Skip to main content

Table 3 Medicinal plants used before, during and after the Mission period, and present time at Mission Gardens. The numbers refer to emic and etic illness groupings (see Table 2)

From: Exchange of medicinal plant information in California missions

Botanical family* Medicinal plants* Native Pre-Mission period Mission period Post-Mission period
Acanthaceae Acanthus mollis L. Europe   3  
Justicia spicigera Schltdl. Mexico   3, 4  
Adoxaceae Sambucus ebulus L. Eurasia   3  
Sambucus sp. California 3, 11   3, 6, 10
Sambucus mexicana C. Presl [S. nigra L. ssp. caerulea (Raf.) R. Bolli] California, Mexico 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 7, 10 8, 11
Sambucus nigra L. ssp. nigra Europe, Africa   1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12  
Agavoideae Agave sp. California and Mexico   4  
Agave americana L. Mexico, USA introduced from Europe   11  
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus hybridus L. Eastern U.S.A. introduced from Europe   1, 3, 4  
Atriplex sp. California 10   
Atriplex lentiformis (Torrey) S. Watson California 3, 9, 10   
Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva Alef. Eurasia, Africa   1  
Beta vulgaris L. var. maritima (L.) Moq. Eurasia, Africa   5  
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Dysohania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants] Mexico   4 3
Chenopodium californicum (S. Watson) S. Watson California 4, 8, 10   
Chenopodium graveolens Willd. Mexico   4, 10  
Chenopodium rubrum L. [Oxybasis rubra (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch] California    
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Mexico    3
Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Europe    3
Iresine celosia L. Mexico   3, 6, 12  
Amaryllidaceae Allium sp. California 3, 4, 11   10, 11
Allium cepa L. Asia introduced from Europe   1, 3, 4, 11, 12  
Allium porrum L. Europe   1, 4, 11  
Allium sativum L. Asia introduced from Europe   1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 6, 11, 12
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. India   4, 9  
Pistacia lentiscus L. Mediterranean region   3, 4  
Rhus aromatic L. (R. trilobata Nutt.) California 4   
Rhus ovate S. Watson California 1, 10   
Schinus molle L. South America   4, 6, 7, 9, 10  
Spondias purpurea L. Mexico   4, 6, 9, 10  
Toxicodendron diversilobum (Torrey & A. Gray) E. Greene California 1, 3, 4, 6, 9   3
Toxicodendron venenosum (S. Watson) Rydb. var. venenosum (Zigadenus venenosus S. Watson) California 3   
Anacariaceae
Annonaceae
Malosma laurina (Nutt.) Abrams California 6   
Annona cherimola Mill. South America   4, 6  
Annona reticulate Linn. Mexico   3, 4  
Apiaceae Angelica sp. California 3, 4, 7, 8   
Apium graveolens L. Europe   1, 2, 11, 12 4
Aralia californica S. Watson California 3   
Carum carvi L. Europe, naturalized in California    
Coriandrum sativum L. Europe, naturalized in California    8
Crithmum maritimum L. Eurasia, Africa   2, 4, 14  
Daucus carota L. Eurasia   1, 3, 9  
Daucus pusillus Michaux California 1, 3, 8, 10, 11   1, 8, 10, 11
Eryngium campestre L. Eurasia   2, 10  
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Europe   1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11 4
Hedera helix L. Europe   3, 4, 10 3, 10
Lomatium californicum (Torrey & A. Gray) Mathias & Constance (Leptotaenia californicum Nutt.) California 4, 7, 8, 10, 11   
Lomatium utriculatum (Torrey and Gray) J. Coulter & Rose California    11, 13
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Europe   2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14 4, 13
Pimpinella anisum L. Asia Minor, introduced from Europe   4  
Sanicula arguta J. Coult. & Rose California 5   
Apocynaceae Gonolobus niger (Cav.) R. Br. Mexico   6  
Nerium oleander L. Europe    
Plumeria rubra L. Mexico   3, 4, 6  
Stemmadenia donnell-smithi Woodson Europe   3  
Thevetia thevetioides (Kunth) Schum. Mexico   3  
Vinca difformis Pourr. Europe   10  
Aquifoliaceae Ilex aquifolium L. Europe   3  
Araceae Arisarum vulgare Targ.-Tozz. Eurasia, Africa   3  
Arum italicum Mill. Mediterranean region   3, 7  
Arecaceae Chamaerops humilis L. Europe   3, 4  
Cocos nucifera L. Malaysia    6
Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia maurorum L. Mexico   8  
Aristolochia monticola Brandegee Mexico    3, 4
Aristolochia pentandra Jacq. Mexico   3  
Asarum caudatum Lindl. California 3, 7   
Asclepiadaceae Asclepias sp. California 4   
Asclepias curassavica L. Mexico   3, 9 9
Asclepias eriocarpa Benth. California 3, 4, 10   
Asclepias lemmonii A. Gray Mexico, South West USA    11
Asparagaceae Asparagus acutifolius L. Mediterranean region   2  
Asparagus horridus L. in J.A.Murray Europe   12  
Camassia sp. California 3, 7   
Chlorogalum pomeridianum (DC.) Kunth California 2, 3, 5   9, 11
Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link [Smilacina racemosa (L.) Link] California 7   
Ruscus aculeatus L. Eurasia, Africa   1  
Urginea maritima (L.) Baker Eurasia, Africa   7  
Yucca baccata Torrey California 3   
Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies California, Mexico   1, 3, 4, 7, 8  
Asphodelaceae Aloe sp. California   1, 3, 4  
Aloe maculata All. Africa introduced from Europe   3, 7  
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. Asia introduced from Europe   3  
Aspleniaceae Asplenium trichomanes L. ssp. trichomanes Eurasia, California   10, 11  
Ceterach officinarum Willd. Eurasia, Mediterranean region   1, 4  
Asteraceae Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus (A. Gray) A. Gray California 11   
Achillea sp. California 9, 11   
Achillea ageratum L. Europe   6, 8  
Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium California, Europe 1, 3, 9, 10, 11 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11  
Acourtia microcephala DC. [Perezia microcephala (DC) A. Gray] California 1, 3, 4, 10, 11   
Ageratina sp. California    3, 11
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob. Mexico    3, 11
Ambrosia monogyra Torr. & Gray California 3, 11   
Ambrosia pilostachya DC. California 3, 7   
Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl. Mexico   1, 4, 7  
Anacyclus clavatus Pers. Europe   4, 8  
Anthemis arvensis L. ssp. arvensis Eurasia, Africa   1, 4, 8, 9  
Arctium minus Bernh. Europe   3 7
Artemisia sp. California 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11   
Artemisia abrotanum L. Eurasia, Africa   3  
Artemisia absinthium L. Europe    4
Artemisia alba Turra Europe   4  
Artemisia californica Less. California 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11   
