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Table 3 Medicinal plants used in ethnopediatrics in Romania (1860s–1970s)

From: Historical ethnobotanical review of medicinal plants used to treat children diseases in Romania (1860s–1970s)

No. Species Family English name Romanian name Origin Traditional indications and targeted body systems Parts used ERTV (%) References for traditional indications Scientific evidence in pediatric clinical studies
1. Acer campestre L. Sapindaceae Field maple Jugastru Native 1. General: Weakness (for general strengthening; ext-bath, int-sap) Bark, Sap 14.28 [75, 86] n.y.s.
2. Aconitum napellus L. Ranunculaceae Wolfsbane Omag, toaie Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (int., ext-bath)
2. Skin (ext): Wounds
Leaves, Root 28.57 [75, 86] n.y.s
3. Allium ascalonicum L. Amaryllidaceae Shallot Haşmă, hajme, hagima Non-native 1. Skin: Eczema, Impetigo (ext), scalp red eruptions of newborn Bulb, leaves 14.28 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
4. Allium cepa L. Amaryllidaceae Onion Ceapă Non-native 1. Respiratory: Asthma, Bronchitis, Cough; 2. Digestive: Stomach pain, intestinal colic (ext + int), Tape worms, Cramps in newborns due to accumulation of gas (int- 1 drop juice of onion), Ulcerative stomatitis, Dental eruption; 3. Ear: pain; 4. Skin: newborn scalp eruptions (ext) Bulb, leaves 57.14 [9, 75, 84,85,86] p.e. Skin: alopecia areata- effective topical therapy (Note. mixed group of adult and child subjects) [98]
5. Allium sativum L. Amaryllidaceae Garlic Usturoi Non-native 1. Digestive: Intestinal worms, Diarrhea, Gastro-enteritis, Colic
2. Respiratory: Cough with sputa and puss
3. Skin (ext): Verruca, Skin infections, Impetigo
4. Psychological: nightmares
5. Neurological: : epilepsy (ext-polyherbal ointment, in combination with lovage, elecampane, and other plants with unresolved botanical identity)
Bulb, leaves 71.42 [74, 75, 82, 84, 86] p.e. antibacterial n.e. antifungal- as polyherbal mouth rinse [99]; p.e. antiverruca [100]; p.e. respiratory diseases (improved oxygenation and dyspnea in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome) [101]; n.e. topical non-effective therapy in alopecia areat a[102]
6. Althaea officinalis L. Malvaceae Marsh mallow Nalbă mare Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea
2. Skin: diaper (napkin) dermatitis
Flowers, leaves, roots 28.57 [75, 88] n.y.s
7. Amygdalus communis L. Rosaceae Almond tree Migdal Non-native 1. Ear: Ear pain, Ear discharge Buds, seeds, flowers, bark 14.28 [86] *p.e.-↓ symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [103]
8. Anemone pulsatilla L. Ranunculaceae Pasque flower Dediţel, sisinel Native 1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-fumigations) Flowers 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
9. Anethum graveolens L. Apiaceae Dill Mărar Native 1. Digestive: Abdominal cramps, Colic, Intestinal worms (roundworms) Aerial parts, Seeds 14.28 [75, 84, 86] p.e. antiparasitic ( ↓ incidence of Giardia lamblia after 5 days of treatment) [104]
10. Anthyllis vulneraria L. Fabaceae Woundwort Vătămătoare Native 1. Skin: Eczema, Wounds (ext); 2. Psychological: Fear, Fright (int) Flowering tips 28.57 [75, 83] n.y.s.
11. Aquilegia vulgaris L. Ranunculaceae Columbine Căldăruşă Native 1. Respiratory: Whooping cough (ext) Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
12. Arctium lappa L. Asteraceae Greater burdock Brusture Native 1. Skin: Wounds; infections; Eczema; 2. Digestive: cramps (ext) Leaves 14.28 [75, 86] n.y.s.
13. Arnica montana L. Asteraceae Mountain arnica Arnică Native 1. Musculoskeletal: Trauma (ext); 2. Psychological: Anxiety/ fright (only the plant collected on the Cross Day) (ext- fumigations) Leaves 28.57 [75, 85] n.y.s.
14. Artemisia abrotanum L. Asteraceae Sagebrush Lemnul domnului, lemnuş Native 1. General : weakness (ext-weekly bath, flowering tips)
2. Digestive: Stomatitis (ext- leaves in honey, chewing twigs), colic (int- milk decoction of bark)
3. Musculoskeletal: riketts (ext-bath weekly, flowering tips)
Leaves, Flowering tips, Bark 42.85 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
15. Artemisia absinthium L. Asteraceae Wormwood Pelin Native 1. Nutritional: Athrepsia (ext- crushed fresh leaves)
2. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)
Leaves 28.57 [74, 75, 84] n.y.s.
16. Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald Rosaceae Goat's beard, bride's feathers Coada priculicilor, barba popii Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext- bath, fumigation)
2. Psychological: Insomnia (ext- bath, fumigation)
Aerial parts 28.57 [85] n.y.s.
17. Astragalus glycyphyllos L. Fabaceae Wild liquorice Unghia găii, unghia căţelei, iarba limbricilor Native 1. Skin (ext): Eczema, Diaper (napkin) dermatitis (washing with decoction in milk), Necrotic wounds (Rom. “colţ de lup”- cutaneous tuberculosis or cutaneous lesions in syphilis), Infections, Panaris Aerial parts 14.28 [75, 78, 80, 84] n.y.s.
18. Ballota nigra L. Lamiaceae Black horehound Urzică moartă, cătuşe Non-native 1. General: for suffering children (ext-bath) Aerial parts 14.28 [80] n.y.s.
19 Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Brassicaceae Hoary alyssum Ciucuşoară, păsatul vraghiei Native 1. Skin: infections (ext ), eczema (ext-bath) Aerial parts 14.28 [75, 80] n.y.s.
20. Betula pendula Roth Betulaceae Silver birch Mesteacăn Native 1. Nutritional: Athrepsia, Nutritional dysbalances, growth delay (ext- sap or bath with decoction of bark from a young tree) Sap of the young tree, bark of a young tree 14.28 [9, 74] n.y.s.
21. Betula pubescens Ehrh. Betulaceae White birch Mesteacăn alb Native 1. Nutritional: Athrepsia, Nutritional dysbalances, Growth delay (ext-bath) Sap of the young tree 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
22. Bidens tripartitus L. Asteraceae Three-lobe beggarticks Dentiţă, cîrligei, turiţă Native 1. General: Weakness (for general tonification/strengthening) Stems, leaves, flowers 42.85 [75] n.y.s.
23. Brassica oleracea L. Brassicaceae Cabbage Varză Non-native 1. Skin: Wounds, Impetigo (ash of burnt cob)
2. General: Measles
Leaves 28.57 [84, 86] n.y.s.
24. Butomus umbellatus L. Butomaceae Flowering rush Crin de baltă, roşăţea Native 1. Neurological: Convulsions, Epilepsy (ext-bath) Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
25. Calendula officinalis L. Asteraceae Common marigold Filimină, Gălbinele Native 1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath) Flowers 14.28 [75] p.e.* ↓ severity of diaper dermatitis [105,106,107]; p.e.* ↓ clinical signs of chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (Note. Mixed group of subjects-adults and children [108];
26. Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Hemp Cânepă Native 1. Skin (ext): Infections, Impetigo Seeds 14.28 [74] p.e.*benefits in epilepsy [109]; p.e.*motor disorders (improved spasticity and dystonia, sleep disturbances, pain severity) [110]
27. Carduus nutans L. Asteraceae Musk thirstle Scăiete, Ciulin Native 1. General: Weakness (for general tonification/strengthening) Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
28. Carlina acaulis L. Asteraceae Silver thirstle Ciurul zânelor, sita ielelor Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath, int); 2. Psychological: Fright (ext-fumigations) Flowers 28.57 [84, 86] n.y.s.
29. Carum carvi L. Apiaceae Caraway Chimen Native 1. Digestive: Cramps, Colic, Diarrhea, Flatulence Seeds 14.28 [74, 84] n.y.s.
30. Centaurium erythraea Rafn Gentianaceae European centaury Ţintaură Native 1. General: Weakness
2. Endocrine/Metabolic and Nutritional: Anorexia (int-syrup)
3. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)
Stems, leaves, flowers 42.85 [75, 84] n.y.s.
31. Ceratocephalus falcatus (L.) Pers.# Ranunculaceae - Ploşnicar Native 1. Skin (ext): Infections Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
32. Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. Apiaceae - Antonică Native 1. Digestive: Tooth pain
2. Neurological: Headache
3. Psychological: Psychosis
Leaves 42.85 [85] n.y.s.
33. Chelidonium majus L. Papaveraceae Celandine Rostopască Native 1. General (root, ext- bath for general tonification/strengthening) Root 14.28 [75] p.e.* chronic tonsillitis (improved cellular and humoral immunity, nonspecific resistance, reduced the number of recurrences) [111]
34. Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Commom chicory Cicoare Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext- bath) Leaves, roots, rhizome 14.28 [85, 86] p.e.* acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhea (reduced duration of acute diarrhea) [112]
35. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Asteraceae Creeping thirstle Pălămidă, pălămidă seacă Native 1. Nutritional: Athrepsia (ext-bath) Aerial parts, roots 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
36. Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Asteraceae Cabbage thirstle Crăpuşnic Native 1. General: for general strengthening/tonification (ext-bath) Roots, stems 14.28 [85] n.y.s.
