Skip to main content

Table 7 Biophysical resources, cultural practices and seed system across ecological zones

From: On-farm management and participatory evaluation of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millspaugh) diversity across the agro-ecological zones of the Republic of Benin

Variables GZ
(n = 190)
SGZ
(n = 200)
SZ
(n = 110)
Overall
(n = 500)
diff
Cropping area in 2015 (ha)
Average 0.9 ± 0.2b 1.3 ± 0.8 a 0.3 ± 0.1c 0.9 ± 0.6 ***
Range 0.5–1.3 0.5–2.5 0.3–0.5 0.3–2.5
Cropping area in 2016 (ha)
Average 0.8 ± 0.1b 0.9 ± 0.4a 0.4 ± 0.1c 0.7 ± 0.3 ***
Range 0.5–1 0.5–1.5 0.3–1 0.3–1.5
Cropping area in 2017 (ha)
Average 0.5 ± 0.1b 0.7 ± 0.3a 0.4 ± 0.1c 0.6 ± 0.3 ***
Range 0.6–0.8 0.5–1.25 0.3–0.8 0.3–1.3
Source of labor (%)
Family labor 12.1b 13.5b 49.3a 13.2 ***
Family and friends labor 87.9a 61.5b 42.2c 73 ***
Family friends and jobber labor 25a 8.5b 13.8 ***
Seed system (%)
Seeds of previous harvests 70a 62.9a 46.2b 60.2 ***
Seeds of friends 9.2b 10.5b 50.4a 22 ***
Market seeds 20.8a 26.7a 3.4b 17.8 ***
Conservation method 3.7a 4.5a 3.2 ns
Seed storage 70b 84a 34.6c 67.8 ***
Seed purchase 30b 16c 65.5a 32.2 ***
Plant type (%)
Annual plant 92.1b 90.5b 100a 93.2 ***
Perennial plant 7.9a 9.5a 6.8 ns
Land type (%)
Intercropping system 100a 98.5b 24.6c 82.8 ***
Pure stand 1.5b 75.4a 17.2 ***
Land, pests and diseases management (%)
Fertilization ns
Use of pesticides 63.7 14 ***
Sowing period (%)
April–June 97.9a 91b 73.6 ***
April–May 2.1a 9b 4.4 ***
June–August 68.2 15 ***
July–August 31.8 7 ***
Farming activities (%)
Ploughing 65.8b 83a 72.7b 74.2 ***
Sowing 100a 100a 100a 100 ns
Weed control 100a 100a 100a 100 ns
Pod harvest 92.6b 97.5a 87.3b 93.4 ***
Pod plugging 84.7b 96a 80.9b 88.4 ***
Winnowing 52.1b 17c 74.5a 43 ***
Yield (kg/ha)
Average 557.5 ± 15.9a 566.6 ± 35.8b 522.3 ± 44c 553.4 ±36.3 ***
Range 450–560 550–650 450–560 450–650
  1. GZ Guinean zone, SGZ Sudano-Guinean Zone, SZ Sudanean Zone, n number of respondents, diff difference, for the same variable, means, or percentages that do not have common letters are statistically different (p < 0.05), ns non-significant difference at the 5% level
  2. ***p < 0.001