Artemisia cana Pursh ssp. bolanderi (A. Gray) G. Ward California    1, 3, 8
Artemisia douglasiana Besser (A. heterophylla Nutt.) California 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11   
Artemisia drancunuloides L. California, Europe 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11   8
Artemisia herba-alba Asso Europe   11  
Artemisia mexicana Willd. Mexico and South West USA   4, 7  
Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. California, Mexico 3, 8, 10, 11 4, 6, 10, 11 4
Artemisia pycnocephala DC California    
Artemisia tridentate Nutt California 3, 4, 8, 10, 11   
Baccharis glutinosa Pers. [B. salicifolia (Ruiz Lopez & Pavon) Pers.] California, Mexico 3, 9, 11, 13 3, 4, 11  
Baccharis pilularis DC. California 3, 11   
Baccharis plummerae A. Gray California 8, 13   
Baccharis pteronioides A. Gray Mexico, South West USA    3, 7, 8, 11
Baccharis sarothroides A. Gray California   7, 10  
Balsamorhiza sagittalta (Pursh) Nutt. California 4, 6, 8, 10, 11   8, 10, 11
Bidens aurea (Aiton) Sherff Mexico   4  
Calea urticifolia (Mill.) DC. Mexico   6, 12  
Calea zacatechichi Schltdl. (C. ternifolia Kunth.) Mexico   4, 12  
Calendula arvensis L. Europe   3, 8, 10, 11  
Calendula officinalis L. Europe, naturalized in California   3  
Carduus pynocephalus L. ssp. pynocephalus Europe   3  
Carlina acanthifolia All. ssp. cynara (Pourret ex Duby) Rouy Europe   13  
Centaurea aspera L. Europe   1, 5  
Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. Europe, naturalized in California   2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14  
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Europe, naturalized in California   4  
Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. (Matricaria discoidea DC.) Europe, naturalized in California 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11   
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak. Caribbean   3, 7  
Chrysanthemum balsamita L. (Tanacetum balsamita L.) Europe, naturalized in California    
Cichorium intybus L. Europe, naturalized in California    1, 4
Cirsium sp. California 3, 4, 10   
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Europe, naturalized in California   3  
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. (Erigeron canadensis L.) California 8, 12   
Corethrogyne filaginifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt. California 1, 10, 11   
Cynara scolymus L. Mediterranean region   4, 5  
Deinandra fasciculate (DC.) Greene [Hemizonia fasciculata (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray] California 8   
Encelia californica Nutt. California    
Encelia farinose Torrey & A. Gray California 1, 9   
Ericameria arborescens (A. Gray) E. Greene California 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11   
Ericameria laricifolia (A. Gray) Shinn. California 11   
Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. Ex Pursh) G. L. Nesom & Baird [Bigilovia nauseosa M. E. Jones; Chrysothamnus nauseosa (Pall. Ex Pursh) Britton] California 1, 9, 10   
Ericameria palmeri (A. Gray) H. M. Hall var. pachylepsis (H. M. Hall) G. Nesom [E. acradenius (Greene) S. F. Blake; Haplopappus palmeri A. Gray; Aplopappus palmeri Gray] California 3, 10, 11   
Erigeron canadensis L. [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) California 4, 8, 13   
Erigeron foliosus Nutt. var. foliosus (E. foliosus Nutt. var. stenophyllus; E. utahensis Gray) California 11   
Erigeron karwinskianus DC. Mexico   4, 6, 14  
Eriophyllum confertiflorum (DC.) A. Gray California 7   
Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Eastern USA    3, 11
Franseria ambrosioides (Cav.) Payne California   3, 7  
Gnaphalium sp. California   10, 12  
Gnaphalium bicolor Bioletti [Pseudognaphalium bioletti (Bioletti) A. Anderb.] California 1, 4   
Gnaphalium canescens DC. [Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.) W.A. Weber] California 1, 3, 4, 10, 11   
Grindelia camporum E. Greene (G. robusta Nutt.) California 1, 3, 10, 11   
Grindelia hirsutala Hook. & Arn. California 10   
Grindelia stricta DC. (G. latifolia Kellogg) California 3   
Gutierrezia microcephala (DC.) A. Gray California 9   
Helenium mexicanum Kunth Mexico   10  
Helenium puberulum DC. California 3, 6, 10, 11   
Helianthus annuus L. Europe   3, 8  
Helichrysum italicum G. Don f. Mediterranean region   4  
Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench spp. stoechas Mediterranean region   1, 4, 8, 11  
Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt. California 3, 6   
Heterotheca inuloides Cass. Mexico   3, 10  
Inula montana L. Western mediterranean   3  
Inula viscosa (L.) Ait. Mediterranean region   3  
Jasonia glutinosa (L.) DC. Europe, Africa   4, 8, 14  
Jasonia tuberosa (L.) DC. Europe   3, 4, 7, 11  
Leptosyne maritime (Nutt.) A. Gray California 4   
Madia sativa Molina California 7, 10   7
Matricaria discoidea DC. Asia, North West USA   4, 8 4, 6, 7, 10
Matricaria recutita L. Europe    
Mikania sp. Mexico and West USA   4, 12  
Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. Mexico   7  
Onopordum acanthium L. Eurasia   3, 4  
Parthenium hysterophorus L. Mexico    
Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass. Mediterranean region   2  
Pleiacanthus spinosus (Nutt.) Rydb. (Lygodesmia spinosa Nutt.) California 2   
Polymnia maculata Cav. Mexico   3, 4, 6  
Pseudognaphalium californicum (DC.) Anderb. (Gnaphalium decurrens E. Ives) California 4, 8, 10, 11   
Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.) W. A. Weber [Gnaphalium canescens DC.] California 7   
Santolina chamaecyparissus L. Europe   3, 4, 8  
Santolina chamaecyparissus L. ssp. squarrosa (DC.) Nyman Europe   1, 4, 8, 9, 11  
Santolina chamaecyparissus L. ssp. magonica O.Bolòs, R.Mol. et P.Monts. var. teucrietorum O.Bolòs et Vigo Europe   3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12  
Senecio angulifolius DC. Mexico   3, 9  
Senecio flaccidus Less. var. douglasii (DC.) B.L. Turner & T.M. Barkley (S. douglasii DC.) California 3, 6, 7, 10, 13   
Solidago californica Nutt. [S. velutina DC. ssp. californica (Nutt.) Semple] California 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11   
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Eurasia, Africa   3  
Sonchus oleraceus L. Eurasia   3  
Sonchus tenerrimus L. Europe, Africa, Middle East   4  
Tagetes erecta L. Mexico   4, 6, 9, 10, 12  
Tagetes lucida (Sweet) Voss Mexico   3, 4, 7, 12  
Tanacetum balsamita L. Europe   3, 4  
Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. Europe   4  
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. Eurasia   4, 8, 13  
Tanacetum vulgare L. Europe   4, 8 4
Taraxacum officinale Weber Europe   1, 3, 4, 12  
Thelesperma gracile (Torr.) A. Gray [T. megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze] Mexico and South West USA   4, 8  
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Mexico   3, 6, 9  
Trixis californica Kellogg California and Mexico   3, 9  
Tussilago farfara L. Eurasia   3, 11  
Verbesina sp. California    3
Wyethia angustifolia (DC.) Nutt. California 3, 10   
Wyethia helenioides (DC.) Nutt. California 3, 5, 9, 10   
Xanthium strumarium L. California 3,13   
Begoniaceae Begonia heracleifolia Cham. & Schltdl. Mexico   3, 4  
Berberidaceae Berberis aquifolium Pursh California 11   
Berberis nevinii A. Gray California    
Betulaceae Alnus sp. California 3, 4   
Alnus arguta (Schltdl.) Spach Mexico   3, 12  
Betula occidentalis Hook. California    4, 10, 11
Betula pendula Roth Europe   2  
Corylus cornuta var. californica (A. DC.) E. Murray California    11
Bignoniaceae Crescentia cujete L. Mexico   3, 4  
Parmentiera edulis DC. Mexico   9, 10, 12  
Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. Mexico   3, 7, 12  
Bixaceae Bixa orellana L. Mexico   3, 6  
Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng. Mexico   3, 4  
Boraginaceae Borago officinalis L. Europe, naturalized in California   1, 2, 3.6, 11 1, 4, 10
Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. Mexico   3, 5, 8, 10  
Ehretia tinifolia L. Mexico   12  
Eriodictyon californicum (Hook. & Arn.) Torrey California 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11   8, 9, 10
Eriodictyon crassifolium Benth. California 1, 3, 7, 10, 11   
Eriodictyon trichocalyx A. Heller California 1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11   
Heliotropium curvassavicum L. var. oculatum California 5   
Lithospermum officinale L. Europe   4  
Phacelia distans Benth. California    1, 3, 4, 10
Phacelia ramoisissima Lehm. California 6, 10, 11   
Pulmonaria longifolia (Bast.) Boreau Europe   11  
Symphytum asperum Lepech. Asia, introduced from Europe    1, 8, 10
Symphytum officinale L. Europe   7  
Symphytum tuberosum L. ssp. tuberosum Europe   7  
Tournefortia hartwegiana DC. Mexico   4, 7, 10, 13  
Brassicaceae Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Eurasia, Africa   11  
Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea Europe   3, 4, 8  
Brassica rapa L. Europe, Asia    7, 10
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Eurasia   1, 4, 5, 10  
Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. South America   1, 6, 11  
Coronopus squamatus (Forsk.) Asch. Mediterranean region   1, 2  
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton [Sisymbrium canescens (Phil.) Reiche., S. pinnatum (Walter) Britton] California 4   
Lepidium latifolium L. Eurasia   12  
Lepidium nitidum Torrey & Gray California 4, 6   
Raphanus raphanistrum L. ssp. sativus (L.) Domin Europe    3
Rorippa sp. California 11   
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek (Nasturtium officinalis W. T. Aiton) Europe, Asia, naturalized in California and Mexico 1, 4 1, 6, 12, 14  
Burseraceae Bursera grandifolia (Schltdl.) Engl. Mexico   4, 8, 12  
Bursera microphylla A. Gray California 3   
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. Mexico   3, 12  
Protium copal Engl. Mexico   1, 3, 4, 7  
Buxaceae Buxus balearica Lam. Eurasia, Africa   4  
Buxus sempervirens L. Europe   4  
Cactaceae Cylindropuntia acanthrocarpa (Engelm. & Bigelow) F. M. Knuth (Opuntia acanthrocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow) California 3   
Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Britton & Rose [Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Britton & Rose] Mexico   1, 3, 12  
Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) J. M. Coult. Mexico, Texas   3 1, 4
Opuntia maxima A.Berger Mexico introduced from Europe   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12  
Opuntia sp. California and Mexico 1, 3, 7 1, 4 10
Opuntia imbricate DC. [Cylindropuntia imbricate (DC.) Haw.] Mexico   4, 10  
Opuntia leucotricha DC. Mexico   1, 4, 12  
Opuntia tuberosus (Pfeiff.) Britton & Rose California and Mexico   8  
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L. Eastern Asia    
Humulus lupulus L. Europe   8  
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera sp. California 7, 10   
Lonicera implexa Ait. Europe   1, 3, 5  
Lonicera interrupta Benth. California 3, 9, 10   
Lonicera subspicata Hook. & Arn.var. subspicata California 3, 10   
Scabiosa sp. Europe    1
Valeriana officinalis L. Europe    
Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Europe   3, 4, 10  
Caryophyllaceae Herniaria hirsuta L. ssp. cinerea (DC. in Lam. et DC.) Arcang. Eurasia, Africa   2, 8, 12  
Paronychia argentea Lam. Mediterranean region   1  
Silene laciniata Cav. ssp. major C. Hitchc. & Maguire (S. laciniata Cav. ssp. laciniata) California 5, 7   
Spergularia salina J. Presl & C. Presl [S. marina (L.) Besser] California    1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Europe    
Celastraceae Hippocratea excelsa Kunth Mexico   3  
Torreya californica Torrey [Tumion californicum (Torrey) Greene] California 4, 8, 11   
Cistaceae Cistus albidus L. Europe. Africa   3, 8, 11  
Cistus salviifolius L. Eurasia, Africa   3, 12  
Commelinaceae Commrlina erecta L. Mexico   4, 7,12  
Rhoeo discolor (L'Hér.) Hance (Tradescantia spathacea Sw.) Mexico   3, 6, 7  
Convolvulaceae Cuscuta sp. California and Mexico   4, 12  
Cuscuta californica Hook. & Arn. California 11   
Ipomoea arborescens (Humb. & Bonpl. Ex. Willd.) G. Don Mexico   1, 4, 8, 12  
Ipomoea stans Cav. Mexico   4, 8  
Cornaceae Cornus sericea L. ssp. californica (C. californica C.AQ. Meyer) California 11   
Crassulaceae Dudleya pulverulenta (Nutt.) Britton & Rose California 3, 10   
Hylotelephium maximum (L.) Holub Eurasia   3, 8  
Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba Eurasia   3  
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Madagascar   3  
Sedum oxypetalum Kunth Mexico   3  
Sedum spathulifolium Hook. California 3, 10, 11   
Sedum spurium M. Bieb. Asia introduced from Europe   3  
Sempervivum tectorum L. Europe   9  
Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy Europe   3  
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai Africa    6, 11
Cucumis sativus L. Asia, introduced from Europe   4  
Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth California and Mexico 3, 4, 7, 11 12 3, 7
Cucurbita maxima Duchesne. South America   4  
Cucurbita palmate S. Wats. California    4, 11
Cucurbita pepo L. South America   12  
Ibervillea sonorae S. Wats. Mexico   6  
Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Egypt, introduced from Europe   3  
Marah fabacea (Naudin) Greene California 3, 13   3
Marah macrocarpus E. Greene California 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11   
Momordica charantia L. South Indian   4, 8, 12  
Cupressaceae Hesperocyparis macrocarpa (Hartw.) Bartel (Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw.) California 7   
Juniperus californica Carr. California 7, 11, 13   
Juniperus chinensis L. Asia    
Juniperus communis L. Eurasia   3, 4, 7, 9  
Juniperus deppeana Steud. Mexico and South West USA   7, 12  
Juniperus phoenicea L. Mediterranean region   3  
Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. California 3, 9, 10, 11   
Taxodium mucronatum Ten. Mexico and South West USA   3, 6, 9  
Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus sp. California 3, 7   
Scirpus sp. California 7   
Scirpus acutus L. var. occidentalis (S. Watson) Beetle [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. Ex Bigelow) A. Love & D. Love var. occidentalis (S. Watson) S. G. Sm.] California 3, 7   
Scirpus californicus (C. Mewyer) Steudel (Schoenoplectus californicus C. A. Mey. Palla) California 3   
Datiscaceae Datisca glomerata (C. Presl) Baillon California 3, 7, 8, 10   
Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. California, Europe, Mexico   1 11, 13
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea sp. Mexico   5, 7, 8  
Tamus communis L. Europe   3, 7  
Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris arguta (Kaulf.) Watt [Aspidium rigidum Sw. arguta (DC.) Eat.] California 3, 11   
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Europe, California   4  
Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki L.f. Asia introduced from Europe, California   1, 4  
Ephedraceae Ephedra sp. California 6   
Ephedra californica S. Wats. California 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 13   
Ephedra viridis S. Watson California 1, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13   
Equisetaceae Equisetum sp. California 4, 10, 11, 13   
Equisetum arvense L. California, Europe, Mexico 3 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12 1, 11
Equisetum hyemale L. Europe, Mexico    1, 11, 12
Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun (E. funstoni A. A. Eaton) California 3, 5, 7, 11, 13   
Equisetum ramossissimum Desf. Eurasia, Africa   1, 2  
Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. Eurasia, Africa   1, 3, 7, 12  
Ericaceae Arbutus unedo L. Europe   1  
Arbutus menziesii Pursh California 3, 4, 10   
Arbutus xalapensis Kunth Mexico, South West USA   7  
Arctostaphylos glauca Lindl. California 3, 4, 13 2, 12  
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. California and Europe   12 3
Erica cinerea L. Europe   12  
Vaccinium sp. California 12   
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha alopecuroidea Jacq. Mexico   4  
Chamaesyce sp. (Euphorbia sp.) California 3, 9, 11   
Cnidoscolus chayamansa (Mill.) I. M. Johnst. Mexico   3, 13, 12  
Cnidoscolus urens L. ssp. stimulosus (Michx.) Govaerts Mexico    11
Croton sp. Asia   4  
Croton californicus Muell California 7, 9, 10   
Croton draco Schldtl. Mexico   9  
Croton fragilis Schltr. Mexico   4, 6  
Croton setiger Hook. [Eremocarpus setiger (Hook.) Benth.] California 4, 6, 8, 11   
Eremocarpus setigerus (Hook.) Benth. California    1, 10, 11
Euphorbia sp. California 3, 6, 9, 11 3  
Euphorbia albomarginata Torrey & A. Gray California    
Euphorbia amygdaloides L. ssp. amygdaloides Europa   3  
Euphorbia antisyphillitica Zucc. Mexico and South West USA   4, 6, 8, 9  
Euphorbia characias L. ssp. characias Europe   3  
Euphorbia grantii Oliv. Mexico, South West USA    3
Euphorbia lathyris L. Eurasia, Africa   4  
Euphorbia ocellata Durand & Hilg. ssp. ocellata California    
Euphorbia peplus L. Eurasia, Africa   3  
Euphorbia polycarpa Benth. California 11   11
Euphorbia serrata L. Europe, Africa   3  
Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Europe   3  
Jatropha cinerea (Oretga) Mull. Mexico and South West USA   3, 9  
Jatropha curcas L. Mexico   4, 7, 9  
Jatropha dioica Sesse Mexico and Texas   3, 9  
Ricinus communis L. Africa introduced from Europe   4, 8, 12  
Synadenium grantii Hook. Asia    3
Fabaceae Acacia cochliacantha Bonpl. ex Willd. Mexico   4, 6, 10, 12  
Acacia cornigera (L.) Willd. Mexico   3  
Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. [Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.] Mexico   1, 4, 6, 11  
Acmispon glaber (Vogel) Brouillet [Lotus scoparius (Nutt. in Torr. & A. Gray) Ottley] California 10   
Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yakoviev Mexico   4, 10, 12  
Bauhinia divaricata L. Jamaica   4, 6, 10, 12  
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. Mexico   10  
Calliandra californica Benth. California and Mexico   12  
Ceratonia siliqua L. Mediterranean region   3, 4, 11  
Cercis occidentalis Torrey California    
Crotalaria incana L. Mexico   10  
Desmodium incanum DC. Mexico   3, 4, 6, 10, 12  
Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. Mexico   3  
Erythrina corallodendron L. Mexico    11
Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. Mexico   13  
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp Mexico   6, 12  
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Eurasia   4  
Haematoxylon brasiletto H. Karst Mexico   8, 12, 13  
Haematoxylon campechianum L. Mexico   1, 4, 6  
Hoita macrostachya (DC.) Rydb. California 3, 11   
Hoita orbicularis (Lindl.) Rydb. California 1, 11   
Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. Mexico   3, 4, 6, 11  
Inga jinicuil G. Don Mexico   1, 4, 6  
Lathyrus vestitus Nutt. California 4, 11   
Lens culinaris Medic. Asia   14  
Lupinus sp. California 11, 13   
Lupinus arboreus Sims California    
Lupinus cytisoides J. Agardt (L. latifolia J. Agardt.) California    
Lysiloma acapulcensis Benth. Mexico   3  
Medicago sativa L. Asia introduced from Europe   1, 8  
Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. Mexico   3, 4  
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Africa   4  
Ononis spinosa L. Eurasia, Africa   4  
Olneya tesota A. Gray California and Mexico   4, 10, 12  
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Central America cultivated from all continents   5  
Pisum sativum L. Mediterranean region   14  
Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Mexico   4, 10  
Prosopis sp. California and Mexico   3, 4, 9  
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. Mexico   3, 4, 9  
Prosopis grandulosa Torr. California 3, 9   
Stylosanthes viscosa (L.) Sw. Mexico    4, 6
Tamarindus indica L. India    
