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Table 9 Comparison with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and previous ethnobotanical studies

From: Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Mulam people in Guangxi, China

Plant species

Diseases treated by Mulam

Diseases treated in traditional Chinese medicine and previous ethnobotanical studies

Achyranthes longifolia


Traumatic injury, rheumatism, dysentery, diphtheria, sore throat, sore carbuncle, stranguria, edema, removing blood stasis, kidney empty lumbago, dysmenorrhea, hypertension

Acorus gramineus

Epilepsy, phlegm heat, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, traumatic injury

Epilepsy, phlegm heat, rheumatism, beautifying, bellyache, tummy bug, numbness of limbs, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, gall, injuries from falls, dysmenorrhea

Artemisia argyi

Tocolysis, dysmenorrhea, irregular menses, leukorrhea, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis

Irregular menstruation, spitting blood, uterine bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, carbuncle and scabies, stopping bleeding by warming meridians, expel cold and alleviate pain

Artemisia carvifolia

Malaria, diarrhea, jaundice, scab capillaris ies, pruritus

Malaria, sunstroke, dysentery, jaundice, scabies, pruritus

Camellia oleifera

Abdominal pain, depriving ascarid, intestinal dryness, scabies, scald

Acute laryngopharyngitis, cold, diarrhea, stomachache, pruritus

Clerodendrum bungei

Tuberculosis, carbuncle, furuncle, eczema, piles, rectal prolapse, infantile convulsion

Carbuncle, furuncle, eczema, enriching the blood

Corydalis saxicola


Acute or chronic hepatitis, scabies swelling poison

Cupressus funebris

Liver ascites

Children with high fever, vomiting blood, burns, hemorrhoids, dysentery

Curculigo orchioides

Impotence, aconuresis, carbuncle, scrofula

Impotence, urinary incontinence, uterine bleeding, ulcer, scrofula, headache due to common cold, rheumatic arthritis, rheumatism, nourishing, strengthening muscles and bones

Dioscorea bulbifcra

Antral gastritis, enteritis, thyroid disease, cough with lung heat, pudendal ulcer

Goiter, lymphatic tuberculosis, sore throat, hematemesis, hemoptysis, whooping cough, cancer, sore furuncle, epistaxis, pneumonia

Eriobotrya japonica

Ascites due to cirrhosis, cough with lung heat, hemoptysis, clearing away heat and toxic materials

Pertussis, cough, hematemesis, emesis

Euphorbia esula

degerming, chills, fever

Ficus hirta

Stomachache, cough, abdominal distension, edema, leukorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago

Consumption, cough, abdominal distention, edema, rheumatism arthralgia, hepatitis, leucorrhea, no milk after delivery

Flemingia macrophylla

Caligo of old people

Rheumatic, lumbar muscle strain, hemiplegia and impotence

Gynostemma pentaphyllum

Relieve fever, anti-inflammator, chronic tracheitis, cough, asthma, stomachache, insomnia, headache

Cough, chronic gastroenteritis, rheumatism, bronchitis, stomachache

Hedyotis diffusa

Lung heat, sore throat, jaundice, pelvic inflammation, carbuncle, snake bite

Appendicitis, sphagitis, jaundice, adverse urination, dysentery, tumors, boils swelling, snake bite, hepatitis, cough, bronchitis, tonsillitis, toothache, cancer

Laportea violacea

Ascites due to cirrhosis

Rheumatic arthritis, urticaria, eczema, stomachache, malnutrition, epilepsy, sciatica

Lygodium japonicum

Kidney stone, clearing heat and diuresis, stranguria. Pounded fresh part applied on the affected area for anaesthesia

Stranguria, gonorrhea, leukorrhea, hepatitis, sorethroat, enteritis, dysentery, eczema, shingles, hematemesis, bleeding wound, jaundice, itch, diuresis, calculus, rheumatism, chronic ulcer, skin infection, furuncle, foot rot

Pinus massoniana

Rheumatic arthritis, tuberculous arthritis, blood stasis, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic injury, insomnia, edema, eczema, hemorrhoids

