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Table 2 List of wild medicinal plants collected by knowledgeable harvesters of Lemnos (n = 16)

From: Local knowledge about sustainable harvesting and availability of wild medicinal plant species in Lemnos island, Greece

Scientific nameFamilyfaHarvested part(s) bHarvesting month(s)cHarvesting equipmentd
Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav.Lamiaceae1546% Flower, 54% upper stemJune-July (April-August)79% Gardening scissor, 7% knife, 14% hand
Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) letsw.Lamiaceae12Upper stemJuly (June-August)43% Gardening scissor, 20% knife, 14% scythe, 23% hand
Hypericum perfoliatum L. and Hypericum perforatum L.Hypericaceae1122% Flower, 78% upper stemMay-June (March-July)22% Gardening scissor, 78% Hand
Matricaria chamomilla L.Compositae10FlowerMay (April-June)8% Gardening scissor, 92% Hand
Mentha pulegium L.Lamiaceae10Upper stemJuly (April-November)25% Gardening scissor, 22% knife–53% hand
Malva sylvestris L.Malvaceae883% Flower, 17% upper stemApril May (March-July)Hand
Salvia spp.Lamiaceae757% Upper stem, 43% flowerJune-September (all year)41% Gardening scissor, 33% knife, 36% hand
Taraxacum spp.Compositae7Whole aerialNovember-March (October-July)89% Knife, 11% hand
Crithmum maritimum L.Apiaceae638% Leaves, 62% upper stemJune (March-September)29% Gardening scissor, 71% hand
Portulaca oleracea L.Portulacaceae620% Leaves, 80% upper stemJune-July (March-September)20% Gardening scissor, 20% knife, 60% hand
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.Compositae6Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-April (October-May)88% Knife, 12% hand
Rosa canina L.Rosaceae529% Flower, 71% fruitMay (March-July) & September-October (November)12% Gardening scissor, 88% hand
Tordylium apulum L.Apiaceae5Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)February-March (October-March)83% Knife, 17% hand
Asparagus acutifolius L.Asparagaceae440% Whοle aerial, 60% upper stemMarch (November-May)Hand
Capparis spinosa L.Capparaceae4Upper stem—including flower buds, fruit and leavesMay-June (April-July)25% Gardening scissor, 75% hand
Foeniculum vulgare MillApiaceae420% Upper stem, 10% flower, 40% leaves, 30% feedMarch-September (all year)Hand
Hypericum triquetrifolium TurraHypericaceae425% Flower, 75% upper stemJune (May-July)20% Gardening scissor, 80% hand
Cichorium intybus L. and Cichorium pumilum Jacq.Compositae3Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)October-December (October-April)Knife
Cichorium spp. and Taraxacum spp.Compositae3Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)October-March (October-April)Knife
Daucus carota L.Apiaceae350% Whole aerial, 50% leavesNovember-March (May-August)17% Gardening scissor, 50% knife, 33% Hand
Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.Brassicaceae350% Leaves, 50% upper stemMarch-May (all year)25% Gardening scissor, 75% hand
Melissa officinalis L.Lamiaceae3Upper stemJuly (April-August)Gardening scissor
Pyrus communis L.Rosaceae375% Fruit, 25% branchJune (April-June and September-October)25% Gardening scissor, 75% hand
Raphanus raphanistrum L.Brassicaceae3Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-March (November-May)75% Knife, 25% hand
Rubus sanctus Schreb.Rosaceae375% Fruit, 25% leavesSeptember (July-September and January-February)Hand
Scolymus hispanicus L.Compositae325% Whole plant, 75% whole aerialNovember-February (October-April)77% Knife, 33% hand
Sinapis arvensis L. subsp. arvensisBrassicaceae3Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-April (May)75% Knife, 25% hand
Urtica sp.Urticaceae367% Upper stem, 33% whole plantApril-May (March-June)29% Gardening scissor, 71% hand
Alkanna tinctoria TauschBoraginaceae2Whole plantAugustDigging tool
Anthriscus sp.Apiaceae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-March77% Knife, 33% hand
Cistus sp.Cistaceae2Upper stemFebruary-April (June)Gardening scissor
Ficus carica L.Moraceae2FruitJuly (August)Hand
Lactuca serriola L.Compositae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)October-April63% Knife, 37% hand
Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill.Plumbaginaceae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-February (October-March)75% Knife, 25% hand
Papaver dubium L.Papaveraceae2LeavesMarch (October-March)Knife
Plantago lanceolata L.Plantaginaceae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)February-March (October-April)77% Knife, 33% hand
Plantago weldenii Rchb.Plantaginaceae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-MarchKnife
Rumex obtusifolius L.Polygonaceae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-March (October-April)75% Knife, 25% hand
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.Compositae280% Flower, 20% whole plantJune-July (October-February)80% Gardening scissor, 20% knife
Taraxacum sp.Compositae2Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-MarchKnife
Acanthus spinosus L.Acanthaceae1FruitMay-JuneGardening scissor
Amaranthus retroflexus L.Amaranthaceae1Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)May-AugustHand
Apium sp.Apiaceae1Whole aerialMarch-JulyKnife
Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth.Lamiaceae1Upper stemApril-MayHand
Calendula arvensis M.Bieb.Compositae1FlowerAprilHand
Cardopatium corymbosum (L.) Pers.Compositae1RootMay-JuneKnife
Carthamus dentatus subsp. ruber (Link) HaneltCompositae1Whole aerialNovember-MarchKnife
Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) DruceGentianaceae1Upper stemJuneHand
Crataegus azarolus L.Rosaceae1Upper stem—including fruit and leavesAugustGardening scissor
Crepis zacintha (L.) Babc.Compositae1SeedJune-AugustHand
Cuscuta sp. and Orobanche sp.Convolvulaceae, Orobanchaceae1Whole aerialJune-AugustHand
Cydonia sp.Rosaceae1FruitSeptember-OctoberHand
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.Poaceae1Whole plantAll year50% Gardening scissor, 50% knife
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) GreuterCompositae1LeavesJulyHand
Echium plantagineum L.Boraginaceae1Whole aerialOctober-MarchKnife
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her.Geraniaceae1Whole aerial (young/fresh leaves)November-MarchKnife
Galium aparine L. and Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.Rubiaceae, Poaceae1Whole aerialMayHand
Hyoscyamus albus L.Solanaceae1Upper stemJuly-AugustHand
Hypericum olympicum L.Hypericaceae1Upper stemMay-JuneHand
Juglans regia L.Juglandaceae1FruitOctober-NovemberHand
Laurus nobilis L.Lauraceae1Branch (with leaves)AugustHand
Mentha aquatica L.Lamiaceae1Upper stemApril-May and September-NovemberHand
Mentha spicata L.Lamiaceae1Upper stemJuneHand
Morus sp.Moraceae1FruitMayHand
Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster (Hoffmanns. & Link) NegodiOleaceae1FruitOctober-NovemberHand
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.Cactaceae1FruitAll yearHand
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.WebbRosaceae1FruitSeptemberHand
Quercus coccifera L.Fagaceae1Trunk barkAll yearΚnife
Robinia pseudoacacia L.Leguminosae1FlowerMayHand
Rosmarinus officinalis L.Lamiaceae1LeavesAll yearGardening scissor
Rumex crispus L.Polygonaceae1LeavesDecember-JuneΚnife
Salicornia europaea L.Amaranthaceae1Whole plantMarchHand
Sambucus nigra L.Adoxaceae1FlowerJuneHand
Sinapis alba L.Brassicaceae150% Whole aerial, 50% leavesFebruary (November-March)Knife
Solanum villosum Mill.Solanaceae1FruitJuly-AugustHand
Solanum nigrum L.Solanaceae1Upper stemNovember-JuneHand
Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & WilkinDioscoreaceae1Upper stemMarch-AprilHand
Viola kitaibeliana Schult.Violaceae1FlowerApril-MayHand
Vitex agnus-castus L.Lamiaceae1Upper stemJulyHand
  1. aFrequency of referrals for plants that had been harvested by the informants (n = 16) at least once within the last four years
  2. bPercentages refer to the proportion of citations for each plant part harvested as part of the total amount of citations for each plant taxa
  3. cMost frequently cited harvesting time period for each plant taxa. Parentheses indicate the less frequently cited time periods for harvesting a plant taxa
  4. dPercentages refer to the proportion of citations for each harvesting equipment/tool as part of the total amount of citations for each plant taxa