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Table 1 Comparative assessment of present and previously reported ethnomedicinal uses of herptiles and fishes

From: The use of fish and herptiles in traditional folk therapies in three districts of Chenab riverine area in Punjab, Pakistan

S#Scientific, common and local nameParts usedMADiseasesCodeIMANDFCFLRPLROPReported useReferencesSI
Herptiles
1Duttaphrynus stomaticus (Lütken,1864), Indus Valley toad, Ghariallo daddoSkinTSkin infection in animalsBF1313010.00.6676.67Allergy, pneumonia, dermatitis, ripened abscess, wounds[46,47,48]0
2Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802), Indian Bullfrog, Wada daddoFat, oilTSexual potencyHT123405.00.8894.44Acidity, burn, cold, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, wound[49,50,51,52]0
Backbone painHT225.04.44
Joint painHT325.04.44
3Aspideretes gangeticus Ernst and Barbour, 1989, Indian soft shell, PlaitherFlesh ash, fat, oilO, TSkin diseasesAG123825.00.1784.44  0
PilesAG2225.04.44
Sexual potencyAG3450.08.89
4Aspideretes hurum Ernst and Barbour, 1989, Peacock soft shell, KachhokumaFat, oilTSexual potencyAH143850.00.1788.89  0
Backbone painAH2225.04.44
Joint PainAH3225.04.44
5Lissemys punctata andersoniWebb, 1980, Indian Flap-shelled Turtle, Hara kachopraCarapace Ash, fat, oilO, TInternal injuriesLP114714.30.1562.22Allergy, acne, piles, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, burns, cough, dermatitis, epilepsy, backbone pain,diabetes, urinary obstruction, diarrhea, indigestion, lung diseases, malaria fever, menorrhagia, rashes, sexual dysfunction, wounds, tuberculosis[48, 53,54,55]0.75
AllergyLP2114.32.22
CoughLP3228.64.45
Sexual potencyLP4457.28.90
6Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802), Oriental garden lizard, GirgitFlesh ashTFoot and toes injuriesCV1211216.70.2674.45  0
7Laudakia agrorensis (Stoliczka, 1872), Agror agama lizard, GohFat, oil, bileTJoint painLA1242010.00.4444.44Arthritis, burn, cough, fever, jaundice, malaria, sexual stimulant, skin disease[47, 48, 50, 52, 56,57,58]0.5
Sexual potencyLA2315.06.67
Snake, spider, wasp and scorpion stingLA3420.08.89
Body painLA4210.04.44
8Eublepharis macularius (Blyth, 1854), Common leopard gecko, Korh kirliFatTCancerEM111616.70.1332.23  0
9Uromastyx hardwickii Smith, 1935, Indus spiny-tailed lizard, SandaFat, oilTJoint painUH12042483.30.53344.44Enhance sexual power, treat earache, backbone pain, joint pain, headache[48, 59]0.5
Body painUH22083.344.44
Sciatica painUH3416.78.89
Sexual potencyUH42410053.33
10Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802), Bengal Monitor, Bengali goh, GohFat, oilTJoint painVB1342015.00.4446.67  0
Sexual potencyVB2210.04.44
Snake, spider, wasp and scorpion stingVB3420.08.89
Body painVB4315.06.67
11Python molurus (Linnaeus, 1758), Rock pathon, Azdha sapFat, oilTWoundPM133560.00.1116.67  0
Joint painPM2360.06.67
Sexual potencyPM3360.06.67
12Eryx johnii (Russell, 1801), Indian Sand boa, Do moiOilTLeucodermaEJ122229.10.4894.44  0
Sexual potencyEJ229.14.45
13Ptyas mucosus mucosus (Linnaeus, 1758), Indian rat snake, Chohay-maar sapSkinTEyesightPMM1312512.00.5566.67  0
14Naja naja naja (Linnaeus, 1768), Indian cobra, Kala naagFat, skin, oilTSciaticaNNN1241711.80.3784.44Arthritis, cancer, eye sight, leprosy, muscular pain, sexual weakness, sciatica, snakebite[48, 51, 52, 59]1
SnakebiteNNN2423.68.92
Eye sightNNN3741.215.56
Sexual weaknessNNN4211.84.46
15Daboia russelii russelii (Shaw and Nodder, 1797), Russell's chain viper, Dabian wala sapFat, oilTUrine problemDRR112812.50.1782.22  0
HemorrhoidsDRR211.50.27
16Echis carinatus sochureki Stemmler, 1969, Sind Valley saw snake viper, Pathar SapFat, oilTSnake biteEC123728.60.1564.44Snake bite[48, 59]0.25
Joint painEC2228.64.45
Sexual potencyEC3228.64.45
Fishes
17Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), Grass carp, Grass carpBrain, oilO, TEyesightCI1515511001.000100Treat cold, enhance memory, energy and sexual power, joint pain[31, 48]0.20
Night blindnessCI2611.811.8
FeverCI34486.386.3
ColdCI451100100
Joint painCI535.95.9
18Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, Common carp, GulfamBrain, oilO, TEyesightCC155628.11.0008.1CNS, erysipelas, lumbago, enhance memory, energyand sexual power, reduce overweight, and treat cold[48, 60]0.20
Night blindnessCC256.86.8
FeverCC36096.896.8
ColdCC434.14.1
Joint painCC534.14.1
19Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844), Silver carp, Silver carpBrain, oilO, TEyesightHM155608.31.0008.3  0
Night blindnessHM258.38.3
FeverHM360100100
ColdHM460100100
Joint painHM535.05
20Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822), Mrigal carp, MoriBrain, oilO, TEyesightCM1555010.01.00010Reduces weight, joint pain, enhance memory, sexual power, provide energy, against cold[48, 59]0.40
Night blindnessCM2510.010
FeverCM350100100
ColdCM44488.088
Joint painCM536.06
21Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton, 1822), Reba carp, Reba MachhaliBrain, oilO, TEyesightCR155677.51.0007.5  0
Night blindnessCR257.57.5
FeverCR367100100
ColdCR45582.182.1
Joint painCR534.54.5
22Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822), Rohu, RahoBrainOJoint painLR15589061.11.00061.1Urine problem, stomachache, weakness, rheumatic pain, enhance memory, energy and sexual power, treat cold[47, 48, 59, 61]0.25
Body painLR233.33.3
Sexual potencyLR377.87.8
Eye sightLR455.65.6
DepressionLR522.22.2
DiabetesLR622.22.2
AlzheimerLR711.11.1
Heart diseaseLR822.22.2
23Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822), Orangefin labeo, KalbansBrain, oilO, TJoint painLC1558551001.000100Increase energy, CNS , galactagogue, enhance memory, enhance energy, sexual power, reduce overweight, increase lactation in mother, energy, cold[48, 62]0.125
Body painLC255100100
Sexual potencyLC355100100
Eye sightLC459.19.1
DepressionLC523.63.6
DiabetesLC623.63.6
AlzheimerLC711.81.8
Heart diseaseLC823.63.6
24Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822), Dero, Dero machhaliBrain, oilO, TEyesightLD155578.81.0008.8  0
Night blindnessLD258.88.8
FeverLD357100100
ColdLD457100100
Joint painLD535.35.3
25Gibelion catla (Hamilton, 1822), Catla, ThailaBrainOImprove CNSGC11025617.91.00017.9Increases energy & memory, galactagogue, rheumatic pain, enhance sexual power[48, 59, 62]1
ColdGC235.45.4
26Channa punctata (Bloch, 1793), Spotted snakehead, DolaFleshORegulate blood chemicalCP144586.91.0006.9Appetite, blood purification, malaria, body pain, enhance energy, sexual power, treat cold and joint pain[48, 61, 63, 64]0
Eye sightCP246.96.9
27Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822), Great snakehead, SoulFleshOSexual potencyCMH11220.71.00020.7Increases sex power, hemoglobin, memory and energy, cure rheumatic pain, cold, joint pain[30, 59, 61, 62]0.5
WeaknessCMH21017.217.2
28Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), Nile tilapia, TilapiaFlesh ashTScorpion, wasp, spider and insect biteON142537.51.0007.5Abscesses, carbuncle, vision, scorpion bite, enhance memory, energy and sexual power[48, 60]0.5
Skin BurnON21222.622.6
29Rita rita (Hamilton, 1822), Catfish, KhagaFlesh and oilO, TJoint painRR132476.41.0006.4Joint pain, CNS, enhance energy, sexual power, treat cold and joint pain[48, 59]1
Sexual potencyRR236.46.4
30Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, 1822), Goonch, Foji KhagaFlesh soupOBody painBB132664.51.0004.5Body burns, body pain, stomach pain[57, 61]0.5
Sexual potencyBB234.54.5
31Mystus cavasius (Hamilton, 1822), Gangetic mystus, Tangra MachhaliFleshOSmall poxMC1121010.00.2222.22Small pox, joint pain[59, 65]0.5
Chicken poxMC2110.02.22
32Mastacembelus armatus Skyes, 1839, Zig-zag eel, Baam MachhaliFleshOSexual potencyMA11026515.41.00015.4  0
WeaknessMA24061.561.5
33Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider, 1801),Wallago catfish, MaliFleshOLiver diseaseWA122682.91.0002.9Joint pain, dysentery, liver tonic, pile, enhance memory, sexual power, cure liver diseases, cold, joint pain[48, 66,67,68]0.5
HepatitisWA234.44.4
34Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769), Bronze featherback, But PariFleshOSmall poxNN112254.00.5562.224Chicken pox, pain[69, 70]0.5
Chicken poxNN214.02.224
35Puntius sophore (Hamilton, 1822), Spotfin swamp barb, Sophore popraFleshORegulate blood-chemical balancePS121728.60.1564.4616Blood purification, cold[63, 70]1
36Pethia ticto (Hamilton, 1822), Ticto barb, Ticto popraBrainONight blindnessPT134560.00.1116.66  0
Eye-sightPT2510011.1
Improve CNSPT3360.06.66
37Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794), Stinging catfish, Sangehi machhaliFleshOIncrease hemoglobin levelHF1240.00.1114.44Joint pain, increase hemoglobin, treat fever, pain, wound, enhance memory, energy, sexual power, reduces overweight[47, 48, 52, 71, 72]1
38Gagata cenia (Hamilton, 1822), Indian gagata, Gagata ceniaBoneOUrine problemGCH121825.00.1784.45  0
  1. MA. Modeof application, IMA. Informant of major ailment, ND. Number of diseases, FC. Frequency of citation, FL. fidelity level, RPL. Relative popularity level, ROP. Rank order priority, SI. Similarity index, T. topical, O. oral
  2. *Italic: Medicinal uses which are reported for very first time in this study
  3. *Bold: Medicinal uses which are different from than reported uses