Skip to main content

Table 2 Medicinal uses of the reported taxa and their comparison with previous reports

From: Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora of Harighal, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan

Scientific name/voucher number/habit Local name Part used Method of preparation/mode of application Diseases treated Previous use reports
Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees in Wall./UZ-02/H Somni Lf pas, ext
dec, int
Wounds
Cough, Diabetes
1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Justicia adhatoda L./UZ-31/S Baikher Bk
Lf
Rt
pow, int
pow, int
pow, int
Stomachache, Constipation
Asthma
Cough
1, 2, 3, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18©, 19, 20, 21, 22
Amaranthaceae
Achyranthes aspera L./UZ-90/ H Puthcanda Wp
Lf
Rt
pas, ext
jui, int
dec, int
Scorpion stings and Snake bites
Eye diseases
Inflammation
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8▲, 9©, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18©, 19, 20, 21▲, 22
Alternanthera pungens Kunth/UZ-79/H Khaki buti Lf dec, int Skin Infection, Cuts and external injury 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Amaranthus spinosus L./UZ-71/H Jungli Ganayar Lf
Lf
dec, int
Pas, int
Biliousness, Eye infection
Constipation
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21▲, 22
Amaranthus viridis L./UZ-50/H Ganyar Wp
Lf
pow, int
Pas, ext
Diarrhea, Malaria, Jaundice
Antidote against snake and spider bites
1▲, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8▲, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13▲, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18▲, 19, 20, 21▲, 22▲
Amaryllidaceae
Allium griffithianum Boiss./UZ-42/H Piazi Ae coo, int Dyspepsia, Flatulence 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Apiaceae
Angelica glauca Edgew./UZ-101/H Choora Rt inf, Int Fever, Colds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5▲, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13▲, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC./UZ-69/H Lahndara Sd
Rt
pow, int
dec, int
Skin diseases, Indigestion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Apocynaceae
Carissa opaca Stapf. ex. Haines./UZ-110/S Garanda Wp pow, int Joint pain, Scabies, Jaundice, Inflammation 1, 2, 3, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18©, 19, 20, 21, 22
Nerium oleander L./UZ-122/S Kanair Fl
Lf
jui, int
jui, int
Cough
Flu, Fever, Toothache, Blood pressure, Antidote
1, 2, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6▲, 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19▲,20,21▲,22
Araliaceae
Hedera nepalensis K. Koch./UZ-147/H Bail Lf dec, int Nervous system disorders, Rheumatism, Abnormal sweating 1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6©, 7▲, 8,9,10,11▲,12,,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Asclepiadaceae
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik./UZ-131/H Medhshingi Ae dec, int Boils, Pimples 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Aspleniaceae
Asplenium dalhousiae Hook./UZ-108/F Gutti Wp dec, int Typhoid 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Asteraceae
Achillea millefolium L./UZ-117/H kangi.i Fl
Lf
pas, int
dec, int
Digestive problems, Brain tonic, Female organ problems
Colds and Fever
1, 2, 3, 4, 5▲, 6▲, 7©, 8,,9,10,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18,19,20©,21,22
Anaphalis adnata Wall. ex DC./UZ-111/H Dialect Lf pow, ext Bleeding, Wound healing 1, 2, 3, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Artemisia vulgaris L./UZ-20/H Chaow Lf jui, int Kill worms, Skin diseases 1, 2©, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff./UZ-74/H Palouthi Lf
Rt
jui, int
pas, ext
Sore throat
Toothache
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6©,7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. /UZ-32/H Kandiara Rt
Wp
Wp
pow, int
ash, int
Inf, int
Sore jaws
Rheumatic joints
Bleeding piles
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Conyza Canadensis (L.) Cronquist/UZ-01/H Kali Buti Lf dec, int Scanty Urination, Dysentery, Diarrhea, Hemorrhages 1, 2©, 3, 4, 5▲, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Crepis multicaulis Ledeb./UZ-11/H Shina Fl pas, ext Eye infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,1617,18,19,20,21,22
Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauverd/UZ-129/H Put putiola Lf pas, ext Bone fractures, Wounds, Cuts, Pain, Skin diseases 1, 2, 3▲, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Helianthus annuus L./UZ-104/H Souraj mukhi Fl
Sd
Lf
pas, ext
eat, int
ext, int
Skin diseases
Scanty urination, Curing chest infections, Liver ailments
Lung ailments, Piles, Kinney problems
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ram. & Raj./UZ-41/H Hund Wp rfo, Int Diabetes, Pain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8▲,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn./UZ-52/H Kandiyar Lf exr, int Liver problems, Scanty urination, Stomachic, Tonic, Respiratory tract infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16▲,17,18,19,20,21,22
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L./ UZ-62/H Dodak Lf coo, int Abdominal pain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Tagetes minuta L./UZ-150/H Sadberga Lf jui, int Earache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg./UZ-93/H Hend Rt jui, int Scanty urination, Liver tonic, Diabetes 1©, 2©, 3©, 4©, 5▲, 6©, 7, 8,9▲,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20▲,21,22▲
Xanthium strumarium L./UZ-81/S Souriyala Lf
Fr
jui, int
pow, int
Chronic mild fever
Cooling, Infections, Urinary problems
1 , 2©, 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8▲,9▲,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22▲
Asparagaceae
Polygonatum geminiflorum Decne./ UZ- 146/H Noorialam Lf inf, int Treat pain, Fever, Inflammation, Allergy, weakness 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Balsaminaceae
Impatiens edgeworthii Hook.f./UZ-21/H Batmandar/ buntil Wp
Wp
exr, int
past, ext
Urinary tract infection, Fever
Burns
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Berberidaceae
Berberis lycium Royle/UZ-12/S Sumbal Fr
Bk
eat, int
dec, int
Cough
Skin problems, Liver problems
1▲, 2©, 3▲, 4▲, 5▲, 6▲, 7▲, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18▲,19▲,20▲,21,22▲
Boraginaceae
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk./UZ-140/H Churoun Rt exr, int Throat ache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20▲,21,22
Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm./UZ-03/H Handusibooti Fl
Lf / Rt
fra, int
exr, int
Brain refreshment
Scanty urination, Blood purifier
1, 2, 3, 4▲, 5▲, 6©, 7, 8,9▲,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21▲,22
Brassicaceae
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic./UZ-33/H Saag Wp
Sd
Sd
eat, int
pow, int
flu, Int
Chest infections
Bleeding
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8©,9,10,11,12,13©,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Buxaceae
Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Muel /UZ-43/H Ladan/ bansathra Lf
Rt
dec, int
jui, int
Joint pain, Dysentery
Gonorrhea
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Cannabaceae
Cannabis sativa L./UZ-54/H Bhang Lf pow, int Astringent that bowels stomachic, Leprosy, Tonic, Narcotic action 1▲, 2, 3, 4, 5▲, 6, 7▲, 8,9,10▲,11▲,12,13▲,14,15,16,17▲,18▲,19▲,20▲,21▲,22▲
Caprifoliaceae
Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC./UZ-72/S Guch Sd jui, int Typhoid, Whooping cough 1▲, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Celastraceae
Maytenus nemorosa Marais /UZ-82/S Patakhi Wp ext, ext Toothache, Eye inflammation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodium album L./UZ-61/H SkhaBotey Wp dec, ext Skin diseases 1▲, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8©,9,10,11▲,12▲,13▲,14,15▲,16,17,18▲,19▲,20,21▲,22▲
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulus arvensis L./UZ-103/C Hirrankhuri Wp ext, int Piles, Dandruff, Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8▲,9,10,11,12,13,14▲,15,16,17▲,18,19▲,20,21▲,22
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth /UZ-2/H Bahrwa Wp
Sd
pou, Int
pow, Int
Skin disease, Cancer
Tonic, constipation
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Commelinaceae
Commelina benghalensis L./UZ-128/S Kanchara Wp pou, Ext Skin diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Cornaceae
Cornus macrophylla Wall./UZ-133/T Kandar Bk pow, int Backache 1, 2©, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Cuscutaceae
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb./UZ-12/H Neeladari Wp jui, int Jaundice, Dandruff 1, 2, 3, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9▲,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18©,19,20,21▲,22
