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Table 3 Details regarding eight fig species and their usefulness as food, medicine, and any related conservation practices for 114 informants from five ethnic groups in Southern Shan State, Myanmar

From: The uses of fig (Ficus) by five ethnic minority communities in Southern Shan State, Myanmar

Botanical name Growth habit Primary harvest period Edible parts Vernacular names Voucher number
Burmese (English translation) Danu Intha Pa-O Shan
F. auriculata Lour. Small tree
(5-10 m)
February–March Young leaves Sin-tha-phan (elephant fig) Phak-ohn/ Phak-wah Phak-ohn/ Phak-wah Phak-ohn/ Phak-wah Phak-ohn/ Phak-wah EBF 1804
EBF 1813
EBF 1807
October–December and July–August Ripe female fig and young green fig
F. concinna (Miq.) Miq. Tree
(< 10 m)
February–April Young leaves Nyaung-thabye, Nyaung-pan Nyaung-
Thabye
- - Mike-nyaung EBF 1805
F. geniculata Kurz Large tree
(< 20 m)
February–March Young leaf buds Nyaung-chin Nyaung-chin Nyaung-chin Kharone Phak-hee EBF 1815
EBF 1812
F. hispida L.f. Small tree
(5–10 m)
March–April, the whole year Young leaves Kha-aung, Pha-aung Kha-aung     EBF 1809
The whole year, October–November Ripe fig and young green fig
F. racemosa L. Large tree
(< 20 m)
February–March Young leaves Tha-phan Tha-phan Tha-phan Phak-de Mike-lay/
Phak-lay
EBE 1810
EBF 1811
October–December and July–August Ripe fig and young green fig
F. religiosa L. Tree
(15–30 m)
February–March Young leaves Nyaung-bawdi (sacred fig) Nyaung-taw Nyaung-ni Nyaung-ni Mike-nyaung/ Phak-nyaung EBF 1803
F. semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Tree
(< 10 m)
October–December, June–August Ripe female figs Kadut Kadut Thadut Thadut Thadut EBF 1802
F. virens Aiton Large tree
(< 20 m)
February–March Young leaf buds Nyaung-chin Nyaung-chin Nyaung-chin Kharone Phak-hee EBF 1801
EBF 1808