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Table 3 Medicinal plants used in ethnopediatrics in Romania (1860s–1970s)

From: Historical ethnobotanical review of medicinal plants used to treat children diseases in Romania (1860s–1970s)

No.SpeciesFamilyEnglish nameRomanian nameOriginTraditional indications and targeted body systemsParts usedERTV (%)References for traditional indicationsScientific evidence in pediatric clinical studies
1.Acer campestre L.SapindaceaeField mapleJugastruNative1. General: Weakness (for general strengthening; ext-bath, int-sap)Bark, Sap14.28[75, 86]n.y.s.
2.Aconitum napellus L.RanunculaceaeWolfsbaneOmag, toaieNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (int., ext-bath)
2. Skin (ext): Wounds
Leaves, Root28.57[75, 86]n.y.s
3.Allium ascalonicum L.AmaryllidaceaeShallotHaşmă, hajme, hagimaNon-native1. Skin: Eczema, Impetigo (ext), scalp red eruptions of newbornBulb, leaves14.28[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
4.Allium cepa L.AmaryllidaceaeOnionCeapăNon-native1. Respiratory: Asthma, Bronchitis, Cough; 2. Digestive: Stomach pain, intestinal colic (ext + int), Tape worms, Cramps in newborns due to accumulation of gas (int- 1 drop juice of onion), Ulcerative stomatitis, Dental eruption; 3. Ear: pain; 4. Skin: newborn scalp eruptions (ext)Bulb, leaves57.14[9, 75, 84,85,86]p.e. Skin: alopecia areata- effective topical therapy (Note. mixed group of adult and child subjects) [98]
5.Allium sativum L.AmaryllidaceaeGarlicUsturoiNon-native1. Digestive: Intestinal worms, Diarrhea, Gastro-enteritis, Colic
2. Respiratory: Cough with sputa and puss
3. Skin (ext): Verruca, Skin infections, Impetigo
4. Psychological: nightmares
5. Neurological: : epilepsy (ext-polyherbal ointment, in combination with lovage, elecampane, and other plants with unresolved botanical identity)
Bulb, leaves71.42[74, 75, 82, 84, 86]p.e. antibacterial n.e. antifungal- as polyherbal mouth rinse [99]; p.e. antiverruca [100]; p.e. respiratory diseases (improved oxygenation and dyspnea in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome) [101]; n.e. topical non-effective therapy in alopecia areat a[102]
6.Althaea officinalis L.MalvaceaeMarsh mallowNalbă mareNative1. Digestive: Diarrhea
2. Skin: diaper (napkin) dermatitis
Flowers, leaves, roots28.57[75, 88]n.y.s
7.Amygdalus communis L.RosaceaeAlmond treeMigdalNon-native1. Ear: Ear pain, Ear dischargeBuds, seeds, flowers, bark14.28[86]*p.e.-↓ symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [103]
8.Anemone pulsatilla L.RanunculaceaePasque flowerDediţel, sisinelNative1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-fumigations)Flowers14.28[75]n.y.s.
9.Anethum graveolens L.ApiaceaeDillMărarNative1. Digestive: Abdominal cramps, Colic, Intestinal worms (roundworms)Aerial parts, Seeds14.28[75, 84, 86]p.e. antiparasitic ( ↓ incidence of Giardia lamblia after 5 days of treatment) [104]
10.Anthyllis vulneraria L.FabaceaeWoundwortVătămătoareNative1. Skin: Eczema, Wounds (ext); 2. Psychological: Fear, Fright (int)Flowering tips28.57[75, 83]n.y.s.
11.Aquilegia vulgaris L.RanunculaceaeColumbineCăldăruşăNative1. Respiratory: Whooping cough (ext)Aerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
12.Arctium lappa L.AsteraceaeGreater burdockBrustureNative1. Skin: Wounds; infections; Eczema; 2. Digestive: cramps (ext)Leaves14.28[75, 86]n.y.s.
13.Arnica montana L.AsteraceaeMountain arnicaArnicăNative1. Musculoskeletal: Trauma (ext); 2. Psychological: Anxiety/ fright (only the plant collected on the Cross Day) (ext- fumigations)Leaves28.57[75, 85]n.y.s.
14.Artemisia abrotanum L.AsteraceaeSagebrushLemnul domnului, lemnuşNative1. General : weakness (ext-weekly bath, flowering tips)
2. Digestive: Stomatitis (ext- leaves in honey, chewing twigs), colic (int- milk decoction of bark)
3. Musculoskeletal: riketts (ext-bath weekly, flowering tips)
Leaves, Flowering tips, Bark42.85[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
15.Artemisia absinthium L.AsteraceaeWormwoodPelinNative1. Nutritional: Athrepsia (ext- crushed fresh leaves)
2. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)
Leaves28.57[74, 75, 84]n.y.s.