37. Clematis vitalba L. Ranunculaceae Old man’s beard Curpen Native 1. General: Weakness (ext) Aerial parts 14.28 [75, 84, 85] n.y.s.
38. Cochlearia officinalis L. Brassicaceae Commom scurvygrass Lingurea Native 1. General: Tuberculosis
2. Digestive: Indigestion/Dyspepsia
3. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Lack of appetite
Leaves 42.85 [75] n.y.s.
39. Conium maculatum L. Apiaceae Hemlock Cucută Native 1. Skin (ext): Dermatosis
2. Neurological: Paralysis (ext- bath)
Leaves 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
40. Consolida regalis Gray Ranunculaceae Forking larkspur Somnoroasă, creasta cucului Native 1. Psychological: insomnia (int- decoction) Flowers 14.28 [80] n.y.s.
41. Cornus mas L. Cornaceae European cornel Corn Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea
2. Psychological: Agitation with screaming
3. General: Typhoid fever
4. Nutritional: Underweight
Fruits 57.14 [75, 84,85,86] p.e.* improvement of lipid profile and vascular inflammation [113]
42. Corylus avellana L. Betulaceae Common hazel Alun Native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strenghtening) Leaves, buds, fruits, male flowers 14.28 [74, 75] n.y.s.
43. Cucurbita pepo L. Cucurbitaceae Pumpkin Bostan Non-native 1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Underweight Pulp 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
44. Daucus carota L. Apiaceae Carrot Morcov Non-native 1. Musculoskeletal: Rickets
2. Digestive: Stomatitis
3. Skin: Wounds, Impetigo (ext)
Roots, leaves, seeds 42.85 [75, 84, 86] p.e.*gastroenteritis (stools returning to normal consistency and frequency in 6 days) [114]
45. Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Dryopteridaceae Male fern Ferigă Native 1. Digestive: Intestinal worms
2. Skin (ext): Wounds
3. Neurological: Epilepsy; 4. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional (ext-bath): Delayed growth
5. Psychological (ext): insomnia
6. Musculoskeletal (ext): Rickets, Bone diseases, Bone deformities
7. Blood and lymph nodes: Scrophulosis (ext-cataplasm + int- milk decoction)
Rhizome, leaves 100 [75, 84] n.y.s.
46. Equisetum arvense L. Equisetaceae Common horsetail Coada calului Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea Sterile aerial parts 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
47. Equisetum fluviatile L. Equisetaceae Water horsetail Pipirig Native 1. Musculoskeletal: walking difficulties (bath for bone strengthening, in combination with Jacobaea erratica (Bertol.) Fourr.)) Not specified (probably aerial parts) 14.28 [75, 79] n.y.s.
48. Eryngium planum L. Apiaceae Blue eryngo Scai vânăt, spinul albastru Native 1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Underweight
2. Skin (ext): Scalp fungal infections, Impetigo, Eczema
3. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)
4. Digestive: Colic (ext-bath)
5. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-bath)
Roots rhizome, flowers 71.42 [74, 75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
49. Ficus carica L. Moraceae Fig tree Smochin Non-native 1. Blood and lymph nodes: Scrophulosis (ext-cataplasm + int- milk decoction) Fruits 14.28 [84] p.e.*atopic dermatitis (safety, efficacy, tolerability, and symptom relief considerable in comparison with hydrocortisone 1.0%) [115]
50. Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Rosaceae Mead wort Creţuşcă Native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening) Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
51. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Fennel Fenicul Non-native 1. Digestive: Intestinal cramps, Flatulence Fruits 28.57 [75, 84, 86] p.e. infantile colic (decreased intensity of colic, decreased average daily crying time [116])
52. Fraxinus ornus L. Oleaceae South European flowering ash Mojdrean Native 1. Digestive: Constipation Sap 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
53. Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. Rubiaceae Sweetscented bedstraw, woodruff Sânziene de pădure, vinariţă, muma pădurii Native 1. Psychological (ext-bath): Fright, Bedwetting/Enuresis, Weeping during sleep
2. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening)
Aerial parts 28.57 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
54. Galium intermedium Schult. Rubiaceae - Samca, sămcuţa, cucută de pădure Native 1. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-bath, int- small amount of decoction) Not specified (probably aerial parts) 14.28 [86] n.y.s
55. Galium verum L. Rubiaceae Lady’s bedstraw Sânziene, drăgaică Native 1. General: Asthenia, Weakness Aerial parts 14.28 [75, 84] n.y.s.
