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Table 3 The top twenty taxa and their main medicinal uses with three or more UR

From: Filling the gaps: ethnobotanical study of the Garrigues district, an arid zone in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

Taxon, family and herbarium voucherUsed partUses with UR ≥ 3Pharmaceutical formTotal URTotal UR (%)
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) BCN 96764Aerial partAnticatarrhal1,2,5; buccal anti-inflammatory; buccal antiseptic3,5; expectorant1,2,3,5; external antiseptic3,5; intestinal anti-inflammatory2,5; ocular antiseptic5. Pharyngeal anti-inflammatory5; salutiferous3,5; stomachic2,3,5; vulnerary3,5Aerosol, bath, collutorium, gargarism, tisane1558.90
Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. europaea (Oleaceae) BCN 125505Fruit, leafAnalgesic, antihelminthic, antihypertensive3,5, antipyrotic, for earache, laxative3Direct use, embrocation, liniment, tisane895.11
Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae) BCN 140183InflorescenceAntibacterial3,5; antidismenorrhoeal5; digestive2,3,4,5; intestinal anti-inflammatory1,2,3,4,5; ocular antiseptic5Bath, tisane814.65
Ruta chalepensis L. subsp. angustifolia (Pers.) Cout. (Rutaceae) BCN 140153Aerial partAbortive3,5,+; antiasthmatic5; antineoplastic5; postpartum coadjuvant*; for sprains5; repellentDirect use, tisane, unknown814.65
Santolina chamaecyparissus L. subsp. squarrosa (DC.) Nyman (Asteraceae) BCN 96763Aerial partAntalgic/antiecchymotic/anti-inflammatory3,5; anti-edematous; anti-inflammatory3,5; anti-ulcerate3; buccal antiseptic+; cicatrizing; for sprains; vulnerary+Bath, collutorium693.96
Jasonia saxatilis (Lam.) Guss. (Asteraceae) BCN 125409Aerial partAnticatarrhal3; antihypertensive3; renal lithotripticTisane472.70
Lippia triphylla (L’Hér.) O. Kuntze (Verbenaceae) BCN 125394LeafAntidismenorreic; intestinal anti-inflammatory3; digestive3,5; tranquilizer3,5Tisane372.13
Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) BCN 125508Aerial part, flower, leafAnticatarrhal1,2; antineoplastic; antitussive1,2; intestinal anti-inflammatory1; laxative; resolutivePoultice, tisane, unknown372.13
Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) BCN 150353FruitAnti-inflammatory/muscular pain; pharyngeal anti-inflammatory; for sprainsBath, direct use, poultice362.07
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) BCN 156603Aerial partAnticatarrhal5; antihypertensiveTisane331.90
Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN 29832BulbAgainst bee bites5; analgesic5; antibacterian3,5; antihelminthic3,5; for earache5; for warts5; salutiferous3,5Direct use, poultice321.84
Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) BCN 96771InflorescenceAnticatarrhal1,2,5; ocular antisepticBath, tisane301.72
Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) BCN 150364LeafCicatrizing3; resolutiveBath281.61
Dictamnus hispanicus Webb ex Willk. (Rutaceae) BCN 125519Aerial part, leafAbortive; antihypertensiveTisane271.55
Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae) BCN 125407Aerial partAntiophidian; for rashDirect use271.55
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. (Equisetaceae) BCN 29982Aerial partAntihypertensive; diureticTisane261.49
Euphorbia sp. (Euphorbiaceae)LatexFor wartsDirect use251.44
Salvia officinalis L. subsp. lavandulifolia (Vahl) Gams (Lamiaceae) BCN 96762LeafAntihypertensive5; hematocatharticTisane251.44
Hypericum perforatum L. (Clusiaceae) BCN 96760FlowerAntalgic/antiecchymotic/anti-inflammatory4,5; for skin disordersLiniment241.38
Satureja fruticosa (L.) Briq. subsp. fruticosa (Lamiaceae) BCN 125387Aerial partDigestive3,5; intestinal anti-inflammatory3,5Tisane241.38
  1. The number of UR is the total number, not only the UR according to uses with three or more use reports. Uses with no sign are addressed only to humans, those marked with an asterisk (*) only to animals, and those with a plus sign (+) are common to both. Validation uses: 1EMA [62], 2ESCOP [63], [64], 4Blumenthal [60], and 5Duke [61]