16.Aruncus dioicus (Walter) FernaldRosaceaeGoat's beard, bride's feathersCoada priculicilor, barba popiiNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext- bath, fumigation)
2. Psychological: Insomnia (ext- bath, fumigation)
Aerial parts28.57[85]n.y.s.
17.Astragalus glycyphyllos L.FabaceaeWild liquoriceUnghia găii, unghia căţelei, iarba limbricilorNative1. Skin (ext): Eczema, Diaper (napkin) dermatitis (washing with decoction in milk), Necrotic wounds (Rom. “colţ de lup”- cutaneous tuberculosis or cutaneous lesions in syphilis), Infections, PanarisAerial parts14.28[75, 78, 80, 84]n.y.s.
18.Ballota nigra L.LamiaceaeBlack horehoundUrzică moartă, cătuşeNon-native1. General: for suffering children (ext-bath)Aerial parts14.28[80]n.y.s.
19Berteroa incana (L.) DC.BrassicaceaeHoary alyssumCiucuşoară, păsatul vraghieiNative1. Skin: infections (ext ), eczema (ext-bath)Aerial parts14.28[75, 80]n.y.s.
20.Betula pendula RothBetulaceaeSilver birchMesteacănNative1. Nutritional: Athrepsia, Nutritional dysbalances, growth delay (ext- sap or bath with decoction of bark from a young tree)Sap of the young tree, bark of a young tree14.28[9, 74]n.y.s.
21.Betula pubescens Ehrh.BetulaceaeWhite birchMesteacăn albNative1. Nutritional: Athrepsia, Nutritional dysbalances, Growth delay (ext-bath)Sap of the young tree14.28[74]n.y.s.
22.Bidens tripartitus L.AsteraceaeThree-lobe beggarticksDentiţă, cîrligei, turiţăNative1. General: Weakness (for general tonification/strengthening)Stems, leaves, flowers42.85[75]n.y.s.
23.Brassica oleracea L.BrassicaceaeCabbageVarzăNon-native1. Skin: Wounds, Impetigo (ash of burnt cob)
2. General: Measles
Leaves28.57[84, 86]n.y.s.
24.Butomus umbellatus L.ButomaceaeFlowering rushCrin de baltă, roşăţeaNative1. Neurological: Convulsions, Epilepsy (ext-bath)Aerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
25.Calendula officinalis L.AsteraceaeCommon marigoldFilimină, GălbineleNative1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath)Flowers14.28[75]p.e.* ↓ severity of diaper dermatitis [105,106,107]; p.e.* ↓ clinical signs of chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (Note. Mixed group of subjects-adults and children [108];
26.Cannabis sativa L.CannabaceaeHempCânepăNative1. Skin (ext): Infections, ImpetigoSeeds14.28[74]p.e.*benefits in epilepsy [109]; p.e.*motor disorders (improved spasticity and dystonia, sleep disturbances, pain severity) [110]
27.Carduus nutans L.AsteraceaeMusk thirstleScăiete, CiulinNative1. General: Weakness (for general tonification/strengthening)Aerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
28.Carlina acaulis L.AsteraceaeSilver thirstleCiurul zânelor, sita ielelorNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath, int); 2. Psychological: Fright (ext-fumigations)Flowers28.57[84, 86]n.y.s.
29.Carum carvi L.ApiaceaeCarawayChimenNative1. Digestive: Cramps, Colic, Diarrhea, FlatulenceSeeds14.28[74, 84]n.y.s.
30.Centaurium erythraea RafnGentianaceaeEuropean centauryŢintaurăNative1. General: Weakness
2. Endocrine/Metabolic and Nutritional: Anorexia (int-syrup)
3. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)
Stems, leaves, flowers42.85[75, 84]n.y.s.
31.Ceratocephalus falcatus (L.) Pers.#Ranunculaceae-PloşnicarNative1. Skin (ext): InfectionsAerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
32.Chaerophyllum aromaticum L.Apiaceae-AntonicăNative1. Digestive: Tooth pain
2. Neurological: Headache
3. Psychological: Psychosis
33.Chelidonium majus L.PapaveraceaeCelandineRostopascăNative1. General (root, ext- bath for general tonification/strengthening)Root14.28[75]p.e.* chronic tonsillitis (improved cellular and humoral immunity, nonspecific resistance, reduced the number of recurrences) [111]
34.Cichorium intybus L.AsteraceaeCommom chicoryCicoareNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext- bath)Leaves, roots, rhizome14.28[85, 86]p.e.* acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhea (reduced duration of acute diarrhea) [112]
35.Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.AsteraceaeCreeping thirstlePălămidă, pălămidă seacăNative1. Nutritional: Athrepsia (ext-bath)Aerial parts, roots14.28[74]n.y.s.