56. Geranium macrorrhizum L. Geraniaceae Bigroot geranium Priboi Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath) Aerial parts, leaves 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
57. Gratiola officinalis L. Plantaginaceae Gratiole Veninariţă, avramească Native 1. Skin: Eczema
2. Nutritional: Physical debility (ext.)
3. General (fumigations): general strengthening against diseases
4. Psychological (fumigations): Fright during sleep
5. Neurological (fumigations): Epilepsy, Paralysis
6. Cardiovascular: Tahicardia
Aerial parts 85.71 [75, 85] n.y.s.
58. Helianthus annuus L. Asteraceae Common sunflower Floarea soarelui Non-native 1. Digestive: Stomach pain Flowers, Seeds oil 14.28 [81] n.y.s.
59. Heracleum sphondylium L. Apiaceae Hogweed Brânca ursului Native 1. Psychological (ext- decoction poured on the head): Fright
2. Neurological (ext-bath): Paralysis (inability to walk)
Leaves, stems 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
60. 1.1.1. Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson 1.1.2. Elaeagnaceae Sea buckthorn Cătină albă Native 1. General: Weakness Fruits 14.28 [11] n.y.s.
61. 1.1.3. Hordeum vulgare L. 1.1.4. Poaceae Barley Ovăz Non-native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath) Seeds 14.28 [84] n.y.s.
62. Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae Common hop Hamei Native 1. Skin: Infections, Wounds (ext-bath)
2. Nutritional: Physical debility, Underweight (ext-bath)
Flowers, leaves 28.57 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
63. Hyoscyamus niger L. Solanaceae Henbane Măselariţă Native 1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath) Seeds 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
64. Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae Perforate St John’s wort Sunătoare, pojarniţă Native 1. Skin (ext): Eczema, Wounds, Impetigo/Skin infections, Burns Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
65. Impatiens noli-tangere L. Balsaminaceae Touch-me-not balsam Slăbănog Native 1. General: weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)
2. Musculoskeletal: Disability/Weakness of the extremities (ext-bath for bone strengthening)
Aerial parts 28.57 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
66. Inula helenium L. Asteraceae Elecampane Iarbă mare Native 1. Psychological: Weeping during night (ext-fumigation)
2. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-polyherbal ointment, in combination with lovage, garlic, and other plants with unresolved botanical identity)
Root 28.57 [74, 82, 86] n.y.s.
67. Iris × germanica L.# Iridaceae Iris Stânjenel albastru Native 1. Digestive: Tooth eruption pain Rhizome 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
68. Jacobaea erratica (Bertol.) Fourr. Asteraceae - Iarba carelor Native 1. Musculoskeletal: Disability/weakness of the extremities (ext-bath for bone strengthening, in combination with water horsetail) Not specified 14.28 [75, 79] n.y.s.
69. Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae Walnut tree Nuc Native 1. General: Weakness (int and ext- bath—for general tonification/strengthening)
2. Skin (ext): Eczema, Wounds, Skin infections ( impetigo, scabies)
3. Digestive (int- tea of shells): Diarrhea, Vomiting, Intestinal pain, Stomatitis, Intestinal parasites
4. Blood and lymph nodes: Scrophulosis (ext-bath and int), anemia
5. Nutritional: underweight (as food, in combination with bread)
Seeds, leaves, young seed shells, buds 71.42 [74, 75, 80, 84, 86, 88] n.y.s.
70. Laserpitium prutenicum L. Apiaceae -Prussian sermountain Somnoroasă Native 1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath)
2. Respiratory (ext-bath): Cold, Coryza
Flowery stems 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
71. Leonurus cardiaca L. Lamiaceae Motherwort Talpa gâştei, alion, somnişor Native 1. Psychological: Insomnia (ext. bath). Aerial parts 14.28 [85] n.y.s.
72. Lepidium ruderale L. Brassicaceae Peppergrass Păduchelniţă, buruiană de roşte Native 1. Skin: Scalp eczema, newborn scalp eczema Aerial parts 14.28 [75, 80] n.y.s.
73. Levisticum officinale W.D.J.Koch Apiaceae Lovage Leuştean Non-native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext- polyherbal ointment, in combination with Inula helenium L., and other plants with unresolved botanical identity) Not specified (probably Leaves or Root) 14.28 [86] n.y.s.
74. Ligustrum vulgare L. Oleaceae Wild privet Lemn câinesc Native 1. Skin: Scabies Bark 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
75. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Plantaginaceae Common toadflax Linariţă, colţul lupului Native 1. Skin: Subcutaneous tumors (ext) Aerial parts 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
76. Linum hirsutum L. Linaceae Downy flax Inişor de deal Native 1. Digestive: Intestinal colics Not specified 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
77. Lycium barbarum L. Solanaceae European goji Liţion, cătină de garduri, licia Native 1. Psychological (ext-bath): Fright/Anxiety
2. Neurological (ext-bath): Epilepsy, Spams
Aerial parts, twigs, leaves 28.57 [75, 86] n.y.s.
78. Lycopodium clavatum L. Lycopodiaceae Commom club moss Brădişor, pedicuţă, coada-celor-din-vânt Native 1. Skin (ext): Dermatitis, Eczema Spores 14.28 [75, 84] n.y.s.
79. Lysimachia nummularia L. Primulaceae Moneywort Dreţe Native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general tonification/strengthening)
2. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: Growth delay
3. Musculoskeletal: Disability/Weakness of the extremities (ext-bath for bone strengthening)
Aerial parts 42.85 [75, 79] n.y.s.
80. Lythrum salicaria L. Lythraceae Purple loosestrife Răchitan Native 1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional: underweight (ext-bath)
2. Psychological: Insomnia (int)
3. Blood and lymph nodes: anemia (int)
Aerial parts 42.85 [75] n.y.s.
81. Malva sylvestris L. Malvaceae Common mallow Nalbă de pădure Native 1. Skin: Impetigo
2. Respiratory: Tonsillitis, Diphtheric tonsillitis (int and ext), cough
Leaves, Flowers 28.57 [74, 86] n.y.s.
82. Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae Chamomille Museţel, Romaniță Native 1. Digestive (int): Abdominal cramps/pains, cramps in newborns due to accumulation of gas
2. Respiratory (int): cold
3. Skin (ext): Wounds, Impetigo
4. General: pain (unspecified), bath for general strengthening of newborns, tea for internal purification (int)
5. Neurological: Epilepsy (int)
Flowers 71.42 [9, 74, 75, 86] p.e.infantile colic (significantly more effective than simethicone [117], decreased average daily crying time [116])
83. Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae Lemon balm Roiniţă, matocină Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath) Leaves 14.28 [86] p.e.* infantile colic (significantly more effective than simethicone [117], decreased average daily crying time [116])
84. Mentha × piperita L.# Lamiaceae Peppermint Mentă, izmă bună Native 1. Digestive tract diseases: Diarrhea, Intestinal cramps (int and ext)
2. Skin (ext): Wounds, Impetigo
3. General: ext- bath for general strengthening of newborns
Aerial parts,
Leaves
42.85 [74, 75, 82, 86] n.y.s.
85. Mentha pulegium L. Lamiaceae Pennyroyal Apărătoare, busuiocul cerbilor Native 1. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional: Underweight child/Growth dysfunctions (ext) Aerial parts 14.28 [85] n.y.s.
86. Mentha spicata L. Lamiaceae Wrinkled-leaf mint Izmă creaţă Native 1. Digestive: Stomachache, Cramps (ext) Leaves 14.28 [75, 83] n.y.s.
87. Morus nigra L. Moraceae Black mulberry Dud negru Non-native 1. Respiratory diseases Fruits 14.28 [75, 86] n.y.s.
88. Nepeta cataria L. Lamiaceae Catnip Cătuşnică Native 1. Digestive: Abdominal cramps, Teeth pain, dysenteria (ext)
2. Nutritional: underweight (ext-bath)
3. Neurological: epilepsy (ext-bath), insomnia (ext-bath)
4. Musculoskeletal: bone deformities (ext-bath)
Flowers 57.14 [74, 75, 84,85,86] n.y.s.
89. Origanum majorana L. Lamiaceae Sweet marjoran Măghiran Non-native 1. Psychological: Weeping/Irritability Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
90. Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae Oregano Şovârf Non-native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea, Intestinal colic (ext-bath) Aerial parts 14.28 [74, 75, 86] n.y.s.
91. Panicum miliaceum L. Poaceae White millet Mei Non-native 1. Digestive: Digestive troubles caused by tooth eruption Seeds 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
92. Papaver rhoeas L. Papaveraceae Common poppy Mac de câmp Native 1. General: Measles, Scarlet fever (to accelerate eruption); Flowers 14.28 [75, 86] n.y.s.
93. Papaver somniferum L. Papaveraceae Opium poppy Mac, Mac de grădină Non-native 1. Psychological: Insomnia (int- tea or ext-bath)
2. General: Measles (int)
3. Digestive: Stomach pain, Colic
4. Respiratory: Cough (int)
Whole plant (only ext-bath), seeds 57.14 [10, 75, 80, 84, 86] n.y.s.
94. Peucedanum oreoselinum (L.) Moench Apiaceae Mountain parsley Pătrunjel de câmp, Somnuroasă Native 1. Psychological (ext-bath): Irritability, Fright, Insomnia Flowers 14.28 [75, 78, 86] n.y.s.
95. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fabaceae Common bean Fasole Non-native 1. Skin: Eczema, Impetigo (ext) Seeds 14.28 [74, 75, 85, 86] n.y.s.
96. Physalis alkekengi L. Solanaceae Bladder cherry Păpălău Native 1. Skin (ext): Newborn eczema, Newborn skin eruptions Fruits 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
97. Phytolacca americana L. Phytolaccaceae Pokeweed Cârmâz Non-native 1. General: Measles (ext. +/- int.), Scarlet fever (ext. and int.); Fruits 14.28 [75, 84, 85] n.y.s.
98. Pilosella officinarum Vaill. Asteraceae mouse-ear hawkweed Culcuşul vacii Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy
2. Respiratory: Cold
Aerial parts 28.57 [85] n.y.s.
99. Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae Anise Anason Non-native 1. Digestive: Intestinal cramps, newborn cramps due to accumulation of gas (int) Seeds 14.28 [9, 74, 85, 86] n.y.s.
100. Pinus sylvestris L. Pinaceae Scots pine Pin de pădure Native 1. Musculoskeletal: Rickets (ext-cataplasm) Leaves, Stems 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
101. Pisum sativum L. Fabaceae Pea Mazăre, Mazerea Non-native 1. Skin: Impetigo (ext- ash of pea) Seeds 14.28 [86] n.y.s.
102. Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Broadleaf plantain Pătlagină mare Native 1. Respiratory diseases (int): Cough, Whooping cough
2. Urological (int): Anuria/Oliguria
3. Digestive (int): Intestinal worms
4. Musculoskeletal: Trauma (ext)
5. General: Weakness (ext- bath for general tonification/strengthening, root, in combination with nut shell, greater celandine and musk thirstle)
Leaves, Root 71.42 [75, 86] n.y.s.
103. Polypodium vulgare L. Polypodiaceae Common polypody Iarbă dulce, rădăcină dulce, feriguţă Non-native 1. Digestive: stomachache Rhizomes 14.28 [78] n.y.s.
104. Populus spp. (P. alba L., P. nigra L., P. tremula L.) Salicaceae Poplar Plop Native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath) Buds 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
105. Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Common purslane Iarbă grasă Non-native 1. General: Weakness, sickness in general (ext-bath), consumption
2. Nutritional: underweight (ext- bath for gaining weight)
Aerial parts 14.28 [80] n.y.s.
106. Potentilla anserina L. or Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb.§ 1.1.5. Rosaceae Silverweed Coada racului, Scrântitoare Native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening/tonification)
2. Musculoskeletal: Rickets (ext-bath for bone strengthening)
Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
107. Primula veris L. Primulaceae Cowslip Ciuboţica cucului Native 1. Skin: Infections/Impetigo (ext- roots fried in butter, and boiled in milk) Roots 28.57 [75, 84, 85] n.y.s.
108. Prunella vulgaris L. Lamiaceae Common self-heal Busuioc de câmp Native 1. Skin (ext): Wounds, Subcutaneous tumors (lupare) Leaves 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
109. Prunus spinosa L. Rosaceae Blackthorn Porumbar, Porumbel Native 1. Respiratory (int): cough
2. Digestive (int): Diarrhea, Dysentery
Fruits 28.57 [86] n.y.s.
110. Pulmonaria officinalis L. Boraginaceae Lungworth Mierea ursului, Plămânărică, Moşnegei Native 1. Nutritional: Underweight
(ext-bath)
2. Respiratory: scrophulosis (int- decoction)
Flowers 28.57 [74, 86] n.y.s.
111. Pyrus communis L. Rosaceae Pear tree Păr Non-native 1. Digestive (int- tea of bark): Diarrhea, vomititing
2. Nutritional: Athrepsia, Cashexia (ext- bath, leaves)
Bark, Leaves 28.57 [75, 84] n.y.s.
112. Pyrus communis subsp. communis Rosaceae European wild pear Păr sălbatic Native 1. Digestive (int- tea of bark): Diarrhea, vomititing
2. Nutritional: athrepsia, cashexia (ext- bath, leaves)
Bark, Leaves 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
113. Quercus robur L. Fagaceae Oak Stejar Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea (int- roasted and grinded acorns) Acorn 14.28 [75, 86] n.y.s.
114. Reseda odorata L. Resedaceae Garden mignonette Rezedă, smeurică Native 1. General: Weakness Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
115. Rhamnus cathartica L. Rhamnaceae Common buckthorn Verigariu Native 1. Nutritional: athrepsia (ext-bath) Fruits 14.28 [74, 75] n.y.s.
