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Table 3 Plant species mentioned by the interviewees as used for beekeeping purposes (in alphabetical order of botanical name)

From: Expanding the reach: ethnobotanical knowledge and technological intensification in beekeeping among the Ogiek of the Mau Forest, Kenya

Botanical name (voucher specimen code) Family Recorded folk name(s)a Growth habitb Part(s) mentioned Use(s) Frequency of citationc
Abutilon mauritianum (Jacq.) Medik.
(DMZ2020/001)
Malvaceae Goldoiywet (O) S Flower Melliferous +
Achyranthes aspera L. (DMZ2020/002) Amaranthaceae Sarurieet ap tisieet (O) H Flower Melliferous ++
Alchemilla sp. (DMZ2020/003) Rosaceae Nyaek (O)d H Flower Melliferous ++
Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk.
(DMZ2020/004)
Sapindaceae Gipkosoriet/Maraisit (O) T Flower Melliferous +++
Baccharoides lasiopus (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob.
(DMZ2020/005)
Asteraceae Seregutiet (O) S Flower Melliferous ++
Brassica oleracea L. (DMZ2020/006) Brassicaceae Mboga (S)/ Cabbage (E) H Flower Melliferous (bees drink water from the leaves) +
Brassica oleracea var. viridis L. (DMZ2020/007) Brassicaceae Sukuma wiki (S) H Flower Melliferous +
Brassica rapa L. (DMZ2020/008) Brassicaceae Mulo (O) H Flower Melliferous ++
Carduus nyassanus subsp. kikuyorum (R.E.Fr.) C. Jeffrey
(DMZ2020/009)
Asteraceae Tegweyot (O) H Flower Melliferous ++
Carduus schimperi Sch. Bip. (DMZ2020/010) Asteraceae Tegweyot (O) / Nyaek (O)d H Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) ++
Clematis simensis Fresen. (DMZ2020/011) Ranunculaceae Pisinda (O) CS Bark Ropes (ropes made from the woven fibres are used to fix the bark stripes around the log hives) +
Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach (DMZ2020/012) Peraceae Kiparnyat (O) S Flower Melliferous +
Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don (DMZ2020/013) Combretaceae Kemeliet (O) T Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight; mostly in the lowlands) +
Crassocephalum montuosum (S.Moore) Milne-Redh. (DMZ2020/014) Asteraceae Musumioit (O) S Flower Melliferous ++
Cupressus lusitanica Mill. (DMZ2020/015) Cupressaceae Cypress (E) T Flower Melliferous +
Trunk Making hives (timber used mostly for modern beehives) +++
Cyathula cylindrica Moq. (DMZ2020/016) Amaranthaceae Mutumiat (O) CS Flower Melliferous +
Dombeya torrida (J.F.Gmel.) Bamps (DMZ2020/017) Malvaceae Silibwet (O) T Flower Melliferous (considered the best source of nectar, producing the most valued honey) +++++
Branches Smoking hives (smoke from burning branches is blown inside the log hive to stun the bees before extracting the honeycomb) +
Attracting bees (branches are burnt inside the modern hives) +
Trunk Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive) +
Dovyalis abyssinica (A.Rich.) Warb. (DMZ2020/018) Salicaceae Nukiat / Kigorwet (O) T Flower Melliferous ++
Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill. (DMZ2020/019) Myrtaceae Eucalyptus / Blue gum (E) T Flower Melliferous ++++
Trunk Making hives (timber used for modern beehives) +
Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br. (DMZ2020/020) Proteaceae Gravelia (E) T Flower Melliferous ++
Trunk Making hives (timber used mostly for modern beehives) +
Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce ex Steud.) J.F.Gmel. (DMZ2020/021) Rosaceae Pontet (O) T Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) ++
Helianthus annuus L. (DMZ2020/022) Asteraceae Sunflower (E) S Flower Melliferous ++
Helichrysum argyranthum O.Hoffm. (DMZ2020/023) Asteraceae Karabwet (O) H Flower Melliferous +++
Hymenophyllum sp. (DMZ2020/024) Hymenophyllaceae Susuot (O) H Flower Melliferous +
Leaves Harvesting tools (to clean hands and the leather bag after harvesting the honey) ++
Harvesting tools (to cover the hole in the centre of the log hive from which honey is harvested) +
Hypoestes verticillaris (L.f.) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult. (DMZ2020/025) Acanthaceae Nerubat netui (O) H Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) ++
Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk. (DMZ2020/026) Aquifoliaceae Tongotwet (O) T Flower Melliferous ++
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) +
Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive) +
Jasminum abyssinicum Hochst. ex DC. (DMZ2020/027) Oleaceae Mogoiywet (O) CS Flower Melliferous ++
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight; mostly in lowlands) +
Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. (DMZ2020/028) Cupressaceae Torokuet (O) T Bark Covering hives (before hanging the log hive on tree, it is covered with bark stripes) +++
Attracting bees (pieces of dry bark are burnt inside modern hives) +
Smoking hives (to smoke traditional log hives along with Usnea sp. before extracting the honeycomb) +++
