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Table 1 Number of citations of animals in groups, and their respective frequencies, by research participants as the most studied animals in science/biology classes

From: Fauna and conservation in the context of formal education: a study of urban and rural students in the semi-arid region of Brazil

GroupTaxonAnimalaGeneralUrbanRural
FishSuperclass PiscesFish104 (89.65)61 (88.40)43 (91.48)
Class SelachimorphaShark8 (6.89)5 (7.24)3 (6.38)
Order GasterosteiformesSeahorse3 (2.58)2 (2.89)1 (2.12)
Order OsteoglossiformesPiranha fish1 (0.86)1 (1.44)0 (0.00)
Total44116 (99.98)69 (59.48)47 (40.51)
AmphibiansClass AmphibiaAmphibians26 (30.58)11 (23.91)15 (38.46)
Order AnuraToad47 (55.29)25 (54.34)22 (56.41)
Frog5 (5.88)3 (6.52)2 (5.12)
Tree-frog5 (5.88)5 (10.86)0 (0.00)
Order CaudataSalamander2 (2.35)2 (4.34)0 (0.00)
Total3585 (99.98)46 (54.11)39 (45.88)
ReptilesClass ReptiliaReptiles39 (21.91)18 (18.36)21 (26.25)
Order SquamataSnake106 (59.55)56 (57.14)50 (62.50)
Lizard7 (3.93)6 (6.12)1 (1.25)
Chameleon1 (0.56)1 (1.02)0 (0.00)
Tegu lizard1 (0.56)0 (0.00)1 (1.25)
Gecko5 (2.80)3 (3.06)2 (2.50)
Order CheloniaTortoise5 (2.80)3 (3.06)2 (2.50)
Order CrocodyliaAlligator8 (4.49)7 (7.14)1 (1.25)
Order SaurischiaDinosaur6 (3.37)4 (4.08)2 (2.50)
Total59178 (99.97)98 (55.05)80 (44.94)
BirdsClass AvesBirds61 (50.41)35 (52.23)26 (48.14)
Wild birds9 (7.43)6 (8.95)3 (5.55)
Order PsittaciformesBlue Macaw1 (0.82)0 (0.00)1 (1.85)
Parakeet3 (2.47)3 (4.47)0 (0.00)
Parrot3 (2.47)2 (2.98)1 (1.85)
Order AccipitriformesVulture4 (3.30)3 (4.47)1 (1.85)
Order PiciformesWoodpecker1 (0.82)1 (1.49)0 (0.00)
Toucan2 (1.65)1 (1.49)1 (1.85)
Order StruthioniformesGreater rhea3 (2.47)2 (2.98)1 (1.85)
Order ColumbiformesGround-dove3 (2.47)0 (0.00)3 (5.55)
Eared-dove1 (0.82)0 (0.00)1 (1.85)
Order ApodiformesHummingbird5 (4.13)0 (0.00)5 (9.25)
Order FalconiformesHawk12 (9.91)8 (11.94)4 (7.40)
Order CuculiformesGreater Ani1 (0.82)1 (1.49)0 (0.00)
Order PelecaniformesHeron2 (1.65)1 (1.49)1 (1.85)
Order StrigiformesOwl7 (5.78)3 (4.47)4 (7.40)
Order GalliformesDomestic Hen3 (2.47)1 (1.49)2 (3.70)
Total1217121 (99.89)67 (55.37)54 (44.62)
MammalsClass MammaliaMammals156 (22.94)79 (20.73)77 (25.75)
Order CarnivoraLion83 (12.20)53 (13.91)30 (10.03)
Bear13 (1.91)11 (2.88)2 (0.66)
Jaguar38 (5.58)22 (5.77)16 (5.35)
Tiger27 (3.97)23 (6.03)4 (1.33)
Fox7 (1.02)4 (1.04)3 (1.00)
Wolf1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
Maned wolf2 (0.29)1 (0.26)1 (0.33)
Leopard1 (0.14)0 (0.00)1 (0.33)
Wild cat1 (0.14)0 (0.00)1 (0.33)
Dog65 (9.55)39 (10.23)26 (8.69)
Cat46 (6.76)29 (7.61)17 (5.68)
Seal1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
Otter1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
Ruminants1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
Family FelidaeFelines1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
Order ProboscideaElephant13 (1.91)8 (2.09)5 (1.67)
Order CetaceaDolphin2 (0.29)2 (0.52)0 (0.00)
Whale35 (5.14)21 (5.51)14 (4.68)
Order ChiropteraBat21 (3.08)13 (3.41)8 (2.67)
Order PilosaAnteater5 (0.73)2 (0.52)3 (1.00)
Sloth1 (0.14)0 (0.00)1 (0.33)