116. Rhinanthus glaber Lam. or
Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmel.§
1.1.7. Orobanchaceae Rattle Clocotiş Native 1. Skin: eczema (ext-bath) Aerial parts 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
117. Rhododendron myrtifolium Schott & Kotschy 1.1.9. Ericaceae Rhododendron Bujor de munte, smirdar Native 1. Skin (ext): impetigo, skin infections Flowers, Leaves 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
118. Ribes nigrum L. Grossulariaceae Blackcurrant Coacăz negru Native 1. Nutritional: athrepsia (ext-bath) Fruits, Leaves 14.28 [86] n.y.s.
119. Robinia pseudoacacia L. Fabaceae Black locust Salcâm Native 1. Digestive Flowers 14.28 [87] n.y.s.
120. Rosa canina L. Rosaceae Dog rose Măceş,Măcieş, Trandafir de câmp,
Trandafir sălbatic, Rug
Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea, Constipation, Colic, Abddominal pain (int-fruits, decoction, ext-flowers, decoction in vinegar)
2. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional: lack of appetite, cachexia
Fruits, Flowers 28.57 [75, 84, 86, 87] n.y.s.
121. Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees Rosaceae European blackberry Mur negru Native 1. Skin: Eczema (ext-ointment with burnt leaves) Leaves 42.85 [75] n.y.s.
122. Ruta graveolens L. Rutaceae Rue Rută, Virnanţ Non-native 1. General: Fever; 2. Respiratory: Phlegm in the throat
3. Digestive: aphthous stomatitis (ext), dysenteria (int- 3 drops of juice of raw plant)
Aerial parts, Leaves 42.85 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
123. Salix alba L. Salicaceae White willow Salcie albă, răchită Native 1. Psychological: fright (ext-fumigation)
2. Neurological: epilepsy (int and ext-bath);
Leaves, Bark, Buds 28.57 [11, 86] n.y.s.
124. Salix caprea L. Salicaceae Goat willow Iovă, Răchită moale Native 1. General: ext- bath for general strengthening Leaves 14.28 [75, 80] n.y.s.
125. Salvia glutinosa L. Lamiaceae Sticky sage Cinsteț Native 1. General: physical debility/weakness caused by chronic diseases Leaves 14.28 [85] n.y.s.
126. Salvia officinalis L. Lamiaceae Sage Salvie Native 1. Respiratory diseases
2. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening)
Leaves 28.57 [75, 84] p.e. respiratory diseases (Note. Mixed group of subjects, at least 12 year old) [118]
127. Sambucus ebulus L. Adoxaceae Danewort Boz Native 1. Nutritional: underweight (ext.-bath)
2. Digestive: Cramps (int-tea), Parasites (int-decoction)
Leaves 28.57 [74, 75] n.y.s.
128. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Rosaceae Great burnet Sorbestrea, Cârligăţică Native 1. Digestive (int): Dysentery, Diarrhea, Colic
2. General: physical debility/weakness (ext. baths)
Aerial parts 28.57 [75, 85] n.y.s
129. Satureja hortensis L. Lamiaceae Summer savory Cimbru de grădină Non-native 1. Digestive (int and ext): Colic, Diarrhea
2. Blood: Anaemia
3. Skin: Eruptions, Impetigo
Aerial parts, roots, leaves, stems 42.85 [75, 85] n.y.s.
130. Scabiosa columbaria L. Caprifoliaceae Small scabious Muşcatu-dracului Native 1. General: ext-bath for newborns for general strengthening Not specified 14.28 [75, 84] n.y.s.
131. Secale cereale L. Poaceae Secale Secară Non-native 1. General: Weakness (ext.-bath)
2. Digestive: Intestinal parasites
Seeds 28.57 [74, 86] p.e.* improvement of cardiometabolic profile [119]
132. Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Brassicaceae Hedge mustard Brâncuţă, Sămcuţă Native 1. Digestive (int): Intestinal cramps
2. Neurological (int): Epilepsy
Aerial parts 28.57 [75, 86] n.y.s.
133. Solidago virgaurea L. Asteraceae European goldenrod Splinuţă, Silimină Native 1. Musculoskeletal: Rickets (ext-bath) Not specified (probably aerial parts) 14.28 [86] n.y.s.
134. Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Asteraceae Common sowthistle Pălămidă grasă, Susai Native 1. Nutritional: Athrepsia (ext-bath) Not specified 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
135. Symphytum officinale L. Boraginaceae Common comfrey Tătăneasă Native 1. Digestive: gastro-enteritis (ext) Root 14.28 [82] n.y.s
136. Tanacetum balsamita L. Asteraceae Smellin-blades Calapăr, Calaper, Caramfil, Caromfil, Caranhil Native 1. General: Weakness (ext- bath for general tonification/strengthening) Aerial parts, leaves 14.28 [75, 84] n.y.s.
