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Table 3 Inventory of WEP species in Honghe terraced rice paddy system

From: Wild edible plants collected by Hani from terraced rice paddy agroecosystem in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan, China

Scientific nameVernacular NameLife formFamily nameParts usedPreparation and usesStudy sitesVoucher numberFUIUV
Gnetum montanum Markgr.Wo ni ai xiLianaGnetaceaeSeedCooked thoroughly and eaten (kernel)Lüchun County201,606–190.60.21
Gnetum pendulum C.Y.ChengMang daoLianaGnetaceaeSeedCooked thoroughly and eaten (kernel)Lagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-310.50.16
Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C.Sm.Hei lao huLianaSchisandraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–042.40.44
Houttuynia cordata Thunb.Pa huoHerbSaururaceaeRhizomePotherb or flavoring agentLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-544.50.89
Piper betle L.Fa qie wei niuLianaPiperaceaeLeafFlavoring agentLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–392.70.55
Michelia hedyosperma Y.W.LawMa laTreeMagnoliaceaeSeedFlavoring agentLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-392.80.44
Alphonsea mollis Dunn TreeAnnonaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–352.00.57
Litsea akoensis var. sasakii (Kamik.) J.C. Liao TreeLauraceaeFruitFlavoring agentLüchun County201,606–262.40.54
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.Mo ye la piShrubLauraceaeFruitFlavoring agentShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–122.00.54
Litsea pungens Hemsl.Si bi a siTreeLauraceaeFruitFlavoring agentBaohua Township201,511–434.90.92
Acorus gramineus AitonJi xiangHerbAcoraceaeLeaf, rhizomeFlavoring agentShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–132.80.46
Amorphophallus konjac K.KochJia moHerbAraceaeTender leaf, tuberMaking “tofu”Niujiaozhai Township201,606–092.90.43
Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook. f.Bo juHerbAraceaePetiolePotherb (cooked thoroughly)Xiaoxinjie Township201,506–064.00.80
Sagittaria trifolia L.Wo qiHerbAlismataceaeTender leaf, rhizomePotherb (stewed or stir-fried)Lüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–242.40.46
Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour.Ai la ma a siLianaDioscoreaceaeTuberCereal substitute in famine timeXiaoxinjie Township201,506–052.40.43
Dioscorea subcalva Prain et BurkillMo mo mangLianaDioscoreaceaeTuberMaking “tofu” (similar to konjac tofu)Lagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-452.60.46
Heterosmilax yunnanensis Gagnep.Guo ge niao, a guo guo neShrubSmilacaceaeTender leafPotherb (blanched in boiled water, then soaked in cold water for days. Usually stir-fried or made into soup)The junction of Lüchun County and Yuanyang County201,506–082.70.47
Caryota urens L.Ha da a boTreeArecaceaeFlowerSnack (inflorescence sap is sweet)Lüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–130.90.20
Commelina benghalensis Forssk.A wei ya moHerbCommelinaceaeTender Leaf, tender stemPotherb (boiled for 5–10 min, then soaked in water to debitterize)Lüchun CountyLB-272.00.49
Commelina diffusa Burm.f.Nuo niu paoHerbCommelinaceaeWhole plantPotherb (usually stewed with pork)Lüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–152.90.42
Streptolirion volubile Edgew.Mo dui dui hanHerbCommelinaceaeTender stem, leafPotherb (made into soup)Xiaoxinjie TownshipLB-162.20.56
Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) C.PreslMi zuo wa, a bei bei za, e za, e bi raHerbPontederiaceaeStem and leafPotherbLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-482.00.47
Musa acuminata CollaRuo a pao ruo a woHerbMusaceaeFruit, flower, pith partFruit: eaten fresh; flower and pith part: cooked as potherbBaohua Township201,511–443.80.70
Musa itinerans Cheesman HerbMusaceaeFlower, young bractPotherbXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-142.60.41
Amomum maximum Roxb.Sa jia hong biHerbZingiberaceaeFruitFlavoring agentLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–122.70.52
Hedychium coronarium J.KoenigA ci a yeHerbZingiberaceaeFlower, shootPotherb (usually stewed or stir fried)Lonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–532.30.45
Zingiber striolatum Diels HerbZingiberaceaeFlowerPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–223.00.73
Acidosasa hirtiflora Z.P.Wang and G.H.Ye BambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–200.10.12
Chimonobambusa yunnanensis Hsueh et W.P. Zhang BambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–221.00.18
Chimonocalamus longiligulatus Hsueh and T.P.YiHa boBambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-070.50.18
