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Table 7 Biophysical resources, cultural practices and seed system across ecological zones

From: On-farm management and participatory evaluation of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millspaugh) diversity across the agro-ecological zones of the Republic of Benin

VariablesGZ
(n = 190)
SGZ
(n = 200)
SZ
(n = 110)
Overall
(n = 500)
diff
Cropping area in 2015 (ha)
Average0.9 ± 0.2b1.3 ± 0.8 a0.3 ± 0.1c0.9 ± 0.6***
Range0.5–1.30.5–2.50.3–0.50.3–2.5
Cropping area in 2016 (ha)
Average0.8 ± 0.1b0.9 ± 0.4a0.4 ± 0.1c0.7 ± 0.3***
Range0.5–10.5–1.50.3–10.3–1.5
Cropping area in 2017 (ha)
Average0.5 ± 0.1b0.7 ± 0.3a0.4 ± 0.1c0.6 ± 0.3***
Range0.6–0.80.5–1.250.3–0.80.3–1.3
Source of labor (%)
Family labor12.1b13.5b49.3a13.2***
Family and friends labor87.9a61.5b42.2c73***
Family friends and jobber labor25a8.5b13.8***
Seed system (%)
Seeds of previous harvests70a62.9a46.2b60.2***
Seeds of friends9.2b10.5b50.4a22***
Market seeds20.8a26.7a3.4b17.8***
Conservation method3.7a4.5a3.2ns
Seed storage70b84a34.6c67.8***
Seed purchase30b16c65.5a32.2***
Plant type (%)
Annual plant92.1b90.5b100a93.2***
Perennial plant7.9a9.5a6.8ns
Land type (%)
Intercropping system100a98.5b24.6c82.8***
Pure stand1.5b75.4a17.2***
Land, pests and diseases management (%)
Fertilizationns
Use of pesticides63.714***
Sowing period (%)
April–June97.9a91b73.6***
April–May2.1a9b4.4***
June–August68.215***
July–August31.87***
Farming activities (%)
Ploughing65.8b83a72.7b74.2***
Sowing100a100a100a100ns
Weed control100a100a100a100ns
Pod harvest92.6b97.5a87.3b93.4***
Pod plugging84.7b96a80.9b88.4***
Winnowing52.1b17c74.5a43***
Yield (kg/ha)
Average557.5 ± 15.9a566.6 ± 35.8b522.3 ± 44c553.4 ±36.3***
Range450–560550–650450–560450–650
  1. GZ Guinean zone, SGZ Sudano-Guinean Zone, SZ Sudanean Zone, n number of respondents, diff difference, for the same variable, means, or percentages that do not have common letters are statistically different (p < 0.05), ns non-significant difference at the 5% level
  2. ***p < 0.001