36.Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.AsteraceaeCabbage thirstleCrăpuşnicNative1. General: for general strengthening/tonification (ext-bath)Roots, stems14.28[85]n.y.s.
37.Clematis vitalba L.RanunculaceaeOld man’s beardCurpenNative1. General: Weakness (ext)Aerial parts14.28[75, 84, 85]n.y.s.
38.Cochlearia officinalis L.BrassicaceaeCommom scurvygrassLingureaNative1. General: Tuberculosis
2. Digestive: Indigestion/Dyspepsia
3. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Lack of appetite
39.Conium maculatum L.ApiaceaeHemlockCucutăNative1. Skin (ext): Dermatosis
2. Neurological: Paralysis (ext- bath)
40.Consolida regalis GrayRanunculaceaeForking larkspurSomnoroasă, creasta cuculuiNative1. Psychological: insomnia (int- decoction)Flowers14.28[80]n.y.s.
41.Cornus mas L.CornaceaeEuropean cornelCornNative1. Digestive: Diarrhea
2. Psychological: Agitation with screaming
3. General: Typhoid fever
4. Nutritional: Underweight
Fruits57.14[75, 84,85,86]p.e.* improvement of lipid profile and vascular inflammation [113]
42.Corylus avellana L.BetulaceaeCommon hazelAlunNative1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strenghtening)Leaves, buds, fruits, male flowers14.28[74, 75]n.y.s.
43.Cucurbita pepo L.CucurbitaceaePumpkinBostanNon-native1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: UnderweightPulp28.57[75]n.y.s.
44.Daucus carota L.ApiaceaeCarrotMorcovNon-native1. Musculoskeletal: Rickets
2. Digestive: Stomatitis
3. Skin: Wounds, Impetigo (ext)
Roots, leaves, seeds42.85[75, 84, 86]p.e.*gastroenteritis (stools returning to normal consistency and frequency in 6 days) [114]
45.Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) SchottDryopteridaceaeMale fernFerigăNative1. Digestive: Intestinal worms
2. Skin (ext): Wounds
3. Neurological: Epilepsy; 4. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional (ext-bath): Delayed growth
5. Psychological (ext): insomnia
6. Musculoskeletal (ext): Rickets, Bone diseases, Bone deformities
7. Blood and lymph nodes: Scrophulosis (ext-cataplasm + int- milk decoction)
Rhizome, leaves100[75, 84]n.y.s.
46.Equisetum arvense L.EquisetaceaeCommon horsetailCoada caluluiNative1. Digestive: DiarrheaSterile aerial parts28.57[75]n.y.s.
47.Equisetum fluviatile L.EquisetaceaeWater horsetailPipirigNative1. Musculoskeletal: walking difficulties (bath for bone strengthening, in combination with Jacobaea erratica (Bertol.) Fourr.))Not specified (probably aerial parts)14.28[75, 79]n.y.s.
48.Eryngium planum L.ApiaceaeBlue eryngoScai vânăt, spinul albastruNative1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Underweight
2. Skin (ext): Scalp fungal infections, Impetigo, Eczema
3. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)
4. Digestive: Colic (ext-bath)
5. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-bath)
Roots rhizome, flowers71.42[74, 75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
49.Ficus carica L.MoraceaeFig treeSmochinNon-native1. Blood and lymph nodes: Scrophulosis (ext-cataplasm + int- milk decoction)Fruits14.28[84]p.e.*atopic dermatitis (safety, efficacy, tolerability, and symptom relief considerable in comparison with hydrocortisone 1.0%) [115]
50.Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.RosaceaeMead wortCreţuşcăNative1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)Aerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
51.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.ApiaceaeFennelFeniculNon-native1. Digestive: Intestinal cramps, FlatulenceFruits28.57[75, 84, 86]p.e. infantile colic (decreased intensity of colic, decreased average daily crying time [116])
52.Fraxinus ornus L.OleaceaeSouth European flowering ashMojdreanNative1. Digestive: ConstipationSap14.28[75]n.y.s.
53.Galium odoratum (L.) Scop.RubiaceaeSweetscented bedstraw, woodruffSânziene de pădure, vinariţă, muma păduriiNative1. Psychological (ext-bath): Fright, Bedwetting/Enuresis, Weeping during sleep
2. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening)
Aerial parts28.57[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
54.Galium intermedium Schult.Rubiaceae-Samca, sămcuţa, cucută de pădureNative1. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-bath, int- small amount of decoction)Not specified (probably aerial parts)14.28[86]n.y.s
55.Galium verum L.RubiaceaeLady’s bedstrawSânziene, drăgaicăNative1. General: Asthenia, WeaknessAerial parts14.28[75, 84]n.y.s.