Cyperaceae
Cyperus rotundus L./UZ-145/H Kah Rt mix, int Dysentery, Gastric problems, Intestinal disorders 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8▲,9▲,10,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22
Dryopteridaceae
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schoot/UZ-120/F Kungi Fd veg, int Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb./UZ-22/S Kankolii Sd
Ol
Fl
pow, int
exr, int
dec, int
Stimulant in Cough
Pulmonary infections
Cardiac problems
1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia helioscopia L./UZ-13/H Dhoudhal Wp
Wp
Wp
ert, ext
pow, int
lat, Int
Kill worms
Healing wounds
Poisonous effect that cause swelling in skin
1, 2, 3▲, 4▲, 5▲, 6▲, 7, 8▲,9▲,10,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21▲,22
Ricinus communis L./UZ-04/S Arind Sd
Lf
oil, int
dec, ext
Constipation
Skin diseases, Joint pain, Muscles swelling, Eye infection
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17▲, 18©, 19, 20, 21, 22
Fabaceae
Acacia modesta Wall./UZ-63/T Kikar Br rfo, int Anti-inflammatory, Toothache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17▲,18,19▲,20,21▲,22
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile/UZ-84/T Desi kikar Bk
Pd
pas, int
pow, ext
Piles, Dysentery, Diarrhea
Anti-dandruff
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9▲,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20▲,21▲,22
Astragalus canadensis L./UZ-125/H Tindni Lf inf, int Stomachache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 89,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Bauhinia variegata L./UZ-14/T Kachnar Fl inf, int Tonic, Gastric problems 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Crotalaria juncea L./UZ-95/H Sunn Sd
Rt
pas, ext
exr, int
Hair tonic, Skin diseases
Colic, Epistaxis
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Dalbergia sissoo DC./UZ-55/T Shishm Lf dec, int Eye pain, Body pain, Diarrhea, Jaundice, Abdominal pain, Skin diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21▲,22
Desmodium elegans DC./UZ-142/S Halphaat Rt tea, int Hypertension, Antidote 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Indigofera linifolia (L. f.) Retz./UZ-46/H Jund Lf rfo, ext Skin allergy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21©,22
Lathyrus aphaca L./UZ-136/H Jangli matter Sd pow, int Narcotic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8©, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Lespedeza juncea (L.f.) Pers./UZ-78/H Kuchani Rt jui, int Diarrhea, Dysentery 1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Lotus corniculatus L./UZ-105/H Sriri Fl
Rt
Wp
pou, Int
exr, int
pou, ext
Cardiotonic, Sleeping problems
Gastric problems
Tonic
Skin inflammation
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Medicago polymorpha L./UZ-66/H Maina Lf exr, int Dysentery, Indigestion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19▲,20,21,22
Mimosa pudica L./UZ-118/H Choi Moi Lf dec, int Hemorrhoids, Urinary infections, Cancer, Diabetes, , Hepatitis, Obesity, Sores, Piles, Glandular swellings 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Trifolium resupinatum L./UZ-85/H Tilpetra Sd che, int Digestive disorder like Abdominal pain. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8©,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Vicia sativa L./UZ-25/C Phalli Wp inf, int Indigestion, Tonic, Scanty urination, Asthma, Cough, Bronchitis, Skin diseases, Urinary problems 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8©,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Geraniaceae
Geranium rotundifolium L./UZ-34/H Rattan joge Rt inf, int Mouth ulcers, Stomach ulcer, Hemorrhoids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Gentianaceae
Swertia cordata (Wall. ex G. Don) C.B. Clarke/UZ-44/H Cheratbotay Ae exr, int Digestive problem, Liver problems, Diabetes, Nausea 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L./UZ-53/T Akhrot Ft
Lf / Bk
rfo, int
rfo, ext
Brain and physical weakness
Toothache
1©, 2©, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19▲,20▲,21,22▲
Lamiaceae
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth./UZ-94/H Rattibotti Ae
Lf
exr, int
exr, int
Blood purifier, Pimples
Inflammation, Earache, pain
1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13©,14,15,16,17▲,18,19,20▲,21,22
Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl/UZ-77/S Bengli Lf
Rt
Bk
dec, ext
inf, int
pas, ext
Alleviating pain in rheumatism, Diarrhea, Dysentery
Relieving rashes of tongue
Wounds and cuts
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Mentha spicata L./UZ-132/H Bebrii Lf pas, int Cooling agent, Gastric problem 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11, ▲,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19©,20,21,22
Mentha longifolia (L.) L./UZ-83/H Podina Wp
Lf
dec, int
pas, Int
Stimulant,
Cough, Flatulence, Digestive disorders
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Benth/UZ-76/S Shahibooti Lf
Lf
oil, int
jui, int
Headache
Digestive disorders
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5©, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Ocimum sanctum L./UZ-134/H Bebrii Lf pas, int Cooling agent, Gastric problem 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11, ▲,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19©,20,21,22
Origanum vulgare L./UZ-102/H Sahthar Wp pow, int Stomach-ache, Skin infections 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss./UZ-23/S Chittipataki Rt
Rt
ash, ext
dec, ext
Wound healing
Skin diseases
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15 ,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Phlomis bracteosa Royle ex Benth./UZ-144/H Cropo Lf
Rt
exr, int
pou, int
Fever, Cough
Skin diseases
1,2 , 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Prunella vulgaris L./UZ-114/H Harswa Wp exr, int Relieve respiratory difficulties, Joint problems, Gastric spasm 1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5©, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14▲,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Salvia lanata Salisb./UZ-127/H Kianar Ae
Rt
vef, int
pow, int
Cough, Common cold
Ease bowel evacuation
1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Thymus linearis Benth.
UZ-64/H
Chikal Wp
Ae
jui, int
pow, int
Stomachache, Liver complaints
Cough
1, 2, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12▲,13©,14▲,15▲,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲
Lythraceae
Punica granatum L./UZ-05/S Darhou Sd
Pl
Fr
Fr
pow, int
jui, int
rfo, int
exr, int
Stomachache
Cardiac problems, Dysentery, Diarrhea
1, 2, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16▲,17▲,18▲,19▲,20,21,22▲
Malvaceae
Abutilon ramosum (Cav.) Guill. & Perr./UZ-35/S Shrub Rt pow, int Stomach ailment 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Malva parviflora L./UZ-45/H Sonchal Lf dec, int Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21©,22
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke/UZ-56/H Bariar Ae dec, int Kill worms, Dysentery 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Meliaceae
Melia azadirachta L./UZ-73/T Daraik Fr/Sd
Lf
pow, int
dec, int
Diabetes, Blood pressure, Blood purifier
Throat infection, Jaundice, Skin problems, High fever
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17©,18▲,19,20,21▲,22▲
Moraceae
Ficus carica L./UZ-135/T Injeer / Barh Phugwarah Fr
Lt
rfo, int
pas, ext
Constipation
Wound healing, Extract thrones from skin, Antidote
1, 2©, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16▲,17▲,18,19▲,20,21,22▲
Ficus palmata Forssk./UZ-126/T Phugwarah Fr
Lt
Lf
Lf
rfo, int
rub, ext
pas, ext
veg, int
Digestive problems
Extract thorns from skin
Skin problems
Diabetes
1, 2, 3▲, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13©,14,15,16,17,18©,19,20,21,22
Morus alba L./UZ-96/T Toot Lf
Fr
dec, int
pow, int
Throat inflammation
Cough, Cold, Constipation
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13©,14,15,16,17,18,19©,20▲,21▲,22©
Morus nigra L./UZ-116/T Shatoot Fr rfo, int Cough, Constipation 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21▲,22©
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Schlecht/UZ-143/T Safeda Bk rub, ext Toothache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Oleaceae
Jasminum officinale L./UZ-15/S Chambili Rt
Lf
Lf
dec, int
che, int
pow, ext
Ringworm
Mouth ulcer
Antidandruff, Muscular pain
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22
Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch./UZ-24/T Kao Lf
Ol
Br
dec, int
exr, int
rfo, ext
Scanty urination, Throat infection
Anti-rheumatic
Toothache, Mouth infection
1, 2©, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17©,18©,19,20▲,21,22▲
Onagraceae
Oenothera rosea L. Her. ex Aiton/UZ-06/H Buti Lf inf , int Hepatic pain,
Kidney disorders
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis corniculata L./UZ-36/H Khattiboti Wp
Lf
Lf
exr, int
pou, int
dec, int
Diarrhea, Skin diseases, Dysentery, Blood purification
Inflammation
Cooling property in fever
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6▲, 7, 8©,9▲,10▲,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21©,22▲
Pinaceae
Pinus roxburghii Sarg./UZ-16/T Chir Rs pas, ext Wound healing, Healing cracks in feet, Antidote 1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Plantaginaceae
Plantago lanceolata L./UZ-07/H Ispgol Lf
Sd
dec, ext
pow, int
Wound inflammation
Throat sores
Constipation
1▲, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12▲,13,14▲,15,16,17,18,19©,20,21,22▲
Veronica laxa Benth./UZ-27/H Sriri Wp tea, int Nervous system disorder, Respiratory tract, Cardiovascular system 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Poaceae
Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin./UZ-86/G Bari Gaas Wp pas, ext Used for skin care 1, 2▲ , 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers./GUZ-138/G Khabbal Lf pas, ext Muscle and joint fractures 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6©, 7, 8▲,9▲,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21▲,22
Dactylis glomerata L./UZ-17/G Gadu Wp
Wp
pas, int
exr, int
Allergies
Anti-tumor, Kidney ailments, Bladder ailments
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf/UZ-75/G Murgah Ghass Bk inf, int Cough 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22
Digitalis ciliata Trautv./UZ-124/G Diljit Sd pow, int Cardiac treatments, Anti-proliferative, Used for suppressing tumors 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link/UZ-10/G Sanawakri Wp inf, int Hemorrhage problems 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn./UZ-107/G Madhana ghass Rt
Lf
Wp
pou, int
dec, int
exr, int
Gonorrhea
Scanty urination
Fever, Anti-inflammatory, Jaundice
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22
Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult./UZ-26/G Sariyalaghass Rt inf, int Scanty urination 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch./UZ-115/G Dibb Wp exr , int Asthma, Bruises, Paralysis, Anti-inflammatory 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21▲,22
Lolium temulentum L./UZ-65/G Grass Sd pow, int Sedative 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult./UZ-97/G Kangni, Loomar Gaas Lf
Lf
Gr
exr, int
pou, ext
jui, int
Eye drops
Fast healing
Cooling agent
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Themeda anathera (Nees ex Steud.) Hack./UZ-98/G Bari ghass Ae pou, ext Backache, Blood purifier 1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Polygalaceae
Polygala abyssinica R. Br. ex Fresen./UZ-37/H Arna Rt jui, ext Evil eye, Antidote to snake bite 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Polygonaceae
Persicaria maculosa Gray/UZ-51/H Ochi Sd
Rt
Lf
pow, int
pas, int
pas, ext
Dysentery, Cholera
Scabies
Wound healing
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Polygonum ramosissimum Michx./UZ-40/H Bannali Wp pas, int Urinary tract infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Rumex hastatus D.Don/UZ-59/H Jnglipalak Lf
Rt
boi, int
pas, ext
Constipation
Skin disorder
1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Primulaceae
Anagallis arvensis L./UZ-47/H Billibooti Wp
Wp
exr, int
pas, ext
Lowering fever, Depression, Tuberculosis, Liver problems, Epilepsy
Improving the complexion, especially for freckle
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Androsace rotundifolia Hardw./UZ-58/H Thandijarri Rh
Lf
ext, int
inf, int
Cataract
Stomachache, Emetic
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Pteridaceae
Adiantum tenerum Sw./UZ-130/F Hansraj Fd jui, int
pas, ext
Cough, Fever, Dysentery, Ulcers
Burning sensation, Epileptic fits
 
Onychium japonicum (Thunb.) Kunze/UZ-28/F Pathba Lf & Rh jui, int Dysentery, Diarrhea  
Pteris vittata L./UZ-149/F Nanore Fd pas, ext Wound healing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Ranunculaceae
Clematis grata Wall./UZ-89/S Tootal Lf
In
dec, int
inf, int
Diabetes
Cough
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Ranunculus arvensis L./UZ-80/H Chachumba Ae coo, int Asthma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Ranunculus muricatus L./UZ-91/H Kor-Kandoli Ae mix, int Asthma 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲
Thalictrum revolutum DC./UZ-112/H Beni Wp jui, int Blood purifier, Curing fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Rosaceae
Cotoneaster racemiflora Wall. ex Lindl./UZ-08/S Luni Lf tea, int Stop bleeding and pus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke/UZ-48/H Budimewa Fl
Wp
boi, int
exr, int
Blood circulation
Swelling, Boils, Burns
1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19▲,20,21,22
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl./UZ-29/T Loukat Wp
Lf
Fr
Fl
dec, int
pas, int
rfo, int
boi, int
Cough, Constipation
Nose bleeds, Coughing up blood, Diarrhea, Depression, Skin diseases, Digestive disorders, Respiratory problems
Common cold
1, 2, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) Lacaita/UZ-148/H Boodimava Fr jui , int Diarrhea, Dysentery, Diabetes, Sexual diseases 1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7▲, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲
Potentilla reptans L./UZ-137/H Gul bota Wp jui, int Diarrhea, Intestinal infections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Prunus armeniaca L./UZ-70/T Hari, Khubani, Apricot Fr
Sd
eat , int
oil, ext
Constipation
Softening effect on the skin
1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Prunus domestica L./UZ-87/T Alucha Fr eat, int Irregular menstruation, Miscarriage, Alcoholic beverages and liqueur 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch/UZ-68/T Aruu, Peach Lf jui, int Gastritis, Cough, Bronchitis, Kill worms 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Pyrus malus L./UZ-99/T Saib Fr jui, int Rheumatism, Hypertension, Tonic for vigorous body, Strengthen bones, face spots 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Pyrus pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don/UZ-38/T Tangi Fr
Fr
pas, int
eat, int
Dark eye circles
Constipation
1, 2▲, 3©, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Rosa brunonii Lindl./UZ-121/S Chal Fl
Fl
pow, int
dec, int
Heart tonic, Skin diseases
Constipation
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14▲,15,16,17,18©,19,20,21,22
Rosa indica L./UZ-30/S Galab Fl exr , int Eye diseases, Stomachache, Fever, Pneumonia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Rubus ellipticus Sm./UZ-109/S Aakhara Lf
Rt / Bk
dec, int
pow, int
exr, int
Diarrhea, Bleeding
Against skin diseases especially female genitalia
Dysentery
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22 RT/ BK
Rubus niveus Thunb./UZ-19/S Garachi Lf
Rt
pow, int
dec, int
Diarrhea, Fever, Blood purifier
Dysentery, Colic, Pain, Whooping Cough
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Spiraea canescens D. Don/UZ-57/H Jhar, Mariala Rt
Sd
exr, int
pow, int
Enema and to treat venereal conditions
Insomnia
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Rubiaceae
Galium aparine L./UZ-119/H Boora Wp
Wp
mix, int
jui, int
Constipation, Stomachic diseases
Scanty urination, Constipation
1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7▲, 8, 9,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Rutaeae
Zanthoxylum armatum DC./UZ-106/S Timber Sd / Bk
Bk
rfo, int
rub, int
Tonic, Cholera, fever, Dyspepsia, Stomachache
Toothache
1, 2▲, 3©, 4©, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10▲,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17,18©,19,20,21,22
Salicaceae
Populus nigra L./UZ-123/T Sfeeda Bk
Bk
Lf
exr, int
pas, ext
pas, ext
Arthritis, Gout, Lower back pain, Urinary complaints, Gout, Digestive disorders, Liver disorders, Fever, Relieve the pain of menstrual cramps
Hemorrhoids
Infected wounds and sprains, Caries of teeth and bones
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Sapindaceae
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook./UZ-141/T Bankhore Fr
Sd
rfo, int
pow, int
Colic, Rheumatism
Leucorrhoea
1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20©,21,22
Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq./UZ-139/S Snathaa Lf pow, ext Healing agent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18©,19,20,21,22
Scrophulariaceae
Verbascum thapsus L./UZ-18/H Gidar Lf
Wp
Rt
dec, ext
inf, int
ext, int
Sunburn, Ulcers, Tumors, Piles, Sedative, Narcotic
Toothache, Relieve cