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Table 1 Problems and issues associated with the use of herbal medicines. Drawn from [7, 30]

From: The governance of traditional medicine and herbal remedies in the selected local markets of Western Kenya

Problem/challenge Issues to be sorted out
 1. Quality and purity Adulteration, plants misidentification, drug preparations and formulations
 2. Processing and harvesting Poor harvesting practices and processing techniques, contamination
 3. Quality control Standardization, poor manufacturing practices
 4. Administrative issues Regulation and control, proper monitoring efforts
 5. Infrastructure Processing techniques, trained personnel, product approval, post-market surveillance
 6. Pharmacovigilance Adverse reactions, contraindications, drug interactions
 7. Clinical trials Safety and efficacy
 8. IPR and biopiracy Proper documentation of TK and folk knowledge
 9. Research and development Mode of action of drugs
 10. Others Unethical practices, quacks (incompetent TMPs), inadequate funds, poor marketing, knowledge sharing, biodiversity protection, conservation and protection of medicinal plants