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Table 5 Similarity between present and past ethnomedicinal uses of important species

From: Ethnomedicinal knowledge of a marginal hill community of Central Himalaya: diversity, usage pattern, and conservation concerns

Botanical name

Use reports in study area

Earlier use reports from Uttarakhand

Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.

Fever and vomiting

Fever, vomiting, and cough [21, 28, 51, 58]

Acorus calamus L.

*Inflammation and insect repellent

Arthritis, cancer, convulsions, diarrhea



Dyspepsia, epilepsy [41, 43]; sprain [50]

Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.)

Cuts and wounds

Cuts and wounds [31, 41]

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth.


Fevers, diuretic [41]


Diuretic, fever


Ajuga parviflora Benth.

*Constipation, stone, throat infection in animal (Galghotu)

Headache, fever, stomach ache [51]


Fever, stomach ache


Allium sativum L.

*Joint pain (arthritis)

Muscular pain [43, 52]; ear pain [58]

Angelica glauca Edgew.

*Spices and condiment and herbal tea

Constipation, bronchitis, and stomach


Stomach ache, vomiting

Disorders, vomiting [31, 43, 50]

Artemisia martima L.

Cuts, skin ailments, wounds

Skin ailments [51]

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

*Stimulant, tonic, and stomach ache

Leucorrhoea, headache, hysteria, ulcer, liver disorders [41, 43]

Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC


Diabetes, jaundice [41]




Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb

Urinary infection and stone

Fever, digestive disorders, skin diseases, urinary infection, and stone [16, 31]

Cannabis sativa L.

*Insect bite, stomach ache, purgative and laxative, warm effect in winters

Analgesic, cough, cold, sedative, narcotic, skin diseases [43]


Carminative, constipation


Centella asiatica L.


Inflammatory infections, wounds [41, 43]

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Sw.

Cold, constipation, headache, herbal tea, source of vitamin “C,” and weight loss

Diarrhea, dysentery, fever, headache [53]

Citrus hystrix DC.

*Against poison, cold, removal of Ascaris (anti-parasitic)

Vomiting [52]

Coriandrum sativum L.

*Against poison

Stomachic and diuretic [43]

Curcuma longa L.

*Internal injury

Skin disorders, wound healing [43, 52]


Cough, cuts and wounds, and cosmetics


Cynoglossum zeylanicum Thunb. ex Lehm.


Asthma, bronchitis, cough, vomiting [16, 54]

Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don)Soo

Bleeding and wounds

Burns, cuts, checks bleeding [31, 41]

Dioscorea deltoidea Wall

Cough and cold

Cough, fever, urinogenital disorders [31, 41, 43, 51]

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult


Laxative [49]; bile complaints [51]

Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke

*Burns and removal of burn scars

Diarrhea, fever, leucorrhoea [54]; skin diseases [53]

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Diabetes, purgative and laxative, carminative, stomach ache, and source of vitamin “C”

Asthma, digestive disorders, hair fall [31]; dysentery, cholera, and jaundice [41, 51]

Euphorbia prolifera Ehrenb. ex Boiss

*Insect repellent


Ficus palmata Forsk.

*Cuts and wounds

Lungs diseases, skin diseases [43, 49, 51]

Ficus roxburghii Wall.

*Acidity, source of vitamin “C”

Laxative [49]

Glycine max (L.) Merri



Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. ex Smith.

Anti-lice, cough, cosmetics, intestinal problems, purgative and laxative, carminative

Carminative, stomachic, liver complaints, fevers, vomiting, diarrhea, inflammation, snake bite [16, 41, 51]

Hordium vulgare L.

*Burns, warm, and nutritive effect


Leucas lanata Benth


Cuts, to check bleeding, wounds [51]

Mentha arvensis L.

Stomach ache and vomiting

Diarrhea, stomach ache [51, 55]

Micromeria biflora Benth.


Joints pain, worm infested wounds [41]

Microtyloma uniflorum (Lam) Verdc.


Stone [52]

Momordica charantia L.


Jaundice, diabetes [43]

Ocimum basilicum L.

Cough and cold, fever, herbal tea, warm effect in winters

Cough, cold, fever [16]

Origanum vulgare L.

