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Table 4 The primary consumption patterns of WEPs in Liangshan

From: An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants used by the Yi people of Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China

Consumption patternMode of consumptionSpecies
Primary foodBoiled in water(1) Allium ovalifolium, (2) Amaranthus blitum, (3) Aralia chinensis, (4) Chenopodium hybridum, (5) Fargesia spathacea, (6) Hemerocallis citrina, (7) Hylocereus undatus, (8) Kalimeris indica, (9) Matteuccia struthiopteris, (10) Oenanthe javanica, (11) Opuntia ficus-indica, (12) Osmunda japonica, (13) Perilla frutescens, (14) Plantago major, (15) Pteridium aquilinum, (16) Smilax stans, (17) Sonchus oleraceus, (18) Taraxacum mongolicum, (19) *Toona sinensis,(20) Toxicodendron vernicifluum, (21) Vicia sativa
Made into pickles(1) Begonia grandis subsp. sinensis, (2) Nasturtium officinale, (3) Oenanthe javanica, (4) Rorippa dubia, (5) Smilax stans
Made into soup(1) Capsella bursa-pastoris, (2) *Cardamine tangutorum, (3) Helwingia japonica, (4) Nasturtium officinale, (5) Rorippa dubia
Raw as salad greens(1) *Allium macrostemon, (2) *Houttuynia cordata
Stewed with pork or chicken(1) *Angelica sinensis, (2) *Arctium lappa, (3) *Cirsium shansiense, (4) *Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen, (5) Dioscorea polystachya, (6) *Eucommia ulmoides, (7) *Gastrodia elata, (8) *Imperata cylindrica, (9) *Musa basjoo, (10) *Ophioglossum vulgatum, (11) *Polygonatum cyrtonema
Famine foodFood supplement(1) Anemone vitifolia, (2) Artemisia capillaris, (3) Celosia argentea, (4) Pseudognaphalium affine, (5) Pyracantha fortuneana
Starch extraction(1) Pteridium aquilinum
SnackEaten raw(1) Actinidia kolomikta, (2) Akebia trifoliata, (3) Berberis jamesiana, (4) Cornus kousa subsp. chinensis, (5) Crataegus scabrifolia, (6) Decaisnea insignis, (7) Diospyros lotus, (8) Duchesnea indica, (9) Elaeagnus pungens, (10) Ficus pumila, (11) Ficus tikoua, (12) Fragaria nilgerrensis, (13) Hovenia dulcis, (14) Mahonia bealei, (15) Morus australis, (16) Metaplexis japonica, (17) Morus austrails, (18) Myrica nana, (19) Musa basjoo, (20) Opuntia ficus-indica, (21) Oxalis corniculata, (22) Physalis alkekengi, (23) Prunus trichostoma, (24) Pueraria montana var. lobata, (25) Pyracantha fortuneana, (26) Pyrus pashia, (27) Rosa omeiensis, (28) Rosa roxburghii, (29) Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus, (30) Rubus inopertus, (31) Rubus mesogaeus, (32) Rubus wallichianus, (33)Sambucus adnata, (34) *Schisandra rubriflora, (35) Vaccinium fragile, (34) Viburnum betulifolium, (36) Vitis heyneana
Roasted or cooked(1) Dioscorea polystachya, (2) Quercus schottkyana
SpiceSeasoning(1) Allium macrostemon, (2) Houttuynia cordata, (3) Litsea cubeba, (4) Litsea pungens, (5) Mentha canadensis, (6) Perilla frutescens
Sour flavor enhancer(1) Berberis jamesiana, (2) Viburnum betulifolium, (3) Oxalis corniculata
Culinary coagulantMaking cheese(1) Reynoutria multiflora
Making tofu(2) Berberis jamesiana
MedicineEaten raw(1) Fritillaria cirrhosa, (2) Gastrodia elata
External use(1) Artemisia capillaris, (2) Fritillaria cirrhosa, (3) Opuntia ficus-indica, (4) Paris polyphylla
Medicinal soup(1) Leycesteria formosa, (2) Malva verticillata, (3) Sambucus adnata, (4) Sambucus williamsii
Medicinal tea(1) Agrimonia pilosa, (2) Berberis jamesiana, (3) Bulbophyllum odoratissimum, (4) Cynoglossum amabile, (5) Eclipta prostrata, (6) Huperzia squarrosa, (7) Imperata cylindrica, (8) Incarvillea diffusa, (9) Iris forrestii, (10) Kalimeris indica, (11) Lemmaphyllum carnosum, (12) Lycopodium japonicum, (13) Lysimachia congestiflora, (14) Mahonia bealei, (15) Mentha canadensis, (16) Plantago major, (17) Potentilla discolor, (18) Pyrrosia lingua, (19) Spatholobus suberectus, (20) Taraxacum mongolicum, (21) Trichosanthes kirilowii
Tincture(1) Araiostegia divaricata var. formosana, (2) Aristolochia versicolor, (3) Crataegus scabrifolia, (4) Eclipta prostrata, (5) Equisetum giganteum, (6) Gastrodia elata, (7) Hovenia dulcis, (8) Lysimachia congestiflora, (9) Reynoutria multiflora, (10) Paris polyphylla, (11) Potentilla discolor
Other useHedge(1) Pyracantha fortuneana
Honey collection(1) Pseudognaphalium affine
Kindling(1) Pseudognaphalium affine
Rituals(1) Aralia chinensis, (2) Artemisia capillaris, (3) Sambucus adnata, (4) Toxicodendron vernicifluum
Silver jewelry polish(1) Oxalis corniculata
  1. *With medicinal effect