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Table 1 Quantitative enumeration of ethnomedicinal plants used by marginal hill community of District Bageshwar

From: Ethnomedicinal knowledge of a marginal hill community of Central Himalaya: diversity, usage pattern, and conservation concerns

Botanical name Local name Voucher/ident. no. Habit Part used Popular ailment uses (group and categories) Used in Preparation FCa RFCb URc URd CIe
Family: Alliaceae
Allium sativum L. Lasan GBPCSED1 H B Skeleton and muscles—joint pain (arthritis) Hu O 59 0.59 59 59 0.59
Family:Apiaceae
Angelica glauca Edgew. Gandaraini RKT 27789 H Rt Gastrointestinal—stomach ache, vomiting Hu Po 44 0.44 35 89 0.89
      Other—spices and condiment, herbal tea   Co, Inf    54   
Centella asiatica L. Brahmi RKT 28186 H L General health care - Headache Hu Po 28 0.28 28 28 0.28
Coriandrum sativum L. Dhaniya RKT 28118 H Sd Antidote—against poison C Em 36 0.36 36 36 0.36
Family:Araceae
Acorus calamus L. Bojh/Buch RKT 27965 H Rh Skeleton and muscles—sprain, inflammation Hu Pw, O 55 0.55 21 74 0.74
      Other—insect repellent I Da    53   
Family:Asteraceae
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. Nargadiya/Pagaljhad RKT 22106 H L Dermatological—cuts and wounds Hu Po 80 0.8 80 80 0.8
Artemisia martima L. Pati/Titpati RKT 23793 H L Dermatological—cuts and wounds, skin ailments Hu Po 55 0.55 77 77 0.77
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Kut/Kuth RKT 28203 H Rt General health care—fever Hu Pw 28 0.28 27 64 0.64
     Respiratory—cough   Pw    8   
      Gastrointestinal—stomach ache, dysentery   De    29   
Taraxacum officinale Weber. Dudhil RKT 27817 H L,Rt Antidote—snake bite Hu In, Po 50 0.5 13 39 0.39
     Other—to increase lactation in mulching animals C Inf    26   
Tegetus erecta L. Hazari GBPCSED2 H L General health care—fever, ear infection Hu Po 51 0.51 46 61 0.61
      Dermatological—wounds   Po    15   
Family:Berberidaceae             
Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC Kilmori RKT 22109 S Rt General health care—fever Hu Pw 42 0.42 13 54 0.54
     Circulatory—diabetes   Pw    41   
Family:Boraginaceae
Cynoglossum zeylanicum Thunb. Ex Lehm. Chtkura RKT 22969 H Rt Dermatological—boils Hu Da 54 0.54 54 54 0.54
Family:Brassicaceae
Rephanus sativus L. Mooli RKT 27049 H WP Hepatic health cure—jaundice Hu Co 87 0.87 87 87 0.87
Family:Cannabaceae
Cannabis sativa L. Bhaang GBPCSED3 H Sd, L Gastrointestinal—purgative and laxative, carminative, constipation, stomach ache Hu In 63 0.63 46 94 0.94
      Antidote—insect bite   Da    5   
      Other—warm effect in winters   In, Co    43   
Family:Caryophyllaceae
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult -- RKT 19989 H WP Respiratory—cough Hu In 19 0.19 7 7 0.07
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Pyankura GBPCSED4 H WP General health care—fever Hu De 15 0.15 4 17 0.17
     Gastrointestinal—removal of Ascaris (antiparisitic) locally known as juga   De    13   
Family:Combretaceae
Terminalia chebula (Gaertner) Retz. Harar RKT 15469 T Fr Gastrointestinal—purgative and laxative, carminative, constipation, digestive problems, diarrhea Hu Pw, Po 12 0.12 64 64 0.64