Trifolium sp. California 4   
Vicia faba L. Eurasia   4, 10  
Vicia gigantean Hook. California 4   
Castanea sativa Mill. Eurasia   4  
Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, C. H. Cannon, & S. Oh [Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd.] California 3, 11   
Quercus sp. California, Mexico 1, 3, 9 1, 9, 11  
Quercus agrifolia Nee California 1, 3, 4   3, 4, 10
Quercus dumosa Nutt. California 3, 9, 11   
Quercus faginea Lam. Mediterranean region   3  
Quercus ilex L. Europe   1, 3, 4, 14 3, 4, 10
Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. Mediterranean region   2, 3  
Quercus oleoides Schltdl. & Cham. Mexico   9  
Quercus lobata Nee California 4   
Quercus robur L. Eurasia   4  
Quercus turbinella Greene California 3, 9   
Frankeniaceae Frankenia salina (Molina) I. M. Johnst. (F. grandifolia Cham. & Schltdl.) California 4   
Gentianaceae Centaurium erythraea Raf. Europe   1, 4, 8, 11 1, 10, 11
Centaurium venustum (A. Gray) B. L. Rob. [Zeltnera venusta (Gray) G.Mans.] California 1, 11   1, 11
Zeltnera venusta (A. Gray) Mansion (Erythraea venusta A. Gray) California 1, 6, 11   
Geraniaceae Geranium lucidum L. Eurasia, Africa   3  
Geranium robertianum L. Europe   4  
Pelargonium sp. South Africa, Introduced from Europe   4  
Gesneriaceae Konleria deppeana (Schltdl. & Cham.) Fritsch Mexico   4, 13  
Grossulariaceae Ribes indecorum Eastw. California 9   
Hypericaceae Hypericum androsaemum L. Eurasia   3  
Hypericum balearicum L. Spain's Balearic Islands   5  
Hypericum perforatum L. Eurasia   3, 4, 7, 8, 12  
Illiciaceae Illicium verum Hook.f. Asia   4  
Iridaceae Crocus sativus L. Europe    8
Iris sp. California 4   
Iris douglasiana Herbert California    
Sisyrinchum bellum S. Watson California 4, 5, 7, 11   10, 11
Juglandaceae Juglans californica S. Wats. California 1   
Juglans regia L. Balkan Peninsula, Asia   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11  
Juncaceae Juncus sp. (mainly, J. effusus L.; J. inflexus L., and J. conglomeratus L.) Eurasia, Africa   3  
Juncus textilis Buchenau California 3   
Krameriaceae Krameria grayi Rose & Painter (K. bicolor S. Watson) California   3, 4, 12  
Lamiaceae Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling Mexico   8  
Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi Europe, Africa   8  
Clinopodium douglasii (Benth.) Kuntze [Micromeria douglasii (Benth.) Kuntze; Satureja douglasii (Benth.) Briq.] California 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11   4
Dracocephalum moldavica L. Asia, introduced from Europe   1  
Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. Mexico   4  
Hyptis stellulata Benth. Mexico   3, 4, 7, 8, 9  
Hyptis verticillata Jacq. Mexico   3, 4  
Hyptis emoryi Torrey [Condea emoryi (Torr.) Harely & J. F. B. Pastore] California 1   1
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (L. vera DC.; L. spica L.) Europe    
Lavandula latifolia Medik. Mediterranean region   3, 8, 14  
Lavandula spica L. Mediterranean region    4
Leonurus japonicus Hoult Asia   5, 6, 10  
Lepechinia calycina (Benth.) Epling California    7, 10, 11
Lepechinia caulescens (Ortega) Epling Mexico   4, 6  
Marrubium vulgare L. Europe   3, 4, 11 3, 6, 8, 10
Melissa officinalis L. Europe   1, 4, 8, 11 1
Mentha sp. California 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13   
Mentha arvensis L. Eurasia, California 9   13
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Eurasia, Africa   4  
Mentha pulegium L. Eurasia, Africa introduced from America   4 1
Mentha spicata L. Europe introduced from California   4, 8 10
Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. Mediterranean region   3, 4, 10  
Mentha x gentilis L. Europe   8  
Mentha x piperita L. (M. aquatica L. x M. spicata L.) Europe introduced from California   4, 8 10
Monardella villosa Benth. California 1, 4, 10   
Ocimum basilicum L. Africa   8  
Origanum majorana L. Europe   6, 7  
Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare Europe   4, 8, 11  
Phlomis lychnitis L. Europe   4  
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Europe   1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14 3, 4, 9, 10, 11
Salvia sp. California, Mexico 8, 11 3, 5 3, 8
Salvia aethiopis L. Europe    3, 8
Salvia apiana Jepson [Ramona polystachya (Benth.) Greene] California 4, 8, 9, 10   
Salvia carduaceae Benth. California 5   
Salvia columbariae Benth. California 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11   
Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl Europe   8  
Salvia lavanduloides Kunth Mexico   10  
Salvia leucantha Cav. Mexico   7, 12  
Salvia mellifera E. Greene [Ramona stachyoides (Benth.) Briq.] California 1, 4, 8, 9, 10   3
Salvia officinalis L. Europe   1, 3, 8, 10, 14  
Salvia spathacea E. Greene California 1, 7, 11   
Salvia verbenaca L. Eurasia, Africa   2, 4, 5, 11  
Satureja douglasii (Benth.) Briq. [Clinopodium douglasii (Benth.) Kuntze] California 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13   3, 4, 7, 8
Satureja hortensis L. Eurasia   3, 10  
Satureja macrostema (Moc. & Sesse ex Benth.) Briq. Mexico   4, 6  
Stachys albens A. Gray California 3, 4, 10   
Stachys bullata Benth California 3, 9, 10   
Teucrium chamaedrys L. Mediterranean region   9  
Teucrium scorodonia L. Europe, Africa   3  
Thymus sp. Eurasia, Africa   7, 11  
Thymus mastichina (L.) L. Spain   11  
Thymus praecox Opiz Europe   8  
Thymus vulgaris L. Mediterranean region   1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12  
Thymus zygis L. Spain, Africa   11  
Trichostema lanatum Benth. California 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11   
Trichostema lanceolatum Benth. California 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13   3, 6, 8, 9, 10
Laminariaceae Laminaria sp. California 4   
Macrocystis sp. California 4   
Lauraceae Laurus nobilis L. Europe   3, 4, 7, 11  
Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt. California 3, 4, 7, 8, 10   8
Liliaceae Lilium candidum L. Balkan Peninsula, Middle East   3  
Prosartes parvifolia S. Watson [Disporum hookeri (Torr.) G. Nicholson] California 13   
Hesperolinon californicum (Benth.) Small California 11   
Linum usitatissimum L. Asia, Africa   11  
Loasaceae Mentzelia sp. California 11   
Mentzelia aspera L. California and Mexico   6  
Mentzelia hispida Willd. California   4, 6  
Lythraceae Cuphea aequipetala Cav. Mexico   3, 4  
Heimia salicifolia Link. Mexico   3, 12  
Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora L. Mexico and South West USA   1, 8  
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. Mexico   3, 4  
Galphimia glauca Cav. Mexico   3, 7  