Order CingulataArmadillo1 (0.14)0 (0.00)1 (0.33)
Brazilian three-banded armadillo1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
Order PerissodactylaHorse19 (2.79)7 (1.83)12 (4.01)
Zebra4 (0.58)1 (0.26)3 (1.00)
Order CetartiodactylaDeer7 (1.02)5 (1.31)2 (0.66)
Order RodentiaRat22 (3.23)15 (3.93)7 (2.34)
Guinea pig2 (0.29)1 (0.26)1 (0.33)
Capybara5 (0.73)3 (0.78)2 (0.66)
Hamster1 (0.14)0 (0.00)1 (0.33)
Order PrimatesMonkey27 (3.97)12 (3.14)15 (5.01)
 Chipanzee1 (0.14)1 (0.26)0 (0.00)
 Human21 (3.08)5 (1.31)16 (5.35)
Order LagomorphaRabbit3 (0.44)3 (0.78)0 (0.00)
Order ArtiodactylaOx/cow35 (5.14)11 (2.88)24 (8.02)
Pig5 (0.73)1 (0.26)4 (1.33)
Hedgehog1 (0.14)0 (0.00)1 (0.33)
Giraffe3 (0.44)3 (0.78)0 (0.00)
Sheep2 (0.29)1 (0.26)1 (0.33)
Total1540681 (99.92)382 (56.09)299 (43.90)
InvertebratesInvertebrataInvertebrates46 (36.22)26 (40.00)20 (32.25)
Phylum PoriferaPorifers1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Marine sponges2 (1.57)2 (3.07)0 (0.00)
Phylum CnidariaJellyfish1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Cnidarian2 (1.57)0 (0.00)2 (3.22)
Phylum PlatyhelminthesFlatworms1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Class TrematodaPlanarians1 (0.78)1 (1.53)0 (0.00)
Class CestodaTapeworm1 (0.78)1 (1.53)0 (0.00)
Phylum NematodaNematelmints1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Phylum AnnelidaEarthworm4 (3.14)1 (1.53)3 (4.83)
Phylum MolluscaClam2 (1.57)0 (0.00)2 (3.22)
Class CephalopodaCephalopod1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
 Octopus1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Class GastropodaGarden snail6 (4.72)1 (1.53)5 (8.06)
 Snail7 (5.51)0 (0.00)7 (11.29)
Phylum ArthropodaArthropods1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Class ArachnidaArachnids1 (0.78)1 (1.53)0 (0.00)
Spider1 (0.78)1 (1.53)0 (0.00)
Scorpion6 (4.72)4 (6.15)2 (3.22)
Class ChilopodaCentipede1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Class InsectaInsects15 (11.81)7 (10.76)8 (12.90)
Cockroach1 (0.78)1 (1.53)0 (0.00)
Mosquito20 (15.74)19 (29.23)1 (1.61)
Butterfly1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Caterpillar2 (1.57)0 (0.00)2 (3.22)
Cricket1 (0.78)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Total1526127 (99.84)65 (51.18)62 (48.81)
Other designations
Vertebrates  123 (79.87)72 (78.26)51 (82.25)
Carnivores  6 (3.89)4 (4.34)2 (3.22)
Oviparous  2 (1.29)2 (2.17)0 (0.00)
Herbivores  4 (2.59)0 (0.00)4 (6.45)
Rational animals  1 (0.64)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Domestic animals  1 (0.64)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Harmful animals  1 (0.64)1 (1.08)0 (0.00)
Marine animals  7 (4.54)6 (6.52)1 (1.61)
Aquatic animals  3 (1.94)2 (2.17)1 (1.61)
Terrestrial animals  4 (2.59)4 (4.34)0 (0.00)
Wild animals  1 (0.64)1 (1.08)0 (0.00)
Germs  1 (0.64)0 (0.00)1 (1.61)
Total 13  154 (99.91)92 (60.00)62 (40.00)
Other groups    
Dengue virus  1 (6.25)1 (25.00)0 (0.00)
Bacteria  11 (68.75)1 (25.00)10 (83.33)
Protozoa  1 (6.25)1 (25.00)0 (0.00)
Fungi  2 (12.50)0 (0.00)2 (16.66)
Mosses  1 (6.25)1 (25.00)0 (0.00)
Total 5  16 (100.00)4 (25.00)12 (75.00)
  1. aWe consider the designation by local nomenclature