Family:Cucurbitaceae
Momordica charantia L. Karela RKT 27529 Cl Fr Circulatory—diabetes Hu Co, In 39 0.39 39 39 0.39
Family:Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Genthi RKT 27301 Cl Fr (Atu) Respiratory—cough and cold Hu Co 32 0.32 32 32 0.32
Family:Ericaceae
Rhododendron arboreum Smth Burans RKT 27288 T F Hepatic health cure—liver complaints, tonic Hu De 47 0.47 64 64 0.64
Family:Euphorbiaceae
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Aanwla RKT 21022 T Fr Circulatory—diabetes Hu In 35 0.35 8 85 0.85
     Gastrointestinal—purgative and laxative, carminative, stomach ache   In    54   
      Respiratory—cough   In    6   
      Other—source of vitamin “C”   In    17   
Euphorbia prolifera Ehrenb. Ex. Boiss Dudhiya, Maikuri RKT 29216 H WP Other—insect repellent I Da 7 0.07 7 7 0.07
Family:Gentianceae
Swertia angustifolia Chiraita RKT 25110 H WP General health care—fever Hu In 37 0.37 19 24 0.24
 Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don      Dermatological—skin ailments   In    5   
Family:Fabaceae
Glycine max (L.) Merri Kala Bhatt RKT 15664 H Sd Hepatic health cure—jaundice Hu Co 84 0.84 84 84 0.84
Microtyloma uniflorum (Lam) Verdc. Gahat/Kulthi GBPCSED5 H Sd Urinogenital disorder—stone Hu Co 69 0.69 69 69 0.69
Trifolium repens L. Chalmoda RKT 26479 H L General health care—headache Hu Po 44 0.44 18 22 0.22
      Dermatological—skin disease of dogs-Luta C Po    4   
Trigonella foemun-graecum L. Maithi RKT 28507 H L, Sd Circulatory—diabetes Hu Inf 31 0.31 11 61 0.61
     Gastrointestinal—carminative, obesity, indigestion, constipation   Inf    47   
      Skeleton and muscles—joint pain   Inf    3   
Vigna mungo L. (Fabaceae) Mass, Urad RKT 27199 H Sd Skeleton and muscles—fracture Hu In 61 0.61 61 61 0.61
Family:Lamiaceae
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Ratpatia RKT 25182 H WP General health care—fever Hu De 55 0.55 53 72 0.72
     Gastrointestinal—constipation      16   
      Urinogenital—diuretic      3   
Ajuga parviflora Benth. Ratpatia RKT 26408 H Rt General health care—fever, throat infection in animal (Galghotu) Hu and C De, Em 56 0.56 58 87 0.87
      Gastrointestinal—constipation, stomach ache Hu De, In    25   
      Urinogenital—stone   De    4   
Leucas lanata Benth Nirasi Jhad RKT 29214 H L Respiratory—cough Hu De 80 0.8 80 80 0.8
Mentha arvensis L. Pudina RKT 4355 H L Gastrointestinal—stomach ache, vomiting Hu De 43 0.43 50 50 0.5
Micromeria biflora Benth. -- RKT 22949 H WP General health care—fever Hu De 6 0.06 6 6 0.06
Ocimum basilicum L. Tulsi RKT 19325 S L, Sd General health care—fever Hu De 88 0.88 33 97 0.97
      Respiratory—cough and cold   De    41   
      Other—herbal tea, warm effect in winters   De    23   
Origanum vulgare L. Van Tulsi RKT 29244   L, Rt General health care—fever Hu De 31 0.31 15 71 0.71
      Respiratory—cough and cold   De    18   
      Dermatological—wounds   Em    29   
      Other—herbal tea   Inf    9   
Thymus serpyllum L. Van-ajwayan RKT 27966 H WP Skeleton and muscles—joint pain Hu Em 18 0.18 3 14 0.14
     Respiratory—asthma   Em    3   
      Gastrointestinal—digestive and stomach problems   Em    4   
      Other—spices and condiments   Da    4   
