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Table 1 Traditionally gathered wild food plants recorded among Muslim and Kakai Kurds in the study area

From: Where tulips and crocuses are popular food snacks: Kurdish traditional foraging reveals traces of mobile pastoralism in Southern Iraqi Kurdistan

Botanical taxon/taxa, family, and voucher specimen code(s)Recorded local name(s)Used parts(Etic) taste characteristicsTraditional culinary useQuotation
Allium ampeloprasum L., KURD11Koraya, Qorada, QuradaAerial partsPungentSeasoningM
Allium iranicum (Wendelbo) Wendelbo, Amaryllidaceae#KeniwalWhole plantPungentBread seasoning; snackK, M
Allium koelzii (Wendelbo) Perss. and Wendelbo, Amaryllidaceae, KURD20KolYoung leavesLight pungent and sweetishCookedM
Allium paradoxum (M. Bieb.) G. Don, Amaryllidaceae#KaratK, KnalK, PiçekK, SiçekKLeavesLight pungent and sweetishConsumed raw as sawza; bread and yogurt seasoning; cooked with rice or bulgur; preserved in brine (lacto-fermented)KK, M
Anchusa azurea Mill., Boraginaceae, KURD100Gezerwan, Gozerwan, GurmizaYoung aerial partsHerbaceousBoiledK, MM
Arum rupicola Boiss., Araceae, KURD92, possible other Arum spp., and Dracunculus vulgaris Schott, Araceae, KURD99Kardi, Kardu, XasLeavesPungentBoiled in “sumac water” (suspension of water and sumac fruits) and then cooked in various ways (often with rice/bulgur and wild leek); preserved in brine (lacto-fermented) or dried (sometimes in necklaces)KK, MMM
Asparagus sp., Asparagaceae#MarijeK, MarijokKShootsSlightly bitterCooked with riceK
Bongardia chrysogonum (L.) Spach, Berberidaceae, KURD96Gabla, GalbaShootsHerbaceous (earthy)CookedM
Bunium paucifolium DC., Apiaceae, KURD89Dobeldobana*, Dobel*TubersSweetish and crunchySnack; boiledKK
Chaerophyllum bulbosum L., Apiaceae#Zarkazawi, ZargazewiTubersSweetish and crunchySnackK, M
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad., Cucurbitaceae#Jijalek*, Gujalek*, GumpshilaKUnripe fruitsBitterSnack (as a medicinal food for treating kidney dysfunctions)K, M
Crataegus spp., Rosaceae#GewaskK, GwaişFruitsSlightly astringent and sweetSnackK, M
Crocus biflorus Mill.# and possibly other Crocus spp.,
Iridaceae
Pifok, Piçek, PijokK, Pişok, PivokCorms (after removal of fibrous tunic)Herbaceous (earthy) and crunchy“Social snack”KK, MM
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. and Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Hér., Geraniaceae, KURD79, KURD77Agilaklak*, Darzila, Dendulaklak*, Giaderzile, Menkarlaklak*Young infructescencesHerbaceousSnack (sometimes considered a medicinal food for treating stomach-aches)KK, MM
Foeniculum vulgare L., Apiaceae KURD88Hazola, Rasiana*Young leavesAromaticRaw as sawzaK, M
Geranium tuberosum L., Geraniaceae#PushienTubersCrunchySnack; preserved in brine (lacto-fermented)M
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.# FabaceaeBalek*Young stems (peeled)SweetSnackK
Gundelia turnefortii L., Asteraceae, KURD97ÇingerK, KingerInternal parts of the tender whorls and upper part of the root; seeds (sesi)Slightly bitter (whorls); nutty (seeds)Whorls: boiled; preserved in brine (lacto-fermented);
seeds: boiled in salty water, then roasted, and consumed as a “social snack”
KKK, MMM (whorls); K, M (seeds)
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch., Poaceae, KURD95PiazokaYoung aerial partsHerbaceousRaw as sawzaM
Johrenia aromatica Rech. f., Apiaceae, KURD69BarazaAerial partsAromaticRecreation tea; “social snack” (this is consumption sometimes considered as a food medicine for treating kidney disease)M
Lathyrus sp., Fabaceae#PolkaYoung fruitsHerbaceousSnackM
Malus orientalis Uglitzk. ex Juz., Rosaceae#Sevelok, Sevun, SievKUnripe fruits, fruitsAstringent and sour (unripe fruits); sour and sweet (ripe fruits)SnackKK, M
Malva neglecta Waller, Malvaceae, KURD03TalakaK, TolagaK, Tolka, TollakaK, Xobas*Leaves, stems (peeled), and fruitsHerbaceous and mucilaginousLeaves: cooked with eggs, sarma; soups, preserved in brine (lacto-fermented); sometimes considered a medicinal food for treating heart disease; stems and fruits: snacksKKK, MMM
Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae, KURD 84Beibun, GulaçarmaK, Gulaçarmala, GurlinkaFlowering topsAromaticRecreational teaKK, M
Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson and Mentha spicata L.
