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Table 7 The observed formal and informal practices in the sampled traditional medicine markets of Western Kenya

From: The governance of traditional medicine and herbal remedies in the selected local markets of Western Kenya

Formal practices Market centre Informal practices Market centre
Partial labelling (on paper packets or envelopes containing powdered TM product) and simple dosage prescriptions Kakamega, Kitale Oral or verbal dosage prescriptions All TM markets
Packaged medicine on plastic bottles, paper envelopes or polythene bags Eldoret, Kitale, Kakamega, Luanda and Moi’s Bridge Simple display of traditional medicine on polythene bags, used fertilizer bags, baskets and mats on floor surfaces, make-shift tables or stands All TM markets
Certification report on analysed medicinal plant samples Kakamega, Kitale, Moi’s Bridge Use of local languages and vernacular names of traditional medicine All TM markets
County officers issuance of receipts on market fees paid by TM traders All TM markets Sale of fresh and dried plant materials in chopped, ground form or whole plant material, twigs, leaves, roots, flowers, tuber; and animal products. Sourcing of plant materials from the wild All TM markets
Possession of Certification of Recognition/Practice from the Department of Culture Kakamega, Kitale and Moi’s Bridge No receipts issued on TM sales All TM markets
Use of portable microphones/speakers and recorded audio to advertise medicinal products to pedestrians and commuters Kakamega No information on probable side effects All TM markets
Market issues, concerns and TMPs welfare channelled through Traditional Herbalists and Practitioners Associations; Modest membership fee is charged Luanda, Kitale No scientific evidence on drug combinations and potential synergies All TM markets
Sourcing of supplies from field collectors and village based herbalists Makutano, Kakamega, Yala and Eldoret Most traditional medicine practitioners’ associations are headed by male practitioners All TM markets
Products diversification including trade on non-medicinal products: beads, calabashes, sweets/candy, snuff tobacco and processed imported herbal products Eldoret, Kakamega and Kitale Medical decisions are based on experience and apprenticeship All TM markets
A money-driven cultural-based enterprise All TM markets Traditional medicine knowledge passed orally All TM markets
Environmental consciousness and protection All TM markets Critical TM questions addressed by older practitioners All TM markets
TM trade governed by county by-laws, national laws and policies All TM markets TM practices governed by strict unwritten traditional laws, norms, customs, taboos and beliefs All TM markets