56.Geranium macrorrhizum L.GeraniaceaeBigroot geraniumPriboiNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)Aerial parts, leaves14.28[75]n.y.s.
57.Gratiola officinalis L.PlantaginaceaeGratioleVeninariţă, avrameascăNative1. Skin: Eczema
2. Nutritional: Physical debility (ext.)
3. General (fumigations): general strengthening against diseases
4. Psychological (fumigations): Fright during sleep
5. Neurological (fumigations): Epilepsy, Paralysis
6. Cardiovascular: Tahicardia
Aerial parts85.71[75, 85]n.y.s.
58.Helianthus annuus L.AsteraceaeCommon sunflowerFloarea soareluiNon-native1. Digestive: Stomach painFlowers, Seeds oil14.28[81]n.y.s.
59.Heracleum sphondylium L.ApiaceaeHogweedBrânca ursuluiNative1. Psychological (ext- decoction poured on the head): Fright
2. Neurological (ext-bath): Paralysis (inability to walk)
Leaves, stems28.57[75]n.y.s. Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson1.1.2. ElaeagnaceaeSea buckthornCătină albăNative1. General: WeaknessFruits14.28[11]n.y.s. Hordeum vulgare L.1.1.4. PoaceaeBarleyOvăzNon-native1. General: Weakness (ext-bath)Seeds14.28[84]n.y.s.
62.Humulus lupulus L.CannabaceaeCommon hopHameiNative1. Skin: Infections, Wounds (ext-bath)
2. Nutritional: Physical debility, Underweight (ext-bath)
Flowers, leaves28.57[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
63.Hyoscyamus niger L.SolanaceaeHenbaneMăselariţăNative1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath)Seeds14.28[75]n.y.s.
64.Hypericum perforatum L.HypericaceaePerforate St John’s wortSunătoare, pojarniţăNative1. Skin (ext): Eczema, Wounds, Impetigo/Skin infections, BurnsAerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
65.Impatiens noli-tangere L.BalsaminaceaeTouch-me-not balsamSlăbănogNative1. General: weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)
2. Musculoskeletal: Disability/Weakness of the extremities (ext-bath for bone strengthening)
Aerial parts28.57[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
66.Inula helenium L.AsteraceaeElecampaneIarbă mareNative1. Psychological: Weeping during night (ext-fumigation)
2. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-polyherbal ointment, in combination with lovage, garlic, and other plants with unresolved botanical identity)
Root28.57[74, 82, 86]n.y.s.
67.Iris × germanica L.#IridaceaeIrisStânjenel albastruNative1. Digestive: Tooth eruption painRhizome14.28[75]n.y.s.
68.Jacobaea erratica (Bertol.) Fourr.Asteraceae-Iarba carelorNative1. Musculoskeletal: Disability/weakness of the extremities (ext-bath for bone strengthening, in combination with water horsetail)Not specified14.28[75, 79]n.y.s.
69.Juglans regia L.JuglandaceaeWalnut treeNucNative1. General: Weakness (int and ext- bath—for general tonification/strengthening)
2. Skin (ext): Eczema, Wounds, Skin infections ( impetigo, scabies)
3. Digestive (int- tea of shells): Diarrhea, Vomiting, Intestinal pain, Stomatitis, Intestinal parasites
4. Blood and lymph nodes: Scrophulosis (ext-bath and int), anemia
5. Nutritional: underweight (as food, in combination with bread)
Seeds, leaves, young seed shells, buds71.42[74, 75, 80, 84, 86, 88]n.y.s.
70.Laserpitium prutenicum L.Apiaceae-Prussian sermountainSomnoroasăNative1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath)
2. Respiratory (ext-bath): Cold, Coryza
Flowery stems28.57[75]n.y.s.
71.Leonurus cardiaca L.LamiaceaeMotherwortTalpa gâştei, alion, somnişorNative1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext. bath).Aerial parts14.28[85]n.y.s.
72.Lepidium ruderale L.BrassicaceaePeppergrassPăduchelniţă, buruiană de roşteNative1. Skin: Scalp eczema, newborn scalp eczemaAerial parts14.28[75, 80]n.y.s.
73.Levisticum officinale W.D.J.KochApiaceaeLovageLeuşteanNon-native1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext- polyherbal ointment, in combination with Inula helenium L., and other plants with unresolved botanical identity)Not specified (probably Leaves or Root)14.28[86]n.y.s.
74.Ligustrum vulgare L.OleaceaeWild privetLemn câinescNative1. Skin: ScabiesBark14.28[74]n.y.s.
75.Linaria vulgaris Mill.PlantaginaceaeCommon toadflaxLinariţă, colţul lupuluiNative1. Skin: Subcutaneous tumors (ext)Aerial parts14.28[74]n.y.s.
76.Linum hirsutum L.LinaceaeDowny flaxInişor de dealNative1. Digestive: Intestinal colicsNot specified14.28[75]n.y.s.
77.Lycium barbarum L.SolanaceaeEuropean gojiLiţion, cătină de garduri, liciaNative1. Psychological (ext-bath): Fright/Anxiety
2. Neurological (ext-bath): Epilepsy, Spams
Aerial parts, twigs, leaves28.57[75, 86]n.y.s.
78.Lycopodium clavatum L.LycopodiaceaeCommom club mossBrădişor, pedicuţă, coada-celor-din-vântNative1. Skin (ext): Dermatitis, EczemaSpores14.28[75, 84]n.y.s.
79.Lysimachia nummularia L.PrimulaceaeMoneywortDreţeNative1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)
2. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Growth delay
3. Musculoskeletal: Disability/Weakness of the extremities (ext-bath for bone strengthening)
Aerial parts42.85[75, 79]n.y.s.
80.Lythrum salicaria L.LythraceaePurple loosestrifeRăchitanNative1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: underweight (ext-bath)
2. Psychological: Insomnia (int)
3. Blood and lymph nodes: anemia (int)
Aerial parts42.85[75]n.y.s.
81.Malva sylvestris L.MalvaceaeCommon mallowNalbă de pădureNative1. Skin: Impetigo
2. Respiratory: Tonsillitis, Diphtheric tonsillitis (int and ext), cough
Leaves, Flowers28.57[74, 86]n.y.s.
82.Matricaria chamomilla L.AsteraceaeChamomilleMuseţel, RomanițăNative1. Digestive (int): Abdominal cramps/pains, cramps in newborns due to accumulation of gas
2. Respiratory (int): cold
3. Skin (ext): Wounds, Impetigo
4. General: pain (unspecified), bath for general strengthening of newborns, tea for internal purification (int)
5. Neurological: Epilepsy (int)
Flowers71.42[9, 74, 75, 86]p.e.infantile colic (significantly more effective than simethicone [117], decreased average daily crying time [116])
83.Melissa officinalis L.LamiaceaeLemon balmRoiniţă, matocinăNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)Leaves14.28[86]p.e.* infantile colic (significantly more effective than simethicone [117], decreased average daily crying time [116])
84.Mentha × piperita L.#LamiaceaePeppermintMentă, izmă bunăNative1. Digestive tract diseases: Diarrhea, Intestinal cramps (int and ext)
2. Skin (ext): Wounds, Impetigo
3. General: ext- bath for general strengthening of newborns
Aerial parts,
42.85[74, 75, 82, 86]n.y.s.
85.Mentha pulegium L.LamiaceaePennyroyalApărătoare, busuiocul cerbilorNative1. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional: Underweight child/Growth dysfunctions (ext)Aerial parts14.28[85]n.y.s.
86.Mentha spicata L.LamiaceaeWrinkled-leaf mintIzmă creaţăNative1. Digestive: Stomachache, Cramps (ext)Leaves14.28[75, 83]n.y.s.
87.Morus nigra L.MoraceaeBlack mulberryDud negruNon-native1. Respiratory diseasesFruits14.28[75, 86]n.y.s.
88.Nepeta cataria L.LamiaceaeCatnipCătuşnicăNative1. Digestive: Abdominal cramps, Teeth pain, dysenteria (ext)
2. Nutritional: underweight (ext-bath)
3. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-bath), insomnia (ext-bath)
4. Musculoskeletal: bone deformities (ext-bath)
Flowers57.14[74, 75, 84,85,86]n.y.s.
89.Origanum majorana L.LamiaceaeSweet marjoranMăghiranNon-native1. Psychological: Weeping/IrritabilityAerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
90.Origanum vulgare L.LamiaceaeOreganoŞovârfNon-native1. Digestive: Diarrhea, Intestinal colic (ext-bath)Aerial parts14.28[74, 75, 86]n.y.s.
91.Panicum miliaceum L.PoaceaeWhite milletMeiNon-native1. Digestive: Digestive troubles caused by tooth eruptionSeeds14.28[75]n.y.s.
92.Papaver rhoeas L.PapaveraceaeCommon poppyMac de câmpNative1. General: Measles, Scarlet fever (to accelerate eruption);Flowers14.28[75, 86]n.y.s.
93.Papaver somniferum L.PapaveraceaeOpium poppyMac, Mac de grădinăNon-native1. Psychological: Insomnia (int- tea or ext-bath)
2. General: Measles (int)
3. Digestive: Stomach pain, Colic
4. Respiratory: Cough (int)
Whole plant (only ext-bath), seeds57.14[10, 75, 80, 84, 86]n.y.s.