Branches Storing honey (in the past honey was stored in a hollowed log of Juniperus procera placed one to few metres above the ground over a wooden frame in the forest) ++
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) ++
Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive; considered the best option for log hives) ++++
Kniphofia thomsonii Baker (DMZ2020/029) Xanthorrhoeaceae Yamyamt (O) S Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) ++
Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br. (DMZ2020/030) Lamiaceae Mosipichiet (O) S Flower Melliferous ++
Lobelia bambuseti R.E.Fr. & T.C.E.Fr. (DMZ2020/031) Campanulaceae Kabosuet (O) S Flower Melliferous +++
Lobelia giberroa Hemsl. (DMZ2020/032) Campanulaceae Tangaratwet (O) S Flower Melliferous ++
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze (DMZ2020/033) Asteraceae Komereriet (O) S Flower Melliferous ++
Bark Ropes (dry fibres are used to tie the two halves of the log hive) +
Storing honey (dry fibres of Microglossa pyrifolia and Yushania alpina are interwoven to make a bag where to store honey) +
Micromeria imbricata (Forssk.) C.Chr. (DMZ2020/034) Lamiaceae Chepsagitiet (O) H Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) +
Mikaniopsis bambuseti (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey (DMZ2020/035) Asteraceae Sereret (O) CS Flower Melliferous ++
Branches Harvesting (beekeepers use the branches of the tree to climb the tree where the loghive is placed) +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight; mostly in lowlands) +
Mimulopsis alpina Chiov. (DMZ2020/036) Acanthaceae Sosonet (O) S Flower Melliferous (flowering takes places every 10-12 years; when it happens, no circumcision ceremonies are held as it is a considered a bad omen) ++
Musa × paradisiaca L. (DMZ2020/037) Musaceae Ndizi (S) / Banana (E) S Flower Melliferous ++
Leaves Covering hives (dry leaves are used to cover the traditional log hive before hanging it on trees) +
Storing honey (leaves used to make a basket used to transport and store honey) +
Nuxia congesta R.Br. ex Fresen. (DMZ2020/038) Stilbaceae Choruet (O) T Flower Melliferous (bees feed on it mainly during the rainy seasons) +++
Olea capensis subsp. macrocarpa (C.H.Wright) I.Verd. (DMZ2020/039) Oleaceae Masaita (O) T Flower Melliferous +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) +
Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive; highly valued to build log hive) +
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif. (DMZ2020/040) Oleaceae Emitiot / Yemitioot (O) T Flower Melliferous +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) +
Oxalis corniculata L. (DMZ2020/041) Oxalidaceae Nyaekd H Flower Melliferous ++
Phaseolus vulgaris L. (DMZ2020/042) Fabaceae Maragwe (S) / Bean (E) H Flower Melliferous +
Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. (DMZ2020/043) Pinaceae Pine (E) T Flower Melliferous +
Trunk Making hives (timber used mostly for modern beehives) ++
Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims (DMZ2020/044) Pittosporaceae Toponit (O) T Flower Melliferous ++
Trunk Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive; highly valued to build log hive ) +
Plagiochila sp. (DMZ2020/045) Plagiochilaceae Susuot (O) Tr Leaves Harvesting tools (to clean hands and the leather bag after harvesting the honey) ++
Harvesting tools (to cover the hole in the centre of the log hive from which honey is harvested) +
Plectranthus sp. (DMZ2020/046) Lamiaceae Korpisiot (O) H Leaves Harvesting tools (to clean hands and clothes after harvesting the honey) +
Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R.Br. ex Mirb. (DMZ2020/047) Podocarpaceae Saptet (O) T Bark Covering the hive (before hanging the log hive on trees, it is covered with bark stripes) +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) ++
Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive; highly valued to build log hive ) ++
Polyscias kikuyuensis Summerh. (DMZ2020/048) Araliaceae Ounet (O) T Flower Melliferous +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) +
Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive;highly valued to build log hive ; softwood) ++
Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman (DMZ2020/049) Rosaceae Tenduet (O) T Flower Melliferous +
Bark Covering hives (before hanging the log hive on trees, it is covered with bark stripes) +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) ++
Making hives (the trunk is split in two longitudinally and used to build the log hive; highly valued to build log hive) +
Prunus sp. (DMZ2020/050) Rosaceae Plum tree (E) S Flower Melliferous +
Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez (DMZ2020/051) Primulaceae Korapariat (O) T Flower Melliferous (source of pollen) +
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) +
Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild & Drumm.
