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Table 4 Ailment categories of medicinal plants identified during interviews

From: Indigenous uses of wild and tended plant biodiversity maintain ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes of the Terai Plains of Nepal

Ailment category Biomedical term Species used No uses No taxa
Gastro-intestinal illness Stomach pain Magnifera indica, Artemisia indica, Vitex negundo, Acorus calamus, Curcuma angustifolia 11 5
Dysentery Musa paradisiaca, Cannabis sativa, Shorea robusta, Phyllanthus emblica, Acorus calamus 5
Intestinal worms Melia azedarach 1
Diarrhea Psidium guajava, Shorea robusta, Syzygium cumini 3
Indigestion Artemisia indica, Syzygium cumini 2
Vomiting Psidium guajava 1
Nausea Melia azedarach, Mentha arvensis 2
Gastritis Azadirachta indica 1
Constipation Syzygium cumini, Phyllanthus emblica, Acorus calamus, Pueraria tuberosa, Mimosa pudica 5
Stomach tumors Phyllanthus emblica 1
Extended stomach Mimosa pudica 1
Fever Fever Magnifera indica, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cinnamomum tamala, Centella asiatica, Acorus calamus, Paris polyphylla, Cuscuta reflexa, Pogostemon benghalensis, Zanthoxylum armatum. 3 9
Typhoid Centella asiatica 1
Malaria Crateva unilocularis, Butea monosperma 2
Dermatological disorders Scabies Melia azedarach, Azadirachta indica 8 2
Cut Ficus religiosa 1
Skin allergies Melanochyla caesia 1
Scorpion/snake bites Melanochyla caesia 1
Burns Aloe vera 1
Styptic Pogostemon benghalensis 1
Wounds Euphorbia hirta 1
Itching Colocasia affinis 1
Cardio-vascular/blood Blood purifier Melia azedarach, Centella asiatica 3 2
Blood pressure Azadirachta indica, Michelia champaca 2
Jaundice Aloe vera, Cuscuta reflexa 2
Ear, nose and throat Throat Psidium guajava, Acorus calamus, Zingiber officinale 4 3
Salivation Sapindus mukorossi 1
Bronchitis Syzygium cumini 1
Sinus infection Pogostemon benghalensis 1
Ureno-genital problems Urinary tract infections Bombas ceiba, Centella asiatica 5 2
Diuretic Bombas ceiba, Butea monosperma, Nyctanthes arbor-trisis 3
High uric acid Azadirachta indica 1
Bladder stones Crateva unilocularis 1
Kidney stones Crateva unilocularis 1
Respiratory diseases Cough Terminalia bellirica, Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Crateva unilocularis, Acorus calamus, Zanthoxylum armatum DC, Nyctanthes arbor-trisis, Zingiber officinale 4 9
Common cold Terminalia bellirica, Acorus calamus, Curcuma angustifolia, Ageratina adenophorum syn. Eupatorium adenophorum, Euphorbia royleana, Pogostemon benghalensis, Zanthoxylum armatum , Cymbopogon flexuosus 8
Asthma Cannabis sativa, Nyctanthes arbor-trisis 2
Pneumonia Azadirachta indica, Centella asiatica 2
Skelto-muscular pain and swelling Swelling Crateva unilocularis 9 1
Arthritis Azadirachta indica 1
Muscular pain Carica papaya, Ficus benghalensis 2
Neck pain Mentha arvensis 1
Headache Cannabis sativa, Syzygium cumini, Crateva unilocularis, Mentha arvensis, Paris polyphylla 1
Sprains Ricinus communis, Calotropis gigantea 2
Back pain Phyllanthus emblic, Mentha arvensis, Themeda Triandra 3
Inflammation Albizia lebbeck 1
Joint pain Mentha arvensis, Themeda Triandra Calotropis gigantea 3
Rheumatic pain Ricinus communis, Crateva unilocularis, Crateva unilocularis, Cuscuta reflexa 4
Dental and eye disorders Toothache Zanthoxylum armatum 2 1
Blindness Terminalia chebula 1
Other Epilepsy Sapindus mukorossi 11 1
Dizziness Crateva unilocularis 1
Stimulant Carica papaya, Pogostemon benghalensi, Cymbopogon flexuosus 3
Diabetes Ficus benghalensis, Syzygium cumini, Michelia champaca 3
Tonic Litchi chinensis, Crateva unilocularis 2
Immune booster Ocimum tenuiflorum, Pueraria tuberosa, Asparagus racemosus 3
Hypertension Acorus calamus 1
Sedative Acorus calamus, Pogostemon benghalensis 2
Tumors Terminalia chebula 1
Lactation Asparagus racemosus 1
Tonic after delivery Asparagus racemosus 1