94.Peucedanum oreoselinum (L.) MoenchApiaceaeMountain parsleyPătrunjel de câmp, SomnuroasăNative1. Psychological (ext-bath): Irritability, Fright, InsomniaFlowers14.28[75, 78, 86]n.y.s.
95.Phaseolus vulgaris L.FabaceaeCommon beanFasoleNon-native1. Skin: Eczema, Impetigo (ext)Seeds14.28[74, 75, 85, 86]n.y.s.
96.Physalis alkekengi L.SolanaceaeBladder cherryPăpălăuNative1. Skin (ext): Newborn eczema, Newborn skin eruptionsFruits14.28[75]n.y.s.
97.Phytolacca americana L.PhytolaccaceaePokeweedCârmâzNon-native1. General: Measles (ext. +/- int.), Scarlet fever (ext. and int.);Fruits14.28[75, 84, 85]n.y.s.
98.Pilosella officinarum Vaill.Asteraceaemouse-ear hawkweedCulcuşul vaciiNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy
2. Respiratory: Cold
Aerial parts28.57[85]n.y.s.
99.Pimpinella anisum L.ApiaceaeAniseAnasonNon-native1. Digestive: Intestinal cramps, newborn cramps due to accumulation of gas (int)Seeds14.28[9, 74, 85, 86]n.y.s.
100.Pinus sylvestris L.PinaceaeScots pinePin de pădureNative1. Musculoskeletal: Rickets (ext-cataplasm)Leaves, Stems14.28[75]n.y.s.
101.Pisum sativum L.FabaceaePeaMazăre, MazereaNon-native1. Skin: Impetigo (ext- ash of pea)Seeds14.28[86]n.y.s.
102.Plantago major L.PlantaginaceaeBroadleaf plantainPătlagină mareNative1. Respiratory diseases (int): Cough, Whooping cough
2. Urological (int): Anuria/Oliguria
3. Digestive (int): Intestinal worms
4. Musculoskeletal: Trauma (ext)
5. General: Weakness (ext- bath for general tonification/strengthening, root, in combination with nut shell, greater celandine and musk thirstle)
Leaves, Root71.42[75, 86]n.y.s.
103.Polypodium vulgare L.PolypodiaceaeCommon polypodyIarbă dulce, rădăcină dulce, feriguţăNon-native1. Digestive: stomachacheRhizomes14.28[78]n.y.s.
104.Populus spp. (P. alba L., P. nigra L., P. tremula L.)SalicaceaePoplarPlopNative1. General: Weakness (ext-bath)Buds14.28[74]n.y.s.
105.Portulaca oleracea L.PortulacaceaeCommon purslaneIarbă grasăNon-native1. General: Weakness, sickness in general (ext-bath), consumption
2. Nutritional: underweight (ext- bath for gaining weight)
Aerial parts14.28[80]n.y.s.
106.Potentilla anserina L. or Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb.§1.1.5. RosaceaeSilverweedCoada racului, ScrântitoareNative1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening/tonification)
2. Musculoskeletal: Rickets (ext-bath for bone strengthening)
Aerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
107.Primula veris L.PrimulaceaeCowslipCiuboţica cuculuiNative1. Skin: Infections/Impetigo (ext- roots fried in butter, and boiled in milk)Roots28.57[75, 84, 85]n.y.s.
108.Prunella vulgaris L.LamiaceaeCommon self-healBusuioc de câmpNative1. Skin (ext): Wounds, Subcutaneous tumors (lupare)Leaves14.28[75]n.y.s.
109.Prunus spinosa L.RosaceaeBlackthornPorumbar, PorumbelNative1. Respiratory (int): cough
2. Digestive (int): Diarrhea, Dysentery
110.Pulmonaria officinalis L.BoraginaceaeLungworthMierea ursului, Plămânărică, MoşnegeiNative1. Nutritional: Underweight
2. Respiratory: scrophulosis (int- decoction)
Flowers28.57[74, 86]n.y.s.
111.Pyrus communis L.RosaceaePear treePărNon-native1. Digestive (int- tea of bark): Diarrhea, vomititing
2. Nutritional: Athrepsia, Cashexia (ext- bath, leaves)
Bark, Leaves28.57[75, 84]n.y.s.
112.Pyrus communis subsp. communisRosaceaeEuropean wild pearPăr sălbaticNative1. Digestive (int- tea of bark): Diarrhea, vomititing
2. Nutritional: athrepsia, cashexia (ext- bath, leaves)
Bark, Leaves28.57[75]n.y.s.
113.Quercus robur L.FagaceaeOakStejarNative1. Digestive: Diarrhea (int- roasted and grinded acorns)Acorn14.28[75, 86]n.y.s.