Cough and cold, fever, herbal tea, and wounds

Cold, diarrhea, fever, indigestion, influenza, menstrual disorder [43, 51]

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle.

Abdominal pain, fever

Anemia, asthma, blood troubles, inflammation, jaundice [41]; fever, stomach ache [31]; abdominal pain, cataract [50, 51]

Plantago ovate Forsk.

Constipation, digestive problems, and diarrhea

Constipation, dysentery, and diarrhea [41]

Plantego lanceolata L.

*Removal of stomach worm of domestic animals

Dyspepsia, sore wounds, dysentery, purgative, mouth disease, and chicks [41]

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle


Purgative, cancer [41]; wounds [31]

Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.)

*Blood purifier, cuts, tonic, and wounds

Anemia, fever, bronchitis, general debility [ 54]

Polygonatum verticillatum L.

Carminative and wounds

Aphrodisiac, gastric complaints, nervine tonic, wound healing [43, 51]

Prunus persica Stokes.


Ear infection of children [31]; antipyretic, brain tonic [21]

Psidium guajava L.

Mouth blisters (astringent)

Mouth blisters [51, 59]

Punica granatum L.

*Anemia, cough, cold, source of vitamin “C”

Diarrhea, dysentery, piles [41]

Ranunculus repens L.

*Boils and intestinal pains (Nas Palatana)


Rephanus sativus L.


Jaundice [52]

Rheum emodi Wall.

Fever and wounds

Cuts, fracture, wounds [56]

Rhododendron arboreum Smth

Liver complaints, tonic

Heart tonic [31], stomach diseases [41]

Rosa moschata Hermm.

*Boils, cuts, eye diseases, wounds

Leucorrhoea, bleeding, pregnancy termination [16]

Rubia cordifolia L.


Blood purifier, joints pain, leucorrhoea, cuts, wounds, insect sting [51]

Rubus ellipticus Smith.

*Fever and stomach ache

Blood pressure, diarrhea [41]

Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.

Cough, dysentery, fever, stomach ache

Asthma, cough, dysentery, fever [51, 55]; abdominal pain [58]

Setaria italic L.

*Chicken pox and measles


Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke

*Fever and removal of Ascaris (anti-parasitic)

Asthma, bronchitis [16]

Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don.

*Skin ailments

Pneumonia, cold, cough, fever [51]




Taraxacum officinale Weber.

*Snake bite and to increase lactation in mulching animals

Headache, acts as a heart tonic and blood purifier [28, 58]

Tegetus erecta L.

*Ear infection, fever, and wounds

Muscular pain, piles, ulcer, wound healing [43]

Terminalia chebula (Gaertner) Retz.

Carminative, constipation, digestive problems, diarrhea, purgative

Asthma, digestive problems, diarrhea, purgative [16, 31]

Thalictrum foliosum DC.

*Eye infection (white-dot-cataract), insect repellent

Gastric trouble, used to control external parasites [41]

Botanical name

Uses report in study area

Earlier uses report from Uttarakhand

Thymus serpyllum L.

*Asthma, joint pain, spices, and condiments

Laxative, stomachic [41]; cough, epilepsy, itching, and skin diseases


Digestive and stomach problems

Menstrual disorders, swelling [51]

Trifolium repens L.

*Headache and skin disease of dogs

Astringent [16]

Trigonella foemun-graecum L.

Carminative, constipation, diabetes, indigestion, joint pain, and obesity

Diabetes, rheumatism [16, 52]

Urtica dioica L.

*Joint pain, warm and nutritive effect

Skin diseases, boils [31, 41]; bone fracture [51]

Verbascum thapsus L.

*To increase lactation in milching animals

Cough, fever, rheumatism [41]; boils eye cataract [51]




Viola betonicifolia J.E. Smith

*Snake bite

Blood diseases, cough, fever, skin [57]

Viola canescens Wall. Ex Roxb

*To increase lactation in milching animals

Cough, cold, malaria, jaundice [43, 49]

Vigna mungo L.



Zanthoxylum armatum DC

Carminative, cough and cold, toothache, spices and condiments

Toothache [31]; constipation, gastric disorders [41, 43, 50]

Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae)

Cough and cold

Asthma, cough, and cold [43]

  1. *New ethnomedicinal use reports documented from study sites