Dendrocalamus membranaceus MunroA ha a biBambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsXiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0150.60.17
Dendrocalamus peculiaris Hsueh and D.Z.Li BambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–230.80.25
Indosasa singulispicula T.H.Wen BambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–430.10.15
Indosasa sinica C.D.Chu and C.S.ChaoA xiu a boBambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–170.60.06
Melocalamus arrectus T.P.YiA ha a boBambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–180.60.09
Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis (Mitford) RendleA mao a boBambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–210.90.04
Schizostachyum funghomii McClureA cheBambooPoaceaeShootBamboo shootsShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–190.50.25
Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. LianaLardizabalaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–051.90.54
Parabaena sagittata MiersHua na wei niuLianaMenispermaceaeLeafPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–282.50.55
Mahonia bealei (Fortune) PynaertShi shi, sou shouShrubBerberidaceaeFruit, stemStem: liquor brewing; fruit: eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–452.60.52
Helicia nilagirica Bedd.Kong bai a boTreeProteaceaeSeedCooked seeds are used as grain substituteShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–012.70.58
Dillenia indica L.Xi shi a diTreeDilleniaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–132.80.41
Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.Tuo bo ji niuLianaFabaceaeTender leafPotherbBaohua TownshipHHD-253.40.65
Bauhinia acuminata L. var. candida (Roxb.) VoigtDu bie a loShrubFabaceaeFlower, young pod, seed, tender leafPotherb, seeds: cooked throughly and eaten (kernel)Xiaoxinjie TownshipLB-172.90.40
Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene HerbFabaceaeTender leafTea substituteQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–190.50.14
Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench subsp. patellaris (DC. ex Collad.) H. S. Irwin et Barneby var. glabrata (Vogel) H. S. Irwin et Barneby HerbFabaceaeTender leaf, tender stemTea substituteLüchun CountyLB-181.20.30
Gleditsia sinensis Lam.A si ni ma a hongTreeFabaceaeTender leafPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–202.70.48
Parochetus communis D.DonA wo la qianHerbFabaceaeFlowerPotherb (stir-fried)Lüchun County201,606–312.50.57
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. HerbFabaceaeFlower, leaf, young fruit, seedPotherb, seed: substitute of coffeeLüchun CountyLB-282.60.48
Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H.OhashiQian ka a boShrubFabaceaeTender leaf, tender stemTea substituteLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-430.70.23
Tamarindus indica L.Bi qian a siTreeFabaceaeFruit, tender leafFruit: eaten fresh or made into compote; tender leaf: potherb (blanched before cooking)Niujiaozhai Township201,606–082.50.56
Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don) H.HaraA za ca saHerbPolygonaceaeRootPotherb (usually made into soup)Xiongjia Village, Adebo Township201,506–042.20.57
Polygala fallax Hemsl.Ha pa ha maShrubPolygalaceaeFlower, tender leafPotherb (usually made into soup)Lonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–522.30.47
Polygonum cupitatum Buch.-Ham. ex D.DonA za za niHerbPolygonaceaeTender leafPotherb (usually made into soup)Xiongjia Village, Adebo Township201,506–032.00.46
Polygonum hydropiper L.An ji ba qianHerbPolygonaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–242.80.54
Polygonum molle D. DonQian ge a siShrubPolygonaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–332.20.50
Polygonum perfoliatum L.A qian la qian a paHerbPolygonaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-032.10.58
Reynoutria japonica Houtt.Suan gan tongHerbPolygonaceaeTender stemPotherbLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–372.00.58
Xanthophyllum yunnanense C.Y. Wu TreePolygalaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–072.70.42
Crataegus pinnatifida BungeSi pu a siTreeRosaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–371.80.38
Fragaria vesca L.O luo jia ba a siHerbRosaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–082.10.44
Pyrus calleryana Decne.Si peng a siTreeRosaceaeFlower, fruitFruit: eaten fresh; flower: potherb (soaked in water to dibitterize, then stir-fried, made into soup or salad)Lonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–412.00.54
