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Table 3 Plants not cited in the Bible but mentioned as medicinal in post-Biblical sources and/or in Egypt and/or Mesopotamia

From: Medicinal plants of the Bible—revisited

Species / English
Source of evidence Botanical status / origin/ Additional uses
Aloe vera
L. *
E: [65:72, 75:25-26 , 68:82,83,84,85].
BT: Gittin 69b.
M: [20:129,
D /Ar [99]. C
Carthamus tinctorius
L. / Safflowers
E: [64:79, 65:83-84, 69:79].
BT: Gittin 70a (?
As "Morika")
M: [96: 544-545].
D / NE [97]. E / Oi
Ferula asa-foetida L. / Asafoetida E: [65:101-102].
MI: Shabbat 20:3.
BT: Shabbat 140a; Gittin 69a (under Helbena)
M: [20:355, 73:52, 83:11].
CA [98] In
Lawsonia inermis L.
E: [65:114, 68:85].
Im / EA D: BT: Shevi‘it7:6. P B: Song
of Songs 4:13).
Lepidium sativum L. / Cress E: [64:71, 65:115].
BT: Shabbat 110a, Yoma 49a, Gittin 69a.
M: [72:89,90,91 73:52,53,
D / SA (perhaps Iran, [99]).
BT: Gittin 69a,
Shabbat 109a.
Piper spp./ Black pepper E: [64:71, 65:136]. (Piper nigrum).
BT: Shabbat, 65a, 90a, 140a].
M: [83:120].
Im / EA [99]. S
  1. Botanical status: In: Indigenous; Im: Imported; D: Domesticated/cultivated. If there is no specific reference, we followed [143].
  2. Origin: A: Arabia; CEA: Central East Asia; E: Europe; EAR: East Arabia; EA: East Asia; EAf: East Africa; M: Mediterranean; EM: East Mediterranean; NE: Near East; SEA: Southeast Asia; SEE: Southeast Europe; SWA: Southwest Asia. If there is no specific reference, we followed [143].
  3. Additional uses: Ap: Apotropaic; E: Edible; F: Fibre; I: Incense; M: Magic; P: Perfume/cosmetics; O: Ointment; Oi: Oil; R: Ritual; S: Spice, condiment; Re: Resin; T: Timber; W: Wine
  4. *Included in Jacob’s [2] list (see text). The categories of the reliability levels of the Biblical plants’ identification are according to Amar [8]. See above