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Table 7 Biophysical resources, cultural practices and seed system across ecological zones

From: On-farm management and participatory evaluation of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millspaugh) diversity across the agro-ecological zones of the Republic of Benin

Variables

GZ

(n = 190)

SGZ

(n = 200)

SZ

(n = 110)

Overall

(n = 500)

diff

Cropping area in 2015 (ha)

Average

0.9 ± 0.2b

1.3 ± 0.8 a

0.3 ± 0.1c

0.9 ± 0.6

***

Range

0.5–1.3

0.5–2.5

0.3–0.5

0.3–2.5

Cropping area in 2016 (ha)

Average

0.8 ± 0.1b

0.9 ± 0.4a

0.4 ± 0.1c

0.7 ± 0.3

***

Range

0.5–1

0.5–1.5

0.3–1

0.3–1.5

Cropping area in 2017 (ha)

Average

0.5 ± 0.1b

0.7 ± 0.3a

0.4 ± 0.1c

0.6 ± 0.3

***

Range

0.6–0.8

0.5–1.25

0.3–0.8

0.3–1.3

Source of labor (%)

Family labor

12.1b

13.5b

49.3a

13.2

***

Family and friends labor

87.9a

61.5b

42.2c

73

***

Family friends and jobber labor

25a

8.5b

13.8

***

Seed system (%)

Seeds of previous harvests

70a

62.9a

46.2b

60.2

***

Seeds of friends

9.2b

10.5b

50.4a

22

***

Market seeds

20.8a

26.7a

3.4b

17.8

***

Conservation method

3.7a

4.5a

3.2

ns

Seed storage

70b

84a

34.6c

67.8

***

Seed purchase

30b

16c

65.5a

32.2

***

Plant type (%)

Annual plant

92.1b

90.5b

100a

93.2

***

Perennial plant

7.9a

9.5a

6.8

ns

Land type (%)

Intercropping system

100a

98.5b

24.6c

82.8

***

Pure stand

1.5b

75.4a

17.2

***

Land, pests and diseases management (%)

Fertilization

ns

Use of pesticides

63.7

14

***

Sowing period (%)

April–June

97.9a

91b

73.6

***

April–May

2.1a

9b

4.4

***

June–August

68.2

15

***

July–August

31.8

7

***

Farming activities (%)

Ploughing

65.8b

83a

72.7b

74.2

***

Sowing

100a

100a

100a

100

ns

Weed control

100a

100a

100a

100

ns

Pod harvest

92.6b

97.5a

87.3b

93.4

***

Pod plugging

84.7b

96a

80.9b

88.4

***

Winnowing

52.1b

17c

74.5a

43

***

Yield (kg/ha)

Average

557.5 ± 15.9a

566.6 ± 35.8b

522.3 ± 44c

553.4 ±36.3

***

Range

450–560

550–650

450–560

450–650

  1. GZ Guinean zone, SGZ Sudano-Guinean Zone, SZ Sudanean Zone, n number of respondents, diff difference, for the same variable, means, or percentages that do not have common letters are statistically different (p < 0.05), ns non-significant difference at the 5% level
  2. ***p < 0.001