Pyrus xerophila T.T.YuA pei pei zi zuoTreeRosaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüchun County201,606–222.70.49
Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus (Franch.) FockeHuo woShrubRosaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüchun County201,606–212.70.38
Rubus multibracteatus H. Lév. and Vaniot ShrubRosaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-331.90.58
Rubus parvifolius L.A guo luo a beiShrubRosaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–152.50.56
Elaeagnus conferta Roxb.Ba pen luo niuShrubElaeagnaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–302.50.41
Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. ex D. DonA niao niao beiTreeMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–092.90.57
Artocarpus tonkinensis A.Chev. ex Gagnep.Ci gan gan nüTreeMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–292.30.47
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L’Her.ex Vent.Ma sanTreeMoraceaeFlower, tender leafPotherbNiujiaozhai Township201,606–162.00.44
Ficus auriculata Lour.Mu gua caiTreeMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüchun County201,606–233.40.68
Ficus hederacea Roxb.Jia ni ni baiShrubMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are mixed with salt and eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–161.90.55
Ficus henryi Warb. ex DielsA niao niao xiuTreeMoraceaeFruitFruits eaten fresh or liquor brewingBaohua Township201,511–401.70.41
Ficus hirta VahlJi zi o siShrubMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-342.00.38
Ficus irisana ElmerQi puTreeMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshXiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0121.80.39
Ficus oligodon Miq.Xi bo ai xiTreeMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–022.10.46
Ficus pandurata Hance ShrubMoraceaeFruit, seedFruit: eaten fresh; seed: roasted and eaten (kernel)Lüchun County201,606–282.10.48
Ficus racemosa L.A niao niao naTreeMoraceaeFruit, seedFruit: eaten fresh; seed: roasted and eaten (kernel)Lüchun County201,606–272.10.51
Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. Ex Sm.Hu gan da paTreeMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-352.40.44
Ficus tikoua BureauWei chao lao eLianaMoraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-012.00.48
Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd.Mao ma qiang gaShrubUrticaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–312.10.51
Debregeasia orientalis C. J. ChenO ce buShrubUrticaceaeFruit, leaf, tender stemLeaf and stem: potherb; fruit: eaten freshBaohua TownshipHHD-192.50.55
Elatostema involucratum Franch. and Sav.Luo bu. a boHerbUrticaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbNiujiaozhai Township201,606–131.90.40
Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq.Pa qian a boHerbUrticaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbLüchun CountyLB-222.10.54
Lecanthus peduncularis (Wall. ex Royle) Wedd.A che pa nvHerbUrticaceaeWhole plantPotherb (usually made into soup)Baohua TownshipHHD-302.20.48
Castanopsis calathiformis (Skan) Rehder and E.H.WilsonA ba a boTreeFagaceaeSeedRoasted and eaten (kernel)Baohua TownshipHHD-200.80.18
Castanopsis carlesii var. spinulosa W.C.Cheng and C.S.ChaoChe qian a boTreeFagaceaeSeedRoasted and eaten (kernel)Niujiaozhai Township201,606–100.50.17
Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC.Che si a boTreeFagaceaeSeedRoasted and eaten (kernel)Lüchun CountyLB-210.80.05
Castanopsis mekongensis A.Camus TreeFagaceaeSeedRoasted and eaten (kernel)Shuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–240.70.20
Lithocarpus megalophyllus Rehder and E.H.WilsonA biu a boTreeFagaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–342.80.46
Myricae esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don TreeMyricaceaeFruitFruits eaten fresh or liquor brewingNiujiaozhai Township201,606–062.00.41
Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y.WuKa kui zha haHerbCucurbitaceaeLeaf, tender stemTea substituteLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–440.20.18
Hemsleya macrosperma C.Y.WuA za ku xiHerbCucurbitaceaeTender leafPotherbXiongjia Village, Adebo Township201,506–022.50.40
Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Blume) Cogn.Zha qi gu luLianaCucurbitaceaeSeedEaten directly, or used for pressing oilShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–021.90.48
Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.Bei ba naLianaCucurbitaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–302.90.44
Salacia sessiliflora Hand.-Mazz.A ka la ma a boShrubCelastraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüchun County201,606–252.60.41