Family:Liliaceae
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Keruwa RKT 28055 S Rt Immuno-regulatory—stimulant Hu Pw 46 0.46 15 65 0.65
     Hepatic health cure—tonic   Pw    39   
      Gastrointestinal—stomach ache   De    11   
Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle Maha-Meda RKT 26144 H WP Hepatic health cure—tonic Hu De 21 0.21 13 34 0.34
    Dermatological—cuts and wounds   Po    14   
      Circulatory—blood purifier   Co    7   
Polygonatum verticillatum L. Meda RKT 25894 H Rt Gastrointestinal—carminative Hu In 15 0.15 8 19 0.19
     Dermatological—wounds   Po    11   
Family:Moraceae
Ficus palmata Forsk. Bedu RKT 28094 T Lt Dermatological—cuts and wounds Hu Da 48 0.48 39 39 0.39
Ficus roxburghii Wall. Timul GBPCSED6 T Fr Gastrointestinal—acidity, carminative Hu Co 26 0.26 45 48 0.48
      Circulatory—blood pressure   Co   0 3   0
Family:Myricaceae
Psidium guajava L. Amrood GBPCSED7 T L General health care—mouth blisters (astringent) Hu In 12 0.12 12 12 0.12
Family:Orchidaceae
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo Salmpanja/Hattajari RKT 26089 H Rt Circulatory—bleeding Hu De 17 0.17 17 34 0.34
    Dermatological—wounds   Po    17   
Family:Plantaginaceae
Plantago ovate Forsk. Isabgoal RKT 1899 H Sd Gastrointestinal–constipation, digestive problems, diarrhea Hu In 74 0.74 83 83 0.83
Plantago lanceolata L. Jonkpuri RKT 8154 H Rt Gastrointestinal—removal of stomach worm of domestic animals C In 43 0.43 43 43 0.43
Family:Poaceae
Hordium vulgare L. Jau RKT 26630 H Sd Hepatic health cure—warm and nutritive effect Hu Co 46 0.46 46 63 0.63
      Dermatological—burns   O    17   
Setaria italica L. Kouni RKT 7389 H Sd Dermatological—measles and chicken pox Hu Co 91 0.91 91 91 0.91
Family:Podophyllaceae
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Van-Kakri RKT 27764 H Fr, Rt Dermatological—wounds Hu Po 19 0.19 19 19 0.19
Family:Polygonaceae
Rheum emodi Wall. Dolu RKT 27793 H Rt General health care—fever Hu De 31 0.31 15 42 0.42
      Dermatological—wounds   Po    27   
Family:Punicaceae
Punica granatum L. Darim RKT 28845 T Fr Respiratory—cough and cold Hu In 59 0.59 49 71 0.71
      Hepatic health cure—anemia   De    10   
      Other—source of vitamin “C”   De, In    12   
Family:Ranunculaceae
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Atis RKT 29008 H Rt General health care—fever Hu Pw 34 0.34 34 51 0.51
     Gastrointestinal—vomiting   In    17   
Ranunculus repens L. Aingadua GBPCSED8 H Rt Dermatological—boils Hu Po 21 0.21 21 27 0.27
      Gastrointestinal—intestinal pains (NasPalatana)   In    6   
Thalictrum foliosum DC. Uppankat hi/Mamira RKT 29204 H WP Ophthalmic—eye infection (white dot-cataract) Hu Inf 4 0.04 9 21 0.21
      Other—insect repellent I Da    12   
Family:Rosaceae
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke Van Kafal GBPCSED9 H L Dermatological—burns and removal of burn scars Hu Po 3 0.03 3 3 0.03
Prunus persica Stokes. Aaru RKT 26465 T L General health care—Headache Hu Po 6 0.06 6 6 0.06
Rosa moschata Hermm. Kunja RKT 28695 S L, F Dermatological—cuts and wounds, boils Hu Po 9 0.09 27 32 0.32
      Ophthalmic—eye diseases   Ste    5   
