish, clear damp, postpartum recover, nourish the kidney and liver HKSP-33
Rosa laevigata Michx. Rosaceae [tʰuŋ11kuŋ24tsɿ53] Shrub Fruit, root October to November Pig kidney Tonify kidney, tonify Yang HKSP-39
Berchemia lineata (L.) DC. Rhamnaceae [lo24tsʰea53xen53] Shrub Root Fall and winter Pig bone Detoxify, diminish inflammation, treat rheumatism, treat hepatitis, treat hernia HKSP-35
Ficus gasparriniana Miq. var. laceratifola (Levl. et Vant.) Corner Moraceae [pʰoɡ24fo55ŋie11nen241ɡæn55] Shrub Root Whole year Pig bone, chicken Clear heat, nourish yin, improve digestion, treat gynopathy HKSP-37
Ficus hirta Vahl Moraceae [eŋ55tsɿ53mau11tʰau11] Shrub Root Whole year Chicken Improve eyesight, nourish yin, improve digestion, dispel dampness HKSP-30
Morus alba L. Moraceae [suŋ55] Tree Root Whole year Pork Clear heat, treat rheumatism HKSP-42
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino Cucurbitaceae [eŋ53nit24samŋ11] Shrub Stem and leaf Summer and fall Chicken Diminish inflammation, resolve phlegm to relive cough, treat diabetes, depress blood pressure HKSP-29
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae [pi24mo11ɡɔŋ53] Herb Stem The Winter Solstice Female duck Clear heat, clear damp, nourish yin HKSP-13
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Myrtaceae [tuŋ24liŋ11tsɿ53] Shrub Root Whole year Pigs feet Treat chronic diarrhea, treat rheumatism, treat hepatitis, reduce blood fat HKSP-41
Osbeckia chinensis L. Melastomataceae   Herb Whole plant May and June Pork Clear heat, improve digestion, treat hepatitis, treat enteritis HKSP-25
Thlaspi arvense L. Brassicaceae [kʰea53tsa55] Herb Leaf Summer and fall Pig bag, pork intestine Clear heat, improve digestion, detoxify, treat diabetes HKSP-05
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC. Amaranthaceae [poɡ24fo55tsɿ53], [ma53tʰin55sɑŋ55] Herb Root Whole year Pork, pork ribs Clear heat, improve digestion, treat hepatitis, treat toothache HKSP-14
Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae [læ53ɕiŋ241], [io5553ɕiŋ241] Herb Root Spring, summer and fall Pork ribs, pork intestine Clear heat, diminish inflammation, treat cholecystitis, treat cholelithiasis HKSP-06
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae [mo55tsʰɿ53xae53] Herb Whole plant Spring and summer Pork, pork ribs Clear heat, induce diuresis, detoxify, diminish inflammation HKSP-08
Lysimachia clethroides Duby Primulaceae   Herb Whole plant Fall Pork and pork liver Nourish women, induce diuresis HKSP-26
Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Rubiaceae [pʰoɡ24fo552424tsʰau53] Herb Whole plant Summer and fall Chicken Clear heat, induce diuresis, prevent and treat cancer, diminish inflammation HKSP-12
Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. Rubiaceae [ɡie53pʰi24tʰɛn11] Liana Root Summer and fall Pork ribs, fish Clear heat, induce diuresis, postpartum recovery HKSP-27
Lycium chinense Mill. Solanaceae [ɡie53tɕiɡ53] Shrub Leaf Summer and fall Mutton, dog meat Nourishing, tonify kidney and liver HKSP-32
Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y.Hu Lamiaceae [i24mea55tsʰau53] Herb Whole plant Spring and summer Old hen Relieve cough, treat cold, treat gynecopathy, postpartum recovery HKSP-04
Prunella vulgaris L. Lamiaceae [hɔ53kʰeat55sʰau53] Herb Whole plant July to August Pork Clear heat, improve eyesight, treat mumps, treat toothache HKSP-03
Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) H.Hara Lamiaceae [tʰea53vuŋ11liŋ11] Herb Whole plant Summer and fall Fish Clear heat, treat hepatitis, treat cholecystitis HKSP-20
Scutellaria barbata D. Don Lamiaceae [pɑn241tɕi55liŋ11] Herb Whole plant Summer and fall Pork ribs, rabbit Diminish inflammation, relieve swelling and pain, treat traumatic injury HKSP-10
Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot Asteraceae [ŋai241tsʰau53] Herb Whole plant May to August Chicken Clear heat, treat rheumatism, diminish inflammation, stop cough HKSP-09
Elephantopus scaber L. Asteraceae [tʰi55dɑn31tʰiɛ11] Herb Root Summer and fall Duck Clear heat, detoxify, stop cough, induce diuresis and reduce edema HKSP-21
Gnaphalium affine D. Don Asteraceae [poɡ24tʰiɛ11ɡɑŋ55] Herb Whole plant Spring Pork ribs, rabbit Stop cough, treat tracheitis and bronchitis, treat rheumatism HKSP-15
Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC. Asteraceae [vu55tʃuo53ɡai55] Herb Root Summer and fall Pork Dispel wind and relieve pain, detoxify, treat rheumatism HKSP-23
Laggera alata Nanth. Asteraceae [yŋ2453saŋ55tiŋ55] Herb Whole plant Summer and fall Rabbit Clear heat, diminish inflammation, treat cold, stop cough, treat rheumatism HKSP-24
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. Asteraceae [pɑu214pɑu214tæŋ55] Herb Whole plant Whole year Pork ribs Clear heat, detoxify, induce diuresis and reduce edema, treat hepatitis HKSP-11
Eryngium foetidum L. Apiaceae [tsʰɿ24tɕʰiɑŋ11] Herb Stem and leaf Whole year Pig bone Tonify stomach, treat cold, diminish inflammation HKSP-22
  1. The order of species is followed by APG 3