Oxalis corniculata L.Suan ji caoHerbOxalidaceaeStem, leafPotherb: blanched in boiled water, then soaked in cold water for 2 hNiujiaozhai Township201,606–012.30.47
Elaeocarpus decipiens F.B.Forbes and Hemsl.Na ci ci haTreeElaeocarpaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–081.90.58
Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex ChoisyHuang xin shuTreeClusiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–352.00.47
Garcinia multiflora Champ. ex Benth.Qiu guo a siTreeClusiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshNiujiaozhai Township201,606–022.40.42
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.f. ex T.AndersonA bu. bu. qieTreeClusiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshNiujiaozhai Township201,606–042.10.52
Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) BlumeJiu ge ge qiaTreeHypericaceaeTender leaf, young fruitTender leaves: tea substitute; young fruit: flavoring agentNiujiaozhai Township201,606–112.20.49
Cratoxylum formosum subsp. pruniflorum (Kurz) GogeleinA on a boTreeHypericaceaeTender leafTea substituteLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-440.90.25
Curculigo capitulata (Lour.) KuntzeMa ni zu seHerbHypoxidaceaeFruit, tender leaf, tender stemFruit: eaten fresh; leaves and stem: potherbBaohua TownshipHHD-182.00.56
Curculigo sinensis S. C. ChenMei la pa jiaHerbHypoxidaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–361.90.56
Passiflora wilsonii Hemsl.Ba zeLianaPassifloraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–042.50.51
Flacourtia ramontchi L’Hér.A zi long jie a boShrubSalicaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten fresh, or made into jam, or preservedLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–102.40.58
Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.Si suo a siTreePhyllanthaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–344.20.89
Phyllanthus emblica L.Bo can xi ka, xi qia haTreePhyllanthaceaeBark, fruitFruit: eaten fresh; bark: scraching off the inside tender bark to make dishesLüchun County201,606–294.90.90
Rotala indica (Willd.) KoehneEn ni a boHerbLythraceaeTender shootPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–162.20.42
Rotala rotundifolia (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Koehne HerbLythraceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbBaohua TownshipHHD-272.10.52
Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. and L.M.Perry TreeMyrtaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–271.60.56
Decaspermum parviflorum (Lam.) A.J.ScottA gong gong ni a boTreeMyrtaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–282.40.38
Syzygium fluviatile (Hemsl.) Merr. and L.M.PerryMe ran me xiu na ci a boShrubMyrtaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshThe junction of Lüchun County and Yuanyang County201,506–091.60.49
Syzygium yunnanense Merr. and L.M.PerryO hoTreeMyrtaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüchun County201,606–242.80.45
Medinilla radiciflora C.Y.Wu ex C.Chen ShrubMelastomataceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–032.40.39
Medinilla septentrionalis (W.W. Sm.) H.L. LiQian ben er a siShrubMelastomataceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshNiujiaozhai Township201,606–052.80.48
Melastoma affine D. DonBei baiShrubMelastomataceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-042.20.46
Melastoma normale D. Don.Yang er ba cuiShrubMelastomataceaeFruit, leafRipe fruits are eaten freshLüchun County201,606–202.60.47
Osbeckia opipara C.Y. Wu et C. ChenBi jiShrubMelastomataceaeRoot, stemPotherb (usually stewed with meat)The junction of Lüchun County and Yuanyang County201,506–112.20.57
Canarium album (Lour.) DC.Bei le a siTreeBurseraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten fresh, or preservedShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–102.30.40
Canarium pimela K.D.KoenigSi mo a siTreeBurseraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten fresh, or preservedNiujiaozhai Township201,606–072.40.44
Canarium strictum Roxb.A bo ma daiTreeBurseraceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten fresh, or preservedBaohua Township201,511–422.50.46
Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B. L. Burtt and A. W. HillGei ha a boTreeAnacardiaceaeFruitFruits eaten fresh or liquor brewingBaohua Township201,511–412.20.55
Dracontomelon duperreanum PierreA zi ren aTreeAnacardiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten fresh, or preservedLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-372.30.49
Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. TreeAnacardiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–142.00.40
Rhus chinensis Mill.Ha da da xiuTreeAnacardiaceaeFruitPreserved fruitLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–422.80.53
Arytera littoralis BlumeTa mo si songTreeSapindaceaeShootPotherbLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–482.60.52
Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq. TreeRutaceaeFruitFlavoring agentLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–112.30.43
Tetradium austrosinense (Hand.-Mazz.) Hartley TreeRutaceaeFruitFruits are edible and used for pressing oilXiaoxinjie Township201,506–071.60.47
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.A zaoTreeRutaceaeFruitFlavoring agentXiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0132.40.48
Zanthoxylum scandens Blume ShrubRutaceaeFruitFlavoring agentLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–382.30.43
Zanthoxylum simulans Hance ShrubRutaceaeFruitFlavoring agentLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-382.30.44
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) SwingleQi la wu haTreeSimaroubaceaeTender leafPotherbLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–501.80.41
Bombax ceiba L. TreeMalvaceaeFlowerPotherbLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-492.20.42
Microcos nervosa (Lour.) S.Y.Hu TreeMalvaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–382.30.45
Sterculia brevissima H.H.HsueSa qiu huo biShrubMalvaceaeSeedRoasted and eaten (kernel)Xiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0170.10.21
Sterculia lanceolata Cav.Sa qiu huo biTreeMalvaceaeSeedRoasted and eaten (kernel)Xiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0160.10.16
Sterculia pexa PierreNi hei gei zi a boTreeMalvaceaeSeedStir-friedLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-412.50.56
Capparis masaikai H. Lév. LianaCapparaceaeSeedNatural sweetenerQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–200.80.2
Crateva unilocularis Buch.-Ham.Man nei luo baTreeCapparaceaeTender stem, leafMade into pickles (preserved)Lüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–143.90.75
Stixis suaveolens (Roxb.) Pierre LianaCapparaceaeFruit, tender leafFruit: eaten fresh; tender leaves: tea substituteLüchun County201,606–302.20.42
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.A zu o qiHerbBrassicaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbLü shuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–192.70.45
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino HerbBrassicaceaeTender stem and leavesPotherb or tea substituteLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–462.00.49
Nasturtium officinale R.Br.Xi yang caiHerbBrassicaceaeTender leafPotherbXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-103.40.66
Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás HerbBrassicaceaeTender leafPotherb (boiled for 5–10 min, then soaked in water to remove pungent taste)Lagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-532.40.50
Erythropalum scandens BlumeHa jia ha na bei yingLianaOlacaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-152.10.52
Korthalsella japonica (Thunb.) Engl.De laShrubSantalaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–331.70.39
Pyrularia edulis (Wall.) A. DC.A ke ke ran a siTreeSantalaceaeFruitRipe fruits are stewed or stir-friedNiujiaozhai Township201,606–122.30.50
Myosoton aquaticum (L.) MoenchQian chu a maHerbCaryophyllaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-112.20.46
Amaranthus spinosus L.Wo zu wo niuHerbAmaranthaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–212.50.53
Amaranthus lividus L. HerbAmaranthaceaeLeaf, stemPotherbLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-522.20.47
Amaranthus viridis L.La huo pa niHerbAmaranthaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–233.60.61
Chenopodium album L.Ge xia wo niuHerbAmaranthaceaeShootPotherbBaohua TownshipHHD-282.30.49
Phytolacca acinosa RoxbKan boHerbPhytolaccaceaeLeafPotherbQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–222.30.44
Portulaca oleracea L.Yi ca mo niHerbPortulacaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-511.80.52
Dendrobenthamia hongkongensis (Hemsl.) Hutch. TreeCornaceaeFruitFruits eaten fresh or liquor brewingBaohua Township201,511–391.90.56
Dendrobenthamia melanotricha (Pojark.) W.P.Fang TreeCornaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–062.50.47
Nyssa javanica (Blume) Wangerin TreeCornaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–072.30.44
Swida macrophylla (Wall.) Soják TreeCornaceaeFruitUsed for pressing oilXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-062.00.51
Pouteria grandifolia (Wall.) Baehni TreeSapotaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-021.90.52
Diospyros lotus L. var. mollissima C.Y. Wu TreeEbenaceaeFruitFruits eaten fresh, making liquor or vinegarLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–362.40.58
Embelia ribes Burm.f. ShrubPrimulaceaeFruit, shootFruit: eaten fresh; shoot: potherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–142.30.42
Embelia subcoriacea (C. B. Clarke) Mez ShrubPrimulaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshNiujiaozhai Township201,606–032.10.42
Maesa montana A. DC.Ke tu a boShrubPrimulaceaeLeafTea substituteLüchun CountyLB-200.20.39
Maesa parvifolia A. DC. ShrubPrimulaceaeLeafTea substituteLüchun CountyLB-191.40.37
Camellia pitardii Coh.-St. ShrubTheaceaePetalPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–212.70.40
Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. and Maxim.) Maxim.A zi ku nuShrubActinidiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–322.50.54
Saurauia napaulensis DC. TreeActinidiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshBaohua Township201,511–322.70.58
Saurauia napaulensis DC. var. montana C. F. Liang and Y. S. Wang TreeActinidiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–012.80.39
Saurauia tristyla var. hekouensis C. F. Liang and Y. S. WangA nuo xiTreeActinidiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-052.70.42
Gaultheria leucocarpa Bl. var. crenulata (Kurz) T.Z.HsuXieShrubEricaceaeLeafPotherb (made into soup)Xiaoxinjie TownshipLB-092.10.48
Gaultheria longibracteolata R.C.FangYe lan meiShrubEricaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–091.90.45
Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.Ha naShrubEricaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshThe junction of Lüchun County and Yuanyang County201,506–102.50.55
Pittosporopsis kerrii CraibHa piao mei cheShrubIcacinaceaeFruit, seedFruit: eaten fresh; seed: roasted and eaten (kernel)Lagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-402.30.55
Canthium horridum BlumeHa da da nueShrubRubiaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–052.40.51
Hedyotis tenelliflora BlumeGu suo na ciHerbRubiaceaeWhole plantPotherb (made into soup)Lagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-422.00.55
Amalocalyx yunnanensis Tsiang LianaApocynaceaeFruitYoung fruit slices are eaten fresh with the source made by pepper and saltLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-322.0 
Dregea volubilis (L.f.) Benth. ex Hook.f.Ku caiLianaApocynaceaeFlower, tender leafPotherbXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-123.00.72
Melodinus henryi CraibKe se pa haLianaApocynaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–062.60.45
Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold and Zucc. HerbBoraginaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbBaohua TownshipHHD-262.00.50
Lycium yunnanense Kuang and A.M.Lu ShrubSolanaceaetender stemPotherbLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–472.00.46
Solanum nigrum L.Wo lunHerbSolanaceaeTender leaf, fruitFruit: eaten fresh; tender leaf: potherbXiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0142.30.42
Solanum torvum Sw.Si ma ma haShrubSolanaceaeRootPotherb (usually stewed)Xiongjia Village, Adebo TownshipHHD-0182.90.46
Ligustrum sinense Lour.Ci kong ba deng a boTreeOleaceaeFruitLiquor brewingLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-460.60.05
Rhynchotechum obovatum (Griff.) B.L. Burtt ShrubGesneriaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–031.70.39
Plantago asiatica L.Ka pae caHerbPlantaginaceaeWhole plantPotherbXiongjia Village, Adebo Township201,506–012.30.51
Plantago asiatica L. subsp. erosa (Wall.) Z. Y. LiKa pae caHerbPlantaginaceaeTender leafPotherb (usually stewed or made into soup)Baohua TownshipHHD-222.80.53
Plantago depressa Willd.Ha pa yu caiHerbPlantaginaceaeWhole plantPotherb (soaked in water and sir-fried)Xiaoxinjie TownshipLB-082.30.55
Mayodendron igneum (Kurz) KurzA ci ma ha nenTreeBignoniaceaeFlowerPotherbLüchun CountyLB-232.80.43
Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) KuntzeZhaun zhuan caiHerbLamiaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-502.40.44
Mentha canadensis L.Wo zhi zhi maHerbLamiaceaeTender leaf, tender stemFlavoring agentShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–114.60.75
Rabdosia coetsoides C.Y.WuNu ha maHerbLamiaceaeWhole plantTea substitute or cooked with meat (Potherb)Shuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–150.70.23
Helwingia japonica (Thunb.) F.Dietr.Huo tie tie duShrubHelwingiaceaeTender stem, leafPotherb (blanched in hot water, then soaked in cold water before cooking)Niujiaozhai Township201,606–181.90.53
Campanumoea javanica BlumeA mi nan guoLianaCampanulaceaeFruitRipe fruits are eaten freshLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-361.60.56
Lobelia angulata G.Forst. HerbCampanulaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–311.80.42
Adenocaulon himalaicum Edgew.Bu lü wu huHerbAsteraceaeTender leafPotherbNiujiaozhai Township201,606–151.80.45
Bidens pilosa L.Hei ni zuo ge moHerbAsteraceaeTender leafPotherb (stewed until it is tender)Qingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–262.00.53
Cirsium japonicum (Thunb.) Fisch. ex DC.Che pei a gongHerbAsteraceaeRootStewed with pork for nourishingBaohua TownshipHHD-212.90.43
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. MooreO mi o saHerbAsteraceaeTender leafPotherbBaohua TownshipHHD-293.90.76
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.A ji mei, a ge wo chiHerbAsteraceaeTender leafPotherbQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–252.20.49
Gnaphalium affine D. DonA mi sha chuHerbAsteraceaeLeaf, stemPotherbQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–232.10.42
Ixeris polycephala Cass. HerbAsteraceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherb (blanched before eating and making salad)Lüchun CountyLB-263.90.75
Lactuca serriola L. HerbAsteraceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbXiaoxinjie TownshipLB-132.80.52
Lagedium sibiricum (L.) SojákE si lao gong ziHerbAsteraceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–292.80.54
Laggera pterodonta (DC.) Sch.Bip. ex Oliv.Wo sa la maHerbAsteraceaeWhole plantPotherb (blanched in hot water, then soaked in cold water before cooking)Lüchun CountyLB-252.90.51
Viburnum dilatatum Thunb.Pu tong a boShrubAdoxaceaeFruitFruits eaten fresh or liquor brewingQingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–162.70.51
Dipsacus asperoides C.Y.Cheng and T.M.AiPao tou caoHerbCaprifoliaceaeTender leaf, rootPotherb (Usually stewed with pork or made into soup)Baohua TownshipHHD-232.70.51
Valeriana jatamansi JonesYe zuo zuo puHerbCaprifoliaceaeFlower, rootFlower: eaten fresh (Potherb); root: stewed for nourishingLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–401.70.51
Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) VossJiu duoShrubAraliaceaeTender stemPotherbLüchun CountyLB-242.50.50
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim. ShrubAraliaceaeTender stem, leafPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–182.30.42
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.Ban chao wo baHerbApiaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–273.00.58
Eryngium foetidum L.Ga la ya soHerbApiaceaeTender leaf, tender stemFlavoring agent or stir-fried (potherb)Qingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–181.90.52
Ligusticum chuanxiong S.H.Qiu, Y.Q.Zeng, K.Y.Pan, Y.C.Tang, and J.M.XuTong e jian saHerbApiaceaeTender leafFlavoring agent or stir-fried (potherb)Qingkou Village, Xinjie Township201,506–172.60.53
Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.Zha suoHerbApiaceaeTender leaf, tender stemPotherbNiujiaozhai Township201,606–144.30.82
Sanicula astrantiifolia H. Wolff ex KretschmerXiao hei yaoHerbApiaceaeWhole plantPotherb (usually sir-fried)Lonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–542.90.48
Lygodium digitatum C. PreslHa da da xiuLianaLygodiaceaeTender stemPotherbLüshuge Village, Jiayin Township201,610–172.50.54
Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex A. HellerYe qieHerbDennstaedtiaceaeShootPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–262.70.45
Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn.Da lieHerbPteridiaceaeShootPotherbNiujiaozhai Township201,606–172.60.47
Callipteris esculenta (Retz.) J. Sm. ex T. Moore and Houlston HerbAthyriaceaeTender leafPotherbLagu Village, Sanmeng TownshipHHD-472.50.56
Callipteris esculenta var. pubescens (Link) Ching HerbAthyriaceaeTender leafPotherbBaohua TownshipHHD-241.80.56
Gymnocarpium remotepinnatum (Hayata) ChingHaHerbAthyriaceaeTender leafPotherbThe junction of Lüchun County and Yuanyang County201,506–122.10.58
Parathelypteris glanduligera (Kunze) ChingHa daHerbThelypteridaceaeShootPotherbLonajia Village, Jiayin Township201,506–492.70.56
Marsilea quadrifolia L.He dou a ya moHerbMarsileaceaeTender leafPotherbShuiyan Village, Ma’andi Township201,511–253.30.59
  1. The order of plant species in this table is followed by the APG IV system, gymnosperms classification system (1978), and Qinrenchang fern plant classification system (1978)