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Table 5 Similarity between present and past ethnomedicinal uses of important species

From: Ethnomedicinal knowledge of a marginal hill community of Central Himalaya: diversity, usage pattern, and conservation concerns

Botanical name Use reports in study area Earlier use reports from Uttarakhand
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Fever and vomiting Fever, vomiting, and cough [21, 28, 51, 58]
Acorus calamus L. *Inflammation and insect repellent Arthritis, cancer, convulsions, diarrhea
  Sprain Dyspepsia, epilepsy [41, 43]; sprain [50]
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) Cuts and wounds Cuts and wounds [31, 41]
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. *Constipation Fevers, diuretic [41]
  Diuretic, fever  
Ajuga parviflora Benth. *Constipation, stone, throat infection in animal (Galghotu) Headache, fever, stomach ache [51]
  Fever, stomach ache  
Allium sativum L. *Joint pain (arthritis) Muscular pain [43, 52]; ear pain [58]
Angelica glauca Edgew. *Spices and condiment and herbal tea Constipation, bronchitis, and stomach
  Stomach ache, vomiting Disorders, vomiting [31, 43, 50]
Artemisia martima L. Cuts, skin ailments, wounds Skin ailments [51]
Asparagus racemosus Willd. *Stimulant, tonic, and stomach ache Leucorrhoea, headache, hysteria, ulcer, liver disorders [41, 43]
Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC *Fever Diabetes, jaundice [41]
Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb Urinary infection and stone Fever, digestive disorders, skin diseases, urinary infection, and stone [16, 31]
Cannabis sativa L. *Insect bite, stomach ache, purgative and laxative, warm effect in winters Analgesic, cough, cold, sedative, narcotic, skin diseases [43]
  Carminative, constipation  
Centella asiatica L. *Headache Inflammatory infections, wounds [41, 43]
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Sw. Cold, constipation, headache, herbal tea, source of vitamin “C,” and weight loss Diarrhea, dysentery, fever, headache [53]
Citrus hystrix DC. *Against poison, cold, removal of Ascaris (anti-parasitic) Vomiting [52]
Coriandrum sativum L. *Against poison Stomachic and diuretic [43]
Curcuma longa L. *Internal injury Skin disorders, wound healing [43, 52]
  Cough, cuts and wounds, and cosmetics  
Cynoglossum zeylanicum Thunb. ex Lehm. *Boils Asthma, bronchitis, cough, vomiting [16, 54]
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don)Soo Bleeding and wounds Burns, cuts, checks bleeding [31, 41]
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall Cough and cold Cough, fever, urinogenital disorders [31, 41, 43, 51]
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult *Cough Laxative [49]; bile complaints [51]
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke *Burns and removal of burn scars Diarrhea, fever, leucorrhoea [54]; skin diseases [53]
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Diabetes, purgative and laxative, carminative, stomach ache, and source of vitamin “C” Asthma, digestive disorders, hair fall [31]; dysentery, cholera, and jaundice [41, 51]
Euphorbia prolifera Ehrenb. ex Boiss *Insect repellent --
Ficus palmata Forsk. *Cuts and wounds Lungs diseases, skin diseases [43, 49, 51]
Ficus roxburghii Wall. *Acidity, source of vitamin “C” Laxative [49]
Glycine max (L.) Merri *Jaundice --
Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. ex Smith. Anti-lice, cough, cosmetics, intestinal problems, purgative and laxative, carminative Carminative, stomachic, liver complaints, fevers, vomiting, diarrhea, inflammation, snake bite [16, 41, 51]
Hordium vulgare L. *Burns, warm, and nutritive effect --
Leucas lanata Benth *Cough Cuts, to check bleeding, wounds [51]
Mentha arvensis L. Stomach ache and vomiting Diarrhea, stomach ache [51, 55]
Micromeria biflora Benth. *Fever Joints pain, worm infested wounds [41]
Microtyloma uniflorum (Lam) Verdc. Stone Stone [52]
Momordica charantia L. Diabetes Jaundice, diabetes [43]