137. Tanacetum vulgare L. Asteraceae Tansy Vetrice, măruncă Native 1. Neurological: Epilepsy (ext-bath)
2. Skin: eczema (ext-bath)
Aerial parts 28.57 [75, 83, 86] n.y.s.
138. Thymus serpyllum L. Lamiaceae Wild thyme Cimbrişor de câmp Native 1. Digestive: Newborn cramps, flatulence Aerial parts 14.28 [84] n.y.s.
139. Thymus vulgaris L. Lamiaceae Common thyme Cimbru Native 1. Digestive: Cramps Aerial parts 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
140. Tilia × europaea L.# Malvaceae Common linden Tei Native 2. General or unspecified: spasm (ext-bath) Flowers, leaves 14.28 [88] n.y.s.
141. Tilia tomentosa Moench Malvaceae Silver linden Tei argintiu, tei alb Native 1. Skin (ext): Diaper (napkin) dermatitis Flowers 14.28 [74] n.y.s.
142. Trapa natans L. Lythraceae Water caltrop Cornaci Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea Fruits 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
143. Trifolium arvense L. Fabaceae Rabbitfoot clover Motocei, Cotocei Iarba somnului Native 1. Psychological (int): Irritability, Insomnia Aerial parts 14.28 [74, 75] n.y.s.
144. Valeriana officinalis L. Caprifoliaceae Valerian Odolean, valeriană Native 1. Digestive: Diarrhea with blood/Dysenteria (ext- cataplasm on abdomen; int- 1 teaspoon of decoction made in an earthy pot)
2. Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional: Growth dysfunctions
3. Psychological: Insomnia (ext-bath)
4. Skin: Hair complaint (ext)
Root 57.14 [84, 86] n.y.s.
145. Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae Common verbena Verbină, sporiş, sporici, buruiana de boală Native 1. Nutritional: Underweight (ext-bath, 3 consecutive months), weakness
2. Digestive: Digestive troubles caused by tooth eruption (ext-bath)
3. Skin: Wounds, Scabies (ext)
Aerial parts 57.14 [75, 80, 86] n.y.s.
146. Veronica beccabunga L. Plantaginaceae European speedwell Bobornic Native 1. General: Weakness (ext-bath for general strengthening)
2. Digestive: Digestive troubles caused by tooth eruption (ext-bath)
Aerial parts 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
147. Viburnum opulus L. Adoxaceae Guilder rose Călin Native 1. General: Chicken pox (ext) Fruits 14.28 [75] n.y.s.
148. Vicia faba L. Fabaceae Broad bean Bob Non-native 1. Respiratory: Tonsillitis, Diphteric tonsillitis (ext.)
2. Digestive: diarrhea
Seeds 28.57 [74, 75] n.y.s
149. Viola arvensis Murray Violaceae Field pansy Panseluţă de câmp Native 1. Skin: Eczema, Infections/Impetigo
2. Digestive: Tooth eruption (root to chew)
Aerial parts, Roots 28.57 [75] n.y.s.
150. Viola odorata L. Violaceae Wood violet Toporaş, Viorea, Viorica Native 1. Digestive: Dental eruption (root to chew) Roots 14.28 [75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
151. Viola tricolor L. Violaceae Heartsease Trei fraţi pătaţi Native 1. Skin: Eczema, Infections/Impetigo
2. Digestive: Tooth eruption (root to chew)
Roots, probably aerial parts also 28.57 [75, 84] n.y.s.
152. Xanthium strumarium L. Asteraceae Common cocklebur Scaietele popii, Ciurlan de câmp Native 1. General or unspecified: pain in the chest (Rom. “strâns la piept”) (ext- warm application with boiled plant) Not specified 14.28 [75, 80] n.y.s.
153. Zea mays L. Poaceae Corn Porumb Non-native 1. Skin (ext): Impetigo, Scabies (cob), Diaper (napkin) dermatitis Seeds, cob 14.28 [74, 75, 84, 86] n.y.s.
  1. ERTV ethnopediatric relative therapeutic versatility (expressed as percentage), n.y.s not yet studied, n.e. negative evidence, p.e positive evidence; * indication not mentioned in Romanian ethnopediatry;§- pair of two Latin names for a single plant: the first name has accepted status in PlantListDB, synonym in Euro+Med PlantBase, the second name has accepted status in Euro+Med PlantBase, synonym in PlantListDB; #- Latin name has a status of accepted Latin name in PlantListDB, but it is absent in Euro+Med PlantBase