Vertigo, stomachache, dysentery, traumatic hemorrhage, eczema, skin erosion, measles

Polygonum multiflorum

Insomnia, profuse sweating, skin eruption, kidney deficiency, premature graying of the hair, dizzy of the head and dim of sight, soreness and weakness of waist and knees, spermatorrhea, chronic hepatitis, abscess, constipation due to intestinal dryness

Vertigo, tinnitus, premature graying of the hair, lumbar and knee pain, limb numbness, neurasthenia, hyperlipidemia, carbuncle, rubella, constipation, spermatorrhea, malaria, dysentery, chronic hepatitis, scrofula, intestinal wind, hemorrhoid, kidney deficit, dizziness, insomnia, postpartum bellyache, retention of blood in uteru

Pueraria montana var. lobata

Alleviate a hangover, vertebral syndrom, clearing away heat and relieving exterior syndrome, stimulate saliva and reduce thirst, measles, diarrhea

Fever, headache, diarrhea, hypertension, stenocardia, epicophosis

Ricinus communis

Carbuncle, pharyngitis, edema, scrofula, constipation, scabies

Rheumatoid arthralgia, tetanus, epilepsy, schizophrenia, ulcer, pharyngitis, scrofula, scald, scabies

Rosa laevigata

Spermatorrhea, enuresis, diarrhea, diarrhea, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, leukorrhea, hemorrhoid complicated by anal fistula, scald, frequent micturition, diarrhea due to spleen deficiency, spontaneous sweating, night sweat, leukorrhea, rectal prolapse

Spermatorrhea, enuresis, diarrhea, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, leukorrhea, uterine prolapse, rectal prolapse, hemorrhoid, scald, spontaneous sweating, night sweat, bone fracture, traumatic injury, appendicitis, enteritis, stomachache

Sarcandra glabra

Sore throat, wind-heat type common cold, diarrhea bacillary dysentery, rheumatism, traumatic injury

Rheumatic arthralgia, traumatic injury, fracture, pneumonia, appendicitis, tumour, bacillary dysentery, cholecystitis, abscess, sore throat, rheumatism, promoting blood circulation, heat clearing and detoxifying

Schefflera heptaphylla

Rheumatism, rheumatoid, sweating

Fever, rheumatism, traumatic injury, sore throat, for eczema, allergic dermatitis, dermatitis, eczema

Semiliquidambar cathayensis

Rheumatoid arthritis, lumbar muscle degeneration

Rheumatism, rheumatoid, traumatic injury, relaxing tendons and activating collaterals, promoting blood circulation, postpartum recovery, skin disease

Sophora tonkinensis

Sore throat, gastric cancer, stomachache, gastric ulcer, prostatitis, diuresis

Sorethroat, swelling and aching of gum, jaundice, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, scabies, snake bite, acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis, cough, constipation, clearing heat and detoxifying, diminishing inflammation, relieving pain

Striga asiatica

Nfantile malnutrition, edema

Pacify liver and clear heat, remove food retention, infantile malnutrition, dampness-heat constitution, diarrhea, jaundiced hepatitis

Toddalia asiatica

Rheumatism, traumatic injury, bleeding wound

Rheumatism, traumatic injury, stomachache, bleeding wound, amenorrhea, algomenorrhea, furuncle, intercostal neuralgia, skin disease, relieving pain, hemiplegia

Toxicodendron vernicifluum


Traumatic injury, traumatic bleeding, sore carbuncle

Viburnum taitoense

Hyperosteogeny, protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc, relieve pain, traumatic injury

Zanthoxylum nitidum

Rheumatism, relieve pain, gastric ulcer, stomachache, prostatitis

Traumatic injury, rheumatism, stomachache, toothache, snakebite, diarrhea, malaria, chronic gastricism

Zingiber officinale

Cough, hemoptysis, hiccough, anemofrigid cold, vomit, cough, reduce phlegm

Cold, vomiting, cough, release superficies, warm the middle, resolve phlegm and stop cough