Ocimum basilicum L. Cough and cold, fever, herbal tea, warm effect in winters Cough, cold, fever [16]
Origanum vulgare L. Cough and cold, fever, herbal tea, and wounds Cold, diarrhea, fever, indigestion, influenza, menstrual disorder [43, 51]
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle. Abdominal pain, fever Anemia, asthma, blood troubles, inflammation, jaundice [41]; fever, stomach ache [31]; abdominal pain, cataract [50, 51]
Plantago ovate Forsk. Constipation, digestive problems, and diarrhea Constipation, dysentery, and diarrhea [41]
Plantego lanceolata L. *Removal of stomach worm of domestic animals Dyspepsia, sore wounds, dysentery, purgative, mouth disease, and chicks [41]
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Wounds Purgative, cancer [41]; wounds [31]
Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) *Blood purifier, cuts, tonic, and wounds Anemia, fever, bronchitis, general debility [ 54]
Polygonatum verticillatum L. Carminative and wounds Aphrodisiac, gastric complaints, nervine tonic, wound healing [43, 51]
Prunus persica Stokes. *Headache Ear infection of children [31]; antipyretic, brain tonic [21]
Psidium guajava L. Mouth blisters (astringent) Mouth blisters [51, 59]
Punica granatum L. *Anemia, cough, cold, source of vitamin “C” Diarrhea, dysentery, piles [41]
Ranunculus repens L. *Boils and intestinal pains (Nas Palatana) --
Rephanus sativus L. Jaundice Jaundice [52]
Rheum emodi Wall. Fever and wounds Cuts, fracture, wounds [56]
Rhododendron arboreum Smth Liver complaints, tonic Heart tonic [31], stomach diseases [41]
Rosa moschata Hermm. *Boils, cuts, eye diseases, wounds Leucorrhoea, bleeding, pregnancy termination [16]
Rubia cordifolia L. *Fever Blood purifier, joints pain, leucorrhoea, cuts, wounds, insect sting [51]
Rubus ellipticus Smith. *Fever and stomach ache Blood pressure, diarrhea [41]
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Cough, dysentery, fever, stomach ache Asthma, cough, dysentery, fever [51, 55]; abdominal pain [58]
Setaria italic L. *Chicken pox and measles --
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke *Fever and removal of Ascaris (anti-parasitic) Asthma, bronchitis [16]
Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don. *Skin ailments Pneumonia, cold, cough, fever [51]
Taraxacum officinale Weber. *Snake bite and to increase lactation in mulching animals Headache, acts as a heart tonic and blood purifier [28, 58]
Tegetus erecta L. *Ear infection, fever, and wounds Muscular pain, piles, ulcer, wound healing [43]
Terminalia chebula (Gaertner) Retz. Carminative, constipation, digestive problems, diarrhea, purgative Asthma, digestive problems, diarrhea, purgative [16, 31]
Thalictrum foliosum DC. *Eye infection (white-dot-cataract), insect repellent Gastric trouble, used to control external parasites [41]
Botanical name Uses report in study area Earlier uses report from Uttarakhand
Thymus serpyllum L. *Asthma, joint pain, spices, and condiments Laxative, stomachic [41]; cough, epilepsy, itching, and skin diseases
  Digestive and stomach problems Menstrual disorders, swelling [51]
Trifolium repens L. *Headache and skin disease of dogs Astringent [16]
Trigonella foemun-graecum L. Carminative, constipation, diabetes, indigestion, joint pain, and obesity Diabetes, rheumatism [16, 52]
Urtica dioica L. *Joint pain, warm and nutritive effect Skin diseases, boils [31, 41]; bone fracture [51]
Verbascum thapsus L. *To increase lactation in milching animals Cough, fever, rheumatism [41]; boils eye cataract [51]
Viola betonicifolia J.E. Smith *Snake bite Blood diseases, cough, fever, skin [57]
Viola canescens Wall. Ex Roxb *To increase lactation in milching animals Cough, cold, malaria, jaundice [43, 49]
Vigna mungo L. *Fracture --
Zanthoxylum armatum DC Carminative, cough and cold, toothache, spices and condiments Toothache [31]; constipation, gastric disorders [41, 43, 50]
Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) Cough and cold Asthma, cough, and cold [43]
  1. *New ethnomedicinal use reports documented from study sites