(DMZ2020/052)
Vitaceae Ingirenyit (O) S Flower Melliferous +
Rubus pinnatus Willd. (DMZ2020/053) Rosaceae Chepseonik (O) S/CS Flower Melliferous +
Rubus steudneri Schweinf. (DMZ2020/054) Rosaceae Taktakuet (O) CS Flower Melliferous ++
Schefflera volkensii (Harms) Harms (DMZ2020/055) Araliaceae Chelumbut (O) T Flower Melliferous ++
Trunk Placing hives (log hives are placed at the bifurcation of two branches strong enough to hold their weight) +
Scutia myrtina (Burm.f.) Kurz (DMZ2020/056) Rhamnaceae Simbeywet (O) CS/T Flower Melliferous +++
Searsia natalensis (Bernh. ex C.Krauss) F.A.Barkley (DMZ2020/057) Anacardiaceae Sirondit (O) S Flower Melliferous +
Trunk Placing hives (modern and log hives are placed under this shrub’s canopy) +
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (DMZ2020/058) Fabaceae Senetuet (O) S Flower Melliferous +
Solanum nigrum L. (DMZ2020/059) Solanaceae Managu (S) H Flower Melliferous +
Solanum tuberosum L. (DMZ2020/060) Solanaceae Viazi (S) / Potato (E) H Flower Melliferous ++
Syzygium cordatum Hochst. ex Krauss
(DMZ2020/061)
Myrtaceae Lamaywet (O) T Flower Melliferous +
Trifolium burchellianum Ser. (DMZ2020/062) Fabaceae Dabibit / Puputiet / Nyaek (O)d H Flower Melliferous (bees make propolis from it) ++
Usnea sp.
(DMZ2020/063)
Parmeliaceae Kurongurik (O) L Leaves Smoking hives (dry lichens are burnt with the bark of Juniperus procera before harvesting the honeycomb) +++
Attracting bees (dry lichens are burnt inside modern hives) +
Vernonia auriculifera Hiern (DMZ2020/064) Asteraceae Tepengwet (O) S Flower Melliferous ++
Branches Smoking hives (smoke from burning branches is blown inside the log hive to stun the bees before extracting the honeycomb) +
Yushania alpina (K.Schum.) W.C.Lin
(DMZ2020/065)
Poaceae Teegat (O) S/T Flower Melliferous ++
Leaves Harvesting tools (to cover the hole in the centre of the log hive from which the honey is harvested) +
Branches Smoking hives (dry branches are cut into small pieces and mixed with the branches of Dombeya torrida before harvesting the honeycomb) +
Trunk Storing honey (mature trunks are cut and one side is covered with cow or sheep skin; the resulting container is used to transport and store honey) ++
Zea mays L.
(DMZ2020/066)
Poaceae Maindi (S) / Maize (E) S Flower Melliferous ++++
  1. For each species, we report the botanical name, botanical family, local plant name, growth habit, part(s) used, use in beekeeping and relevance (calculated based on the number of mentions by the interviewees)
  2. aRecorded folk name(s): Ogiek, O; Swahili, S; English, E
  3. bGrowth habit: T, tree; Tr, Tree Trunk; S, shrub; S/CS, Shrubs / Climbing Species; S/T Shrubs / Tree; H, herb; L, lichen; EH, epiphytic herb; CS, climbing species; CS/T, Climbing Species/Tree
  4. cFrequency of citation: +++++: mentioned by 70% of the informants or more; ++++: mentioned by 50% to 70% of the informants; +++: mentioned by 30% to 50% informants ++: mentioned by 10% to 30% of the informants; +: mentioned by less than 10% informants
  5. dNyaek is a collective name of several herbaceous species used as a source of nectar and pollen by bees