114.Reseda odorata L.ResedaceaeGarden mignonetteRezedă, smeuricăNative1. General: WeaknessAerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
115.Rhamnus cathartica L.RhamnaceaeCommon buckthornVerigariuNative1. Nutritional: athrepsia (ext-bath)Fruits14.28[74, 75]n.y.s.
116.Rhinanthus glaber Lam. or
Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmel.§
1.1.7. OrobanchaceaeRattleClocotişNative1. Skin: eczema (ext-bath)Aerial parts14.28[75]n.y.s.
117.Rhododendron myrtifolium Schott & Kotschy1.1.9. EricaceaeRhododendronBujor de munte, smirdarNative1. Skin (ext): impetigo, skin infectionsFlowers, Leaves14.28[75]n.y.s.
118.Ribes nigrum L.GrossulariaceaeBlackcurrantCoacăz negruNative1. Nutritional: athrepsia (ext-bath)Fruits, Leaves14.28[86]n.y.s.
119.Robinia pseudoacacia L.FabaceaeBlack locustSalcâmNative1. DigestiveFlowers14.28[87]n.y.s.
120.Rosa canina L.RosaceaeDog roseMăceş,Măcieş, Trandafir de câmp,
Trandafir sălbatic, Rug
Native1. Digestive: Diarrhea, Constipation, Colic, Abddominal pain (int-fruits, decoction, ext-flowers, decoction in vinegar)
2. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional: lack of appetite, cachexia
Fruits, Flowers28.57[75, 84, 86, 87]n.y.s.
121.Rubus plicatus Weihe & NeesRosaceaeEuropean blackberryMur negruNative1. Skin: Eczema (ext-ointment with burnt leaves)Leaves42.85[75]n.y.s.
122.Ruta graveolens L.RutaceaeRueRută, VirnanţNon-native1. General: Fever; 2. Respiratory: Phlegm in the throat
3. Digestive: aphthous stomatitis (ext), dysenteria (int- 3 drops of juice of raw plant)
Aerial parts, Leaves42.85[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
123.Salix alba L.SalicaceaeWhite willowSalcie albă, răchităNative1. Psychological: fright (ext-fumigation)
2. Neurological: epilepsy (int and ext-bath);
Leaves, Bark, Buds28.57[11, 86]n.y.s.
124.Salix caprea L.SalicaceaeGoat willowIovă, Răchită moaleNative1. General: ext- bath for general strengtheningLeaves14.28[75, 80]n.y.s.
125.Salvia glutinosa L.LamiaceaeSticky sageCinstețNative1. General: physical debility/weakness caused by chronic diseasesLeaves14.28[85]n.y.s.
126.Salvia officinalis L.LamiaceaeSageSalvieNative1. Respiratory diseases
2. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening)
Leaves28.57[75, 84]p.e. respiratory diseases (Note. Mixed group of subjects, at least 12 year old) [118]
127.Sambucus ebulus L.AdoxaceaeDanewortBozNative1. Nutritional: underweight (ext.-bath)
2. Digestive: Cramps (int-tea), Parasites (int-decoction)
Leaves28.57[74, 75]n.y.s.
128.Sanguisorba officinalis L.RosaceaeGreat burnetSorbestrea, CârligăţicăNative1. Digestive (int): Dysentery, Diarrhea, Colic
2. General: physical debility/weakness (ext. baths)
Aerial parts28.57[75, 85]n.y.s
129.Satureja hortensis L.LamiaceaeSummer savoryCimbru de grădinăNon-native1. Digestive (int and ext): Colic, Diarrhea
2. Blood: Anaemia
3. Skin: Eruptions, Impetigo
Aerial parts, roots, leaves, stems42.85[75, 85]n.y.s.
130.Scabiosa columbaria L.CaprifoliaceaeSmall scabiousMuşcatu-draculuiNative1. General: ext-bath for newborns for general strengtheningNot specified14.28[75, 84]n.y.s.
131.Secale cereale L.PoaceaeSecaleSecarăNon-native1. General: Weakness (ext.-bath)
2. Digestive: Intestinal parasites
Seeds28.57[74, 86]p.e.* improvement of cardiometabolic profile [119]
132.Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.BrassicaceaeHedge mustardBrâncuţă, SămcuţăNative1. Digestive (int): Intestinal cramps
2. Neurological (int): Epilepsy
Aerial parts28.57[75, 86]n.y.s.
133.Solidago virgaurea L.AsteraceaeEuropean goldenrodSplinuţă, SiliminăNative1. Musculoskeletal: Rickets (ext-bath)Not specified (probably aerial parts)14.28[86]n.y.s.
134.Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.AsteraceaeCommon sowthistlePălămidă grasă, SusaiNative1. Nutritional: Athrepsia (ext-bath)Not specified14.28[74]n.y.s.