Lamiaceae, KURD73, KURD08
Ping, PungaLeavesAromaticSeasoning (esp. yogurt); recreational tea (often with raisins)KK, MMM
Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae, KURD103MertLeavesAromaticRecreational teaM
Nasturtium officinale R.Br., Brassicaceae, KURD57Çuzala, Kuzala, PandirpozaK, PizalaK, XuzalaAerial partsPungentRaw as sawzaKK, MM
Ornithogalum balansae Boiss. and possibly other O. spp., Asparagaceae, KURD94Aerial parts: Gelik, GlexaK
Bulbs: Formaşişana, Hormçiçek, Hurmaşişana, Hurmatsitsana, ŞimişakK
Aerial parts and bulbsHerbaceous (aerial parts). bitter and crunchy (bulbs)Aerial parts: cooked; bulbs: snack, cookedKK, MM
Petasites albus (L.) Gaertn., Asteraceae#KaşmaLeavesSlightly bitterCookedM
Pistacia atlantica Desf., Anacardiaceae, KURD102KaskauanK, Kaskavaniş, KaşakauK, KaskuanUnripe fruitsResinousSeasoning mastaw (ayran) and terhana (mixture of bulgur/grains and yogurt); preserved in brine and consumed as a side-dishKKK, MMM
Pleurotus and possibly Agaricus spp., Pleurotaceae#KarçikK, Karg,
Karzik, Xarçek, Xarzek, Xuarek
Fruiting bodiesMushroom-likeBoiled and then friedKK, MMM
Portulaca oleracea L., Portulaceae, KURD27Barpina, Palapina, ParpinaAerial partsHerbaceous (mineral) and crunchyRaw or cookedK, MM
Prosopis farcta (Banks and Sol.) J.F.Macbr., Fabaceae#Xarnik*, Xaşxaşa*SeedsSweetish and nuttySnack (sometimes consumed as a medicinal food for treating stomach-ache and diarrhoea in children)K
Prunus arabica (Olivier) Meikle#
Rosaceae
Bayaf, Bayu, Baui*, NabykKKernelsVery bitterBoiled with salt and then consumed as a snack (preserved in the same brine)K,M
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey., Rosaceae#Gelas*, Halu, ZardaluUnripe fruitsSour and astringentSnackK, M
Prunus webbii (Spach), Vierh., Rosaceae#Çakalove*Unripe fruitsSour and astringentSnackK
Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, Fagaceae, KURD07ŞokabaruHoneydew (”Kurdish manna”): Gazo: collected on oak leaves. Şoka: collected on unripe acorns, (Fig. 9)SweetSyrupM
Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and possibly Quercus brantii Lindl.#, Fagaceae, KURD101Baru, ŞabaluUnripe and ripe fruitsAstringentUnripe fruits: snack; ripe fruits: roasted or boiled and then roasted; eaten with honey against stomach-ache; preserved dried (mainly in the past)KK, MM
Rheum ribes L., Polygonaceae, KURD104RewasLeaf petiolesSour“Social snack”K, MM
Rubus ulmifolius Schott, Rosaceae#Alga*, TuturkFruitsSweetSnackK, M
Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and possibly other Rumex spp., Polygonaceae, KURD50, KURD81Trşoka, Truska, TurşkaK, Xamga*LeavesSourRaw as sawza (R. acetosa); sarma (R. crispus); tea for treating stomach-acheKK, MM
Satureja thymbra L., Lamiaceae, KURD04Hasola, Iatra, Jatra, ZatraAerial partsAromaticSeasoningMMM
Scorzonera papposa DC., Asteraceae#DamkozK, GazerK, Halaluk, Hapaluk, Haplog, Karkoza, PesbalaRoots and leavesSweetish (roots); herbaceous (leaves)Roots: raw snack (sometimes considered a medicinal food for treating stomach-ache); preserved in brine (lacto-fermented);
leaves: cooked in yogurt
KK, MMM
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. and (more rarely) Carduus pycnocephalus L., Asteraceae, KURD85, KURD22Çaubaza, Kalagan, KalaguanaK, Kalangana, Kalgana, KalxanaK, Kerbaşa, Kevar, Kosep*, XalxanaKYoung stems (peeled)Slightly bitter and crunchy“Social snack”K, MMM
Sinapis arvensis L. and (more rarely) Raphanus raphanistrum L., Brassicaceae, KURD71, KURD75Fijiela*, GulasardaK, Tavar, Teveroka, TorpokaK, Turuoka, Xartala, XatalaKYoung stems (peeled) and leavesSlightly pungentStems: snack; leaves: soupK, MM
Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss., Apiaceae#Gnor, NarimaStems (peeled)AromaticSnackMM
Solanum nigrum L., Solanaceae#ArrosalàKFruitsHerbaceousSnackK
Terfezia and Tirmania spp., Terfeziaceae, KURD106DolamanK, Dombalan, DumaranKFruiting bodiesMushroom-likeBoiled and then cooked, often with eggs and onions; roasted; preserved in brine (lacto-fermented);
tea for treating eye inflammations
KKK, MMM
Thymus sp., Lamiaceae#AsbielaAerial partsAromaticSeasoningM
Tordylium aegyptiacum (L.) Lam., Apiaceae, KURD82Gurame*, Gurgemi, NanafallaSeedsAromaticSnack; seasoningK, MM
Tragopogon collinus DC., Asteraceae#ŞingLeaves and rootsLeaves: herbaceous, roots: sweetishCookedM
Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae#PeikolaKUnripe fruits and seedsHerbaceous (pea-like)Unripe fruits: snack;
Seeds: boiled
KK, M
Tulipa montana Lindl.# and possibly other Tulipa spp., LiliaceaeMelaqaBulbsSweetish and crunchySnackMM
Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd., Fabaceae, KURD87GadanaKYoung fruitsHerbaceous (pea-like)SnackKK
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Rhamnaceae, KURD91KnarFruitsSweetish and sourSnackM
Unidentified (Amaryllidaceae?) sp.ZaxariK, ZotkaK, ZuotkaKUnderground parts Snack (sometimes considered a medicinal food for treating heart diseases)KK
Unidentified (Apiaceae?) sp.ŞawboKFruits SeasoningK
Unidentified sp.DanteşkaraKFruits Snack; cookedK
Unidentified sp.Fetr*Underground parts SnackM
Unidentified sp.DamkosKUnderground parts SnackK
  1. KKK very commonly quoted by Kakai Kurds (more than 40% of informants), KK commonly quoted by Kakai Kurds (10–40% of informants), K rarely quoted by Kakai Kurds (less than 10% of informants), MMM very commonly quoted by Sunni Muslim Kurds (more than 40% of informants), MM commonly quoted by Sunni Muslim Kurds (10–40% of informants), M rarely quoted by Sunni Muslim Kurds (less than 10% of informants)
  2. #Identification made on the basis of plant description, folk names, and/or pictures provided by the informants
  3. *Local name recorded in the multi-ethnic (Kurdish, Arab, Shabak) village of Sherkan
  4. KLocal name recorded in Kakai villages only