Malvaceae Abutilon palmeri A. Gray California    1, 3, 11
Alcea rosea L. China introduced from Europe   8, 11  
Althaea officinalis L. Eurasia, Africa   4, 11  
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Mexico   3, 4, 8  
Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreategui Mexico   1, 8  
Fremontodendron californicum (Torrey) Cov. California 10   
Guazuma tomentosa Kunth (G. ulmifolia Lam.) Mexico   3, 4, 6, 12  
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. West of Africa   4, 8, 12, 13  
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. West of Africa   9, 12  
Malacothamnus sp. (Malvastrum sp.) California 4, 5, 7   
Malacothamnus fasciculatus (Torrey & A. Gray) E. Greene California 4   
Malva moschata L. Eurasia   11  
Malva neglecta Wallr. Eurasia   3, 4, 11, 14  
Malva parviflora L. Europe   3, 4  
Malva sylvestris L. Europe   1, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 1, 3, 11
Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. Mexico   4, 6  
Pavonia schiedeana Steud. Mexico   1, 3, 4, 6  
Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugard Mexico   10  
Sida acuta Burm. Mexico   3, 4, 13  
Sida rhombifolia L. Mexico   7, 8  
Sphaeralcea emoryi Torr. ex A. Gray California    3, 9
Theobroma cacao L. Mexico, Amazon basin   11  
Tilia sp. Eurasia, Mexico   8  
Tilia cordata Mill. Europe   8  
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. ssp. platyphyllos Eurasia   4, 8  
Martyniaceae Martynia annua L. Mexico   8  
Melanthiaceae Trillium chloropetalum (Torrey) Howell California 1, 4   
Zigadenus fremontii (Torr.) S. Watson [Toxicoscordion fremontii (Torr.) Rydb.] California 3   
Zigadenus venenosus (S. Watson) Rydb. [Toxicoxcordion venenosus (S. Watson) Rydb.] California 3   
Melastomataceae Miconia albicans (Sw.) DC. Mexico   4, 13  
Meliaceae Cedrela odorata L. Mexico   4, 9, 12  
Menispermaceae Cissampelos pareira L. Africa   1, 4  
Montiaceae Claytonia perfoliata Willd. California 4   
Moraceae Brosimum alicastrum Sw. Mexico   3, 10, 13  
Dorstenia contrajerva L. Mexico   7, 12  
Ficus carica L. Middle east, western Asia   3, 11  
Ficus petiolaris Kunth Mexico   1, 4, 7  
Muntingiaceae Muntingia calabura L. Mexico   3, 6, 7  
Musaceae Musa sp. Asia   11  
Musa sapientum L. (Musa x paradisiac L.) Indonesian, grown in countries with tropical climate   4 3, 11
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp. Australia    8
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Australia   3, 11  
Eugenia acapulcensis Steud. Central America   4, 6, 10  
Myrtus communis L. Europe    
Psidium guava L. Central America and Mexico   4  
Nyctaginaceae Abronia sp. California 13   
Oleaceae Forestierra pubescence Nutt. (F. neomexicana A. Gray) California    8
Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl ssp. angustifolia Europe   2  
Fraxinus dipetala Hook. & Arn. California 3, 11   
Fraxinus excelsior L.    1, 3  
Fraxinus latifolia Benth. California 11   11
Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingel. Mexico   12  
Jasminum officinale L. Middle East, India, China    4, 6, 8
Ligustrum parteri Coult. & Rose Europe   1, 3  
Olea europaea L. var. europaea Mediterranea region   1, 3, 4, 13  
Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Mill.) Brot. Mediterranea region   1  
Onagraceae Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P. H. Ravens Central America   3  
Epilobium canum (E. Greene) Raven (Zauschneria californica C. Presl) California 3, 7, 11, 13   
Gaura coccinea Nutt. Ex Pursh [Oenothera suffrutescens (Ser.) W. L. Wagner & Hoch] California    1, 4
Oenothera albicaulis Pursh Mexico, West USA    11
Oenothera elata Kuth California    
Oenothera hookeri Torrey & A. Gray California    
Oenothera rosea L’Her. Ex Aiton Mexico and Texas   3, 4  
Orobanchaceae Castilleja sp. California 3   
Castilleja affinis Hook. & Arn. California 3   
Castilleja attenuata (A. Gray) Chuang & Heckard California 10   
Castilleja elastica Sesse ex Cerv. Mexico   7, 12  
Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. Mexico and South West USA   1, 3, 7, 12  
Orthocarpus sp. California 10   
Paeoniaceae Paeonia brownii Hook. California 1, 4, 10   
Paeonia californica Torrey & A. Gray California 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13   3, 4, 8, 10
Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L. (A. sanguinea Greene) Mexico   3, 7, 9, 12, 13  
Chelidonium majus L. Eurasia   1, 3, 8, 11  
Eschscholzia sp. California 8   
Eschscholzia californica Cham. California 3, 4, 8, 9   
Fumaria officinalis L. ssp. officinalis Eurasia, Africa   3  
Papaver rhoeas L. Eurasia, Africa   4, 8, 11  
Papaver somniferum L. Eastern Mediterranean, introduced from Eurasia   8  
Romneya coulteri Harv. California 3, 4, 9   
Pelliaceae Pellia californica Cham. California 11   
Petiveraceae Petiveria alliacea L. Mexico   3, 8, 12  
Rivina humilis L. Mexico   3, 4, 12  
Phrymaceae Mimulus aurantiacus Curtis (M. puniceus Nutt.) California 3, 5, 13   
Mimulus glutinosus J. C. Wendl. (M. aurantiacus Torr.) California    
Mimulus guttatus DC California 4   
Picrodendraceae Petalostigma pubescens Domin Australia, New Guinea    10, 11
Pinaceae Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindley California    4, 6
Pinus sp. California 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 1, 3, 4, 11 7, 8
Pinus halepensis Mill. Mediterranean region   3, 11, 12  
Pinus monophylla Torrey & Fremont California 10, 11   
Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. Mexico   10  
Pinus pinaster Aiton. Europe   3  
Pinus sabiniana Douglas California 3, 7   
Pinus sylvestris L. Eurasia   11  
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco California    6, 11, 13
Piperaceae Peperomia pellucida Kunth South and Central America   3, 4  
Piper sanctum (Miq.) Schltdl. Ex C. DC. Mexico   8  
Plantaginaceae Antirrhinum nuttallianum Benth. California 10   
Digitalis minor L. Spain’s Balearic Islands   1  
Digitalis purpurea L. Europe    
Globularia alypum L. Mediterranean region   1  
Keckiella antirrhinoides (Benth.) Straw California    
Keckiella breviflora (Lindley) Straw California 3, 10   
Keckiella cordifolia (Benth.) Straw (Penstemon cordifolius Benth.) California 3, 10   
Penstemon centranthifolius Benth. California 3   
Plantago sp. California 1, 3, 9, 10, 11   
Plantago lagopus L. Eurasia, Africa   5, 11, 12  
Plantago lanceolata L. Eurasia   3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 14  
Plantago major L. Eurasia   1, 3, 7, 11, 12, 14 4, 9, 11
Platanaceae Platanus lindeliana Mart. & Gal. Mexico   7, 8, 10  
Platanus racemosa Nutt. California 10, 11   