135.Symphytum officinale L.BoraginaceaeCommon comfreyTătăneasăNative1. Digestive: gastro-enteritis (ext)Root14.28[82]n.y.s
136.Tanacetum balsamita L.AsteraceaeSmellin-bladesCalapăr, Calaper, Caramfil, Caromfil, CaranhilNative1. General: Weakness (ext- bath for general tonification/strengthening)Aerial parts, leaves14.28[75, 84]n.y.s.
137.Tanacetum vulgare L.AsteraceaeTansyVetrice, măruncăNative1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)
2. Skin: eczema (ext-bath)
Aerial parts28.57[75, 83, 86]n.y.s.
138.Thymus serpyllum L.LamiaceaeWild thymeCimbrişor de câmpNative1. Digestive: Newborn cramps, flatulenceAerial parts14.28[84]n.y.s.
139.Thymus vulgaris L.LamiaceaeCommon thymeCimbruNative1. Digestive: CrampsAerial parts14.28[74]n.y.s.
140.Tilia × europaea L.#MalvaceaeCommon lindenTeiNative2. General or unspecified: spasm (ext-bath)Flowers, leaves14.28[88]n.y.s.
141.Tilia tomentosa MoenchMalvaceaeSilver lindenTei argintiu, tei albNative1. Skin (ext): Diaper (napkin) dermatitisFlowers14.28[74]n.y.s.
142.Trapa natans L.LythraceaeWater caltropCornaciNative1. Digestive: DiarrheaFruits14.28[75]n.y.s.
143.Trifolium arvense L.FabaceaeRabbitfoot cloverMotocei, Cotocei Iarba somnuluiNative1. Psychological (int): Irritability, InsomniaAerial parts14.28[74, 75]n.y.s.
144.Valeriana officinalis L.CaprifoliaceaeValerianOdolean, valerianăNative1. Digestive: Diarrhea with blood/Dysenteria (ext- cataplasm on abdomen; int- 1 teaspoon of decoction made in an earthy pot)
2. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional: Growth dysfunctions
3. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath)
4. Skin: Hair complaint (ext)
Root57.14[84, 86]n.y.s.
145.Verbena officinalis L.VerbenaceaeCommon verbenaVerbină, sporiş, sporici, buruiana de boalăNative1. Nutritional: Underweight (ext-bath, 3 consecutive months), weakness
2. Digestive: Digestive troubles caused by tooth eruption (ext-bath)
3. Skin: Wounds, Scabies (ext)
Aerial parts57.14[75, 80, 86]n.y.s.
146.Veronica beccabunga L.PlantaginaceaeEuropean speedwellBobornicNative1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening)
2. Digestive: Digestive troubles caused by tooth eruption (ext-bath)
Aerial parts28.57[75]n.y.s.
147.Viburnum opulus L.AdoxaceaeGuilder roseCălinNative1. General: Chicken pox (ext)Fruits14.28[75]n.y.s.
148.Vicia faba L.FabaceaeBroad beanBobNon-native1. Respiratory: Tonsillitis, Diphteric tonsillitis (ext.)
2. Digestive: diarrhea
Seeds28.57[74, 75]n.y.s
149.Viola arvensis MurrayViolaceaeField pansyPanseluţă de câmpNative1. Skin: Eczema, Infections/Impetigo
2. Digestive: Tooth eruption (root to chew)
Aerial parts, Roots28.57[75]n.y.s.
150.Viola odorata L.ViolaceaeWood violetToporaş, Viorea, VioricaNative1. Digestive: Dental eruption (root to chew)Roots14.28[75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
151.Viola tricolor L.ViolaceaeHeartseaseTrei fraţi pătaţiNative1. Skin: Eczema, Infections/Impetigo
2. Digestive: Tooth eruption (root to chew)
Roots, probably aerial parts also28.57[75, 84]n.y.s.
152.Xanthium strumarium L.AsteraceaeCommon cockleburScaietele popii, Ciurlan de câmpNative1. General or unspecified: pain in the chest (Rom. “strâns la piept”) (ext- warm application with boiled plant)Not specified14.28[75, 80]n.y.s.
153.Zea mays L.PoaceaeCornPorumbNon-native1. Skin (ext): Impetigo, Scabies (cob), Diaper (napkin) dermatitisSeeds, cob14.28[74, 75, 84, 86]n.y.s.
  1. ERTV ethnopediatric relative therapeutic versatility (expressed as percentage), n.y.s not yet studied, n.e. negative evidence, p.e positive evidence; * indication not mentioned in Romanian ethnopediatry;§- pair of two Latin names for a single plant: the first name has accepted status in PlantListDB, synonym in Euro+Med PlantBase, the second name has accepted status in Euro+Med PlantBase, synonym in PlantListDB; #- Latin name has a status of accepted Latin name in PlantListDB, but it is absent in Euro+Med PlantBase