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Table 4 Various patterns

From: Medicinal plants of the Bible—revisited

Species / English
Source of evidence Botanical status / Origin Additional uses:
Ceratonia siliqua L. *
M: [20:175,180,184,186,284, 100:41]. In / D: BT: Baba Batra 68b. E
Eruca sativa* Mill. / Rocket
See discussion
BT: Yoma 18b, Shabbat 109a, Gittin 69b (under “Gargir”).
M: [20: 210].
D, BT: Eruvin 28b, Ma'aserot 48:73. E
Foeniculum vulgare
E: [65:105-106, 75:28, 71:41]
M: [73:52, 101: 234-242].
In E / S
L.* /
Bay Leaf,
See discussion
AR: [37].
BT: Gittin 69b
In S
Pistacia lentiscus
L.* /
E: [70:80]. AR: [33], (P. lentiscus /P. palaestina).
MI: Tosefta Shabbat 12:8.
In R
Sesamum indicum L.
E: [64:79, 65:147, 68:85]. BT: Gittin 69b. M: [80:233]. D / SEA
BT: Very common crop in the Talmud period, Sabbath 89:42, Nedarim 86:49,
MI: Machshirin 81:46.
E, BT: Sabbath 82:42, Nedarim 86:49. / Oi
Trigonella foenum –graecum L. / Fenugreek E: [65:85-87, 68:85].
M: [73:52-53, 78:430].
/ D
  1. Botanical status: In: Indigenous; Im: Imported; D: Domesticated/cultivated. If there is no specific reference, we followed [143].
  2. Origin: A: Arabia; CEA: Central East Asia; E: Europe; EAR: East Arabia; EA: East Asia; EAf: East Africa; M: Mediterranean; EM: East Mediterranean; NE: Near East; SEA: Southeast Asia; SEE: Southeast Europe; SWA: Southwest Asia. If there is no specific reference, we followed [143].
  3. Additional uses: Ap: Apotropaic; E: Edible; F: Fibre; I: Incense; M: Magic; P: Perfume/cosmetics; O: Ointment; Oi: Oil; R: Ritual; S: Spice, condiment; Re: Resin; T: Timber; W: Wine
  4. *Included in Jacob’s [2] list (see text). The categories of the reliability levels of the Biblical plants’ identification are according to Amar [8]. See above