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Table 1 Inventory of plants used to make medicinal soups by the Hakka people in West Fujian, China

From: Diversity and use of medicinal plants for soup making in traditional diets of the Hakka in West Fujian, China

Scientific nameFamily nameLocal namePlant typePart usedTime of HarvestMatchMedicinal PropertiesSpecimen number
Houttuynia cordata Thunb.Saururaceae[ɡie53tiŋ53tsɿ53]HerbWhole plantSummerCrucianClear heat, induce diuresis, boost immunityHKSP-02
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.Lauraceae[tsʰuŋ55tsɿ53fo55ɡæn55]ShrubRootWhole yearChicken, pig feetTreat puerperal fever, treat rheumatism, relieve swelling and painHKSP-40
Smilax glabra Roxb.Smilacaceae[ŋɔn55pʰoŋ53tʰie11]ShrubRhizomeSummer and fallPork ribsDetoxify, treat rheumatismHKSP-36
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.Orchidaceae[tɕaŋ55ɕin241liŋ11]HerbWhole plantSummer and fallChicken, pig heartClear heat, treat cancer, treat bronchitis, reduce blood pressureHKSP-18
Pholidota chinensis Lindl.Orchidaceae[soɡ24kɔŋ55lan11]HerbWhole plantFallPig bone, duckClear heat, nourish the stomachache, nourish yin, eliminate phlegm and stop coughHKSP-16
Hemerocallis citrina BaroniXanthorrhoeaceae[tɕaŋ55tsaŋ55tsʰu241]HerbFlowerJune to SeptemberPorkDetoxify, induce diuresis, diminish inflammation, calm the nervesHKSP-19
Juncus effusus L.Juncaceae[tæŋ55sɑŋ55tsʰau53]HerbStem pithSummer and fallPig heartClear heat, induce diuresisHKSP-17
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.Nelumbonaceae[liŋ11tsɿ53]HerbseedSummerpork ribs, duckClear heat, nourish yinHKSP-07
Abrus cantoniensis HanceFabaceae[ɡai55ku53tsʰau53]ShrubWhole plantWhole yearPork, pork ribs, pigs feetClear heat, detoxify, treat hepatitisHKSP-31
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) OhwiFabaceae[ku53]LianaRootFall and winterPork ribs, duckTreat fever, prevent alcoholism, resolve phlegm to relive coughHKSP-28
Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. OhashiFabaceae[soɡ24kiɛ53sæb24]ShrubLeaf and rootSummer and fallPorkImprove digestion, clear heat, induce diuresisHKSP-38
Uraria crinita (L.) DC.Fabaceae[lau24vu53len11]ShrubWhole plantWhole yearPork, young chickenClear heat, improve digestionHKSP-34
Phymatopteris hastata (Thunb.) Pic. Serm.Polypodiaceae[aɡ53tʃuo53tsʰau53]HerbWhole plantSummer and fallPorkClear heat, induce diuresisHKSP-01
Polygala fallax Hemsl.Polygalaceae[kuŋ55iɑŋ55tsʰu241]ShrubRootSummer and fallChicken, porkNourish, clear damp, postpartum recover, nourish the kidney and liverHKSP-33
Rosa laevigata Michx.Rosaceae[tʰuŋ11kuŋ24tsɿ53]ShrubFruit, rootOctober to NovemberPig kidneyTonify kidney, tonify YangHKSP-39
Berchemia lineata (L.) DC.Rhamnaceae[lo24tsʰea53xen53]ShrubRootFall and winterPig boneDetoxify, diminish inflammation, treat rheumatism, treat hepatitis, treat herniaHKSP-35
Ficus gasparriniana Miq. var. laceratifola (Levl. et Vant.) CornerMoraceae[pʰoɡ24fo55ŋie11nen241ɡæn55]ShrubRootWhole yearPig bone, chickenClear heat, nourish yin, improve digestion, treat gynopathyHKSP-37
Ficus hirta VahlMoraceae[eŋ55tsɿ53mau11tʰau11]ShrubRootWhole yearChickenImprove eyesight, nourish yin, improve digestion, dispel dampnessHKSP-30
Morus alba L.Moraceae[suŋ55]TreeRootWhole yearPorkClear heat, treat rheumatismHKSP-42
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) MakinoCucurbitaceae[eŋ53nit24samŋ11]ShrubStem and leafSummer and fallChickenDiminish inflammation, resolve phlegm to relive cough, treat diabetes, depress blood pressureHKSP-29
Ricinus communis L.Euphorbiaceae[pi24mo11ɡɔŋ53]HerbStemThe Winter SolsticeFemale duckClear heat, clear damp, nourish yinHKSP-13