Platanus x hispanica Mill. ex Münch. Europe   1  
Plumbaginaceae Limonium californicum (Boiss.) A. A. Heller California 1, 6, 10, 11   
Plumbago pulchella Boiss. Mexico   3, 6, 12  
Poaceae Arundo donax L. Mediterranean region, Asia   2, 10  
Avena sativa L. Europe and naturalized in California   4  
Bouteloua eriopoda (Torrey) Torrey California    
Coix lachrymal-jobi L. Asia   1  
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Africa   4  
Distichlis spicata (L.) E. Greene California 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10   
Elymus condensatus (J. Presl) A. Love (Leymus condensatus J. Presl) California 4, 6, 11   
Elymus repens (L.) Gould Europe    6, 13
Oryza sp. Asia and Europe    3, 4
Oryza sativa L. Africa, Asia, introduced from all continents   4 3, 4
Triticum aestivum L. Europe   3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14  
Zea mays L. Mexico   1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 3, 11
Polemoniaceae Loeselia mexicana (Lam.) Brand Mexico   3 1, 4
Navarretia atractyloides (Benth.) Hook. & Arn. California 3   
Polygonaceae Chorizanthe sp. California 3, 11   
Eriogonum sp California 4, 5, 8, 9   
Eriogonum elongatum Benth. California 1, 10, 11   
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. California 4, 5, 7, 8, 9   3, 6, 8, 10
Eriogonum nudum Benth. [E. latifolium Smith ssp. nudum (Douglas ex Bentham) S. Stokes] California 1, 3, 10, 11   10
Rheum rhabarbarum L. Asia, introduced to California from Europe    7
Rumex sp. California    
Rumex crispus L. Eurasia    4, 6, 11
Rumex hymenosepalus Torrey California 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11   4, 8, 10
Rumex obtusifolius L. Europe   1, 3, 4  
Polypodiaceae Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm. South and Central America   4, 13  
Polypodium californicum Kaulf. California 1, 3, 7, 11   
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea L. Eurasia, introduced to Mexico   1  
Primulaceae Anagallis arvensis L. [Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.] Europe 3, 6 1, 3, 6, 11  
Anagallis foemina Mill. (Lysimachia foemina Mill.) Europe   6  
Primula elatior L. ssp. elatior Europe   7  
Primula veris L. Eurasia   3  
Pteridaceae Adiantum aleuticum (Rupr.) C.A. Paris (A. pedatum L.) California, Europe, Mexico 1, 4, 7   
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. California   3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13 1, 3, 4, 7
Adiantum jordanii Mueller California 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11   1, 4
Pellaea andromedifolia (Kaulf.) Fee California 1, 4, 5, 7   
Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link Mexico    3, 11, 13
Pellaea mucronata (D. Eaton) D. Eaton (P. ornithopus Hook.) California 1, 3, 4, 11   
Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) G. Yatskievych, Windhan & Wollenweber California 3, 7   
Ranunculaceae Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. California    11
Aquilegia sp. California    4
Aquilegia truncate Fisch. ex DC. California    
Clematis lasiantha Nutt. California 3, 6   
Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. California 1, 3, 6, 10   1, 3, 10, 11
Clematis pauciflora Nutt. California 3, 10, 11, 13   
Clematis virginiana L. Eastern U.S.A.    
Helleborus viridis L. ssp. occidentalis (Reut.) Schiffn. Europe   4  
Ranunculus sp. California 3   
Ranunculus ficaria L. Eurasia   3  
Resedaceae Reseda alba L. Eurasia, Africa   4  
Rhamnaceae Ceanothus sp. California 3   
Ceanothus arboreus Greene California    
Ceanothus leucodermisGreene California    7
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus Eschsch. California    
Ceanothus verrucosus Nutt. California    
Frangula californica (Eschsch.) A. Gray ssp. occidentalis (Rhamnus californica Eschsch.) California 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11   
Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnus purshiana DC.) California 4   
Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb. Mexico   6, 8, 10  
Karwinskia humboldtiana (Schult.) Zucc. (Rhamnus humboldtiana Schult.) Mexico and Texas   8  
Rhamnus alaternus L. Mediterranean region   1, 11  
Rhamnus californica Eschsch. [Frangula californica (Eschsch.) A. Gray] California 3, 4, 7   4
Rhamnus crocea Nutt. California    
Rhamnus ilicifolia Kellogg California 6, 10   
Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora mangle L. Mexico   1, 6, 13  
Rhodomelaceae Alsidium helminthochorton (Schw.) Kütz. Not documented   4  
Rosaceae Adenostoma sp. California 3, 4, 7, 8   
Adenostoma fasciculatum Hook. & Arn. California 3, 5, 7, 11   
Adenostoma sparsifolium Torr. California 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11   
Agrimonia eupatoria L. ssp. euptoria Europe   4, 11  
Chamaebatia foliolosa Benth. California    3, 4
Cercocarpus betuloides Torrey & A. Gray California 4, 10   
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Eurasia, Africa   1, 3, 4, 8, 11, 14  
Cydonia oblonga Mill. Asia introduced to California from Europe   4, 8, 9  
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Asia   4  
Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer (Photinia arbutifolia Lindl.) California 3, 5   
Horkelia cuneata Lindl. California 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11   
Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh. Asia introduced from Europe, North America   1, 3, 4, 8, 11  
Malus sylvestris Mill. Europe   4  
Potentilla glandulosa Lindl. [Drymocallis glandulosa (Lindl.) Rydb.] California 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11   
Potentilla reptans L. Eurasia, Africa   1, 3, 13  
Prunus avium (L.) L. Eurasia   2, 4, 12  
Prunus cerasus L. Eurasia   4, 10  
Prunus domestica L. Asia   4  
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb Asia   11  
Prunus emarginata (Hook.) Walp. California 3, 7, 11   
Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt. Ex Hook. & Arn.) Walp. [Cerasus ilicifolia Nutt. Ex Hook & Arn.] California 4, 10   
Prunus integrifolia (C. Presl) Walp. South America    
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Mexico, South West USA   10  
Prunus spinosa L. Eurasia   1, 3, 4, 10, 11  
Prunus virginiana L. var. demissa (Nutt.) Torrey [Cerasus virginana (L.) Michx.] California 4, 10   
Rosa sp. Eurasia   9  
Rosa agrestis Savi Europe   4, 14  
Rosa californica Cham. & Schldl. California 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13   9
Rosa canina L. Eurasia, Africa   4, 11  
Rosa gallica L. Eurasia    4, 9
Rubus ulmifolius Schott Europe, Africa, introduced from California   1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11  
Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schldl (R. vitifolius Cham. & Schldl.) California 3, 4, 5, 6   4
Sorbus domestica L. Eurasia, Africa   4  
Rubiaceae Cinchona officinalis L. South America    10
Coffea arabica L. Africa   4, 7, 8, 11  
Galium angustifolium Nutt. California 4   
Galium triflorum Michaux California 3, 4, 7   
Hamelia patens Jacq. Mexico   3, 12  
Rutaceae Amyris madrensis S. Watson Mexico   3  
Amyris texana (Buckley) P. Wilson Mexico   3, 7  
Casimiroa edulis La Llave & Lex. Mexico   1, 8  
Citrus sp. Australia, introduced from Europe    
Citrus limon (L.) Burm fil. (pro. sp.) Asia, introduced from Europe   1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11 7, 11
Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Asia, introduced from Europe   4, 8, 11, 14 7, 8, 10
Ruta chalepensis L. Eurasia, Africa   1, 4, 10  
Ruta graveolens L. Europe    8, 9
Salicaceae Populus balsamifera L. ssp. trichocarpa (Torrey & A. Gray) Brayshaw (P. trichocarpa Hook.) California 3, 7   3
Populus fremontii S. Watson California 3, 7, 8   3, 11
Populus tremuloides Michaux California    3
Salix sp. California 3, 10   
Salix exigua Nutt. California 3, 8   
Salix laevigata Bebb California 4, 11   
Salix lasiolepis Benth California 1, 6, 8, 10, 11   
Salviniaceae Salvinia minima Baker Mexico    4
Santalaceae Arceuthobium sp. California    3
Phoradendron californicum Nutt. California   3, 4, 6  
Phoradendron juniperinum Engelm. Ex A. Gray California 3, 9   
Phoradendron macrophyllum (Engelm.) Cockerell California 5, 7, 9   
Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M. C. Johnst. spp. macrophyllum(Engelm.) Kuijt California 5, 7   
Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M. C. Johnst. ssp. tomentosum (DC.) Kuijt [P. leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst. ssp. tomentosum (DC.) J. R. Abbott & R. L. Thomps.; P. coloradensa Raf.] California 3, 7, 11   
Phoradendron villosum Nutt. California 3, 5, 7, 9   
Phoradendron villosum Nutt. [P. flavescens (Pursh.) Nutt.] California 5, 7, 9   
Viscum album L. ssp. album Eurasia   1, 10  
Sapindaceae Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. California 1, 3, 8, 9   1
Aesculus hippocastanum L. Europe   1, 7, 13  
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Mexico   3, 4, 6, 7, 12  
Sapotaceae Achras zapota L. [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] Mexico   4, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13  
Manilkara sp. Mexico    3
Sarraceniaceae Darlingtonia californica Torr. California    
Saururaceae Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. California, Mexico 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13 3, 5, 7, 11 1, 3, 7, 10
Scrophulariaceae Buddleja americana L. Mexico   13  
Capraria biflora L. Mexico   10  
Russelia sarmentosa Jacq. Europe   3, 4, 8  
Scrophularia alpestris Gay ex Benth. Europe   3  
Scrophularia balbisii Hornem. ssp. balbisii Eurasia, North America   3, 7  
Scrophularia californica Cham. & Schldl. California 3, 6, 9, 11   
Verbascum sinuatum L. Eurasia, Africa   1, 3, 11, 13  
Verbascum thapsus L. Europe   9, 11 4
Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring Mexico   12, 13  
Simaroubaceae Castela texana (Torr. & A. Gray) Rose Mexico and Texas   4  
Castela tortuosa Liebm. Mexico   6  
Simmondsiaceae Simmondsia chinensia (Link) C.K.Schneid. California, Mexico    3, 7, 11
Smilacaceae Smilax ornata Lem. Mexico    1, 10
Smilax lanceolata L. Southeastern USA   1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12  
Solanaceae Atropa belladonna L. Europe, naturalized in California    
Capsium annuum L. Mexico    
Datura innoxia Mill. California    10
Datura stramonium L. Mexico introduced from Europe   3, 7, 10, 11, 12  
Datura wrightii Regel California 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11   
Hyoscyamus albus L. Eurasia   4, 8, 11  
Nicotiana sp. California 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11   
Nicotiana attenuata Torrey California 3, 4, 6   
Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray California 11   
Nicotiana glauca Graham South America   7, 8, 10, 12  
Nicotiana quadrivalis Pursh (N. bigelovii Torr.) California 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11   
Nicotiana pusilla Blanco. (N. rustica L.) Mexico   7, 8, 10, 12  
Nicotiana tabacum L. Mexico    4, 8, 10
Solanum sp. California    3
Solanum carolinense L. USA    
Solanum douglasii Dunal California 3, 9, 11   
Solanum lycopersicum L. Central and South America   3  
Solanum melongena L. Asia   4  
Solanum nigrum L. California 3, 6, 9   
Solanum tuberosum L. South America   3, 7 3
Sterculiaceae Waltheria americana L. Mexico   3, 10, 12  
Tropaeolaceae Tropaeolum majus L. California    11
Turneraceae Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. Southern Texas, Mexico, South America, Caribbean   7, 8, 10, 11 7, 10
Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. California 1   
Urticaceae Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. Mexico   4, 13  
Parietaria judaica L. Eurasia, Africa   1, 3, 4, 12  
Urtica sp. California 1, 3, 5, 7, 8   
Urtica dioica L. Eurasia, Africa   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14  
Urtica dioica L. ssp. holosericea (Nutt.) Thorne California 7, 8, 10, 11   4, 6
Urtica urens L. Eurasia   1, 3, 7  
Ustilaginaceae Ustilago maydis (Persoon) Roussel Mexico   7  
Verbenaceae Aloysia citrodora Palau South America introduced from Europe   4, 8 1, 10
Aloysia triphylla (L’Her.) Britton South America introduced from Europe   4, 8  
Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. [Glandularia bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Nutt.] Mexico    10
Verbena lasiostachys Link var. lasiostachys California 3, 4, 6, 11   
Verbena officinalis L. Europe   1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 14  
Violaceae Viola sp. California 3   6
Viola riviniana Rchb. Europe   1  
Vitaceae Vitis sp. California 1   
Vitis vinifera L. Europe   1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11 7, 10
Zosteraceae Phyllospadix torreyi S. Wats. California 11   
Zygophyllaceae Guaiacum officinale L. Caribbean    3, 10
Guaiacum sanctum L. Mexico   4, 6, 10  
Kallstroemia grandiflora A. Gray Mexico and South West USA   3, 7, 12  
Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov. (L. californica DC.; L. mexicana Moric) California, Mexico 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13  
  1. *Botanical family classification and nomenclature for species names were authenticated according to Hickman [45], Stevens [46], and the International Plant Names Index (www.ipni.org)