Rubus ellipticus Smith. Hisalu RKT 29240 S Rt General health care—fever Hu De 9 0.09 9 18 0.18
      Gastrointestinal—stomach ache   De    9   
Family:Rubiaceae
Rubia cordifolia L. Manjistha RKT 27933 H Rt General health care—fever Hu De 27 0.27 23 23 0.23
Family:Rutaceae
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Sw. Kagji GBPCSED10 T Fr General health care—headache Hu De 38 0.38 20 94 0.94
Nimboo     Gastrointestinal—constipation, weight loss   De    23   
      Respiratory—cold   De    19   
      Other—herbal tea, source of vitamin “C”   De    32   
Citrus hystrix DC. Jamer/Jamir GBPCSED11 T Fr Gastrointestinal—removal of Ascaris (antiparisitic) locally known as juga Hu In 38 0.38 27 50 0.5
      Respiratory—cold   In    7   
      Antidote—against poison C Em    16   
Zanthoxylum armatum DC Timoor/Timuru RKT 28615 S Sd General health care—toothache Hu In 61 0.61 21 77 0.77
    Respiratory—cough and cold   In    19   
      Gastrointestinal—carminative   In    6   
      Other—spices and condiments   In    31   
Family:Saxifragaceae
Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb Silphora RKT 25124 H Rt Urinogenital—urinary infection, stone Hu Inf, Pw 51 0.51 61 61 0.61
Family:Scorphulariaceae
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle. Kutki RKT 27765 H Rt General health care—fever Hu In 53 0.53 53 80 0.8
      Gastrointestinal—abdominal pain   In    27   
Verbascum thapsus L. Akalveer RKT 27890 H WP Dermatological—boils Hu Po 63 0.63 17 42 0.42
      Other—to increase lactation in milching animals   Da    25   
Family:Urticaceae
Urtica dioica L. Shishun/Bichhu ghas RKT 22903 S L Skeleton and muscles—joint pain Hu Da 37 0.37 31 52 0.52
     Hepatic health cure—warm and nutritive effect Hu Co    21   
Family:Violaceae
Viola betonicifolia J.E. Smith Garurjadi/garurabuti GBPCSED12 H WP Antidote—snake bite Hu Po 12 0.12 13 13 0.13
Viola canescens Wall. Ex Roxb Gulovansh RKT 17561 H WP Other—to increase lactation in milching animals C Da 29 0.29 29 29 0.29
Family:Zingiberaceae
Curcuma longa L. Haldi RKT 5970 H Rh General health care—internal injury Hu De 78 0.78 39 91 0.91
      Dermatological—cuts and wounds, cosmetics   Da    36   
      Respiratory—cough   De    16   
Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. ex Smith. Van Haldi RKT 24059 H Rh Gastrointestinal—intestinal problems, purgative and laxative, carminative Hu Pw 13 0.13 30 52 0.52
      Respiratory—cough   Pw    8   
      Dermatological—cosmetics, anti-lice Hu & C Pw    14   
Zingiber officinale Rosc. Adrak RKT 5921 H Rh Respiratory—Cough and cold Hu Em 89 0.89 89 89 0.89
  1. Atu aerial tuber, B bulb, C cattle, Cl climber, Co cooking, De decoction, Da direct application, Em emulsion, F flower, Fr fruit, H herb, I insect, Inf infusion, In ingestion, hr hour, Hu human, L leaves, Lt latex, O ointment, Po poultice, Pw powder, Rh rhizome, Rt root, S shrub, Sd seed, Ste steam, T tree, WP whole plant
  2. aUse citation of taxa (the no. of informants that referred the taxon)
  3. bRFC = FC/N, where N is the total no. of informants
  4. cUse reports of the taxon by ailment category
  5. dUse reports of the taxon
  6. eCI = UR/Nt, where Nt is the total no. of reported taxa