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk.Myrtaceae[tuŋ24liŋ11tsɿ53]ShrubRootWhole yearPigs feetTreat chronic diarrhea, treat rheumatism, treat hepatitis, reduce blood fatHKSP-41
Osbeckia chinensis L.Melastomataceae HerbWhole plantMay and JunePorkClear heat, improve digestion, treat hepatitis, treat enteritisHKSP-25
Thlaspi arvense L.Brassicaceae[kʰea53tsa55]HerbLeafSummer and fallPig bag, pork intestineClear heat, improve digestion, detoxify, treat diabetesHKSP-05
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.Amaranthaceae[poɡ24fo55tsɿ53], [ma53tʰin55sɑŋ55]HerbRootWhole yearPork, pork ribsClear heat, improve digestion, treat hepatitis, treat toothacheHKSP-14
Amaranthus spinosus L.Amaranthaceae[læ53ɕiŋ241], [io5553ɕiŋ241]HerbRootSpring, summer and fallPork ribs, pork intestineClear heat, diminish inflammation, treat cholecystitis, treat cholelithiasisHKSP-06
Portulaca oleracea L.Portulacaceae[mo55tsʰɿ53xae53]HerbWhole plantSpring and summerPork, pork ribsClear heat, induce diuresis, detoxify, diminish inflammationHKSP-08
Lysimachia clethroides DubyPrimulaceae HerbWhole plantFallPork and pork liverNourish women, induce diuresisHKSP-26
Hedyotis diffusa Willd.Rubiaceae[pʰoɡ24fo552424tsʰau53]HerbWhole plantSummer and fallChickenClear heat, induce diuresis, prevent and treat cancer, diminish inflammationHKSP-12
Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.Rubiaceae[ɡie53pʰi24tʰɛn11]LianaRootSummer and fallPork ribs, fishClear heat, induce diuresis, postpartum recoveryHKSP-27
Lycium chinense Mill.Solanaceae[ɡie53tɕiɡ53]ShrubLeafSummer and fallMutton, dog meatNourishing, tonify kidney and liverHKSP-32
Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y.HuLamiaceae[i24mea55tsʰau53]HerbWhole plantSpring and summerOld henRelieve cough, treat cold, treat gynecopathy, postpartum recoveryHKSP-04
Prunella vulgaris L.Lamiaceae[hɔ53kʰeat55sʰau53]HerbWhole plantJuly to AugustPorkClear heat, improve eyesight, treat mumps, treat toothacheHKSP-03
Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) H.HaraLamiaceae[tʰea53vuŋ11liŋ11]HerbWhole plantSummer and fallFishClear heat, treat hepatitis, treat cholecystitisHKSP-20
Scutellaria barbata D. DonLamiaceae[pɑn241tɕi55liŋ11]HerbWhole plantSummer and fallPork ribs, rabbitDiminish inflammation, relieve swelling and pain, treat traumatic injuryHKSP-10
Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & VaniotAsteraceae[ŋai241tsʰau53]HerbWhole plantMay to AugustChickenClear heat, treat rheumatism, diminish inflammation, stop coughHKSP-09
Elephantopus scaber L.Asteraceae[tʰi55dɑn31tʰiɛ11]HerbRootSummer and fallDuckClear heat, detoxify, stop cough, induce diuresis and reduce edemaHKSP-21
Gnaphalium affine D. DonAsteraceae[poɡ24tʰiɛ11ɡɑŋ55]HerbWhole plantSpringPork ribs, rabbitStop cough, treat tracheitis and bronchitis, treat rheumatismHKSP-15
Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC.Asteraceae[vu55tʃuo53ɡai55]HerbRootSummer and fallPorkDispel wind and relieve pain, detoxify, treat rheumatismHKSP-23
Laggera alata Nanth.Asteraceae[yŋ2453saŋ55tiŋ55]HerbWhole plantSummer and fallRabbitClear heat, diminish inflammation, treat cold, stop cough, treat rheumatismHKSP-24
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.Asteraceae[pɑu214pɑu214tæŋ55]HerbWhole plantWhole yearPork ribsClear heat, detoxify, induce diuresis and reduce edema, treat hepatitisHKSP-11
Eryngium foetidum L.Apiaceae[tsʰɿ24tɕʰiɑŋ11]HerbStem and leafWhole yearPig boneTonify stomach, treat cold, diminish inflammationHKSP-22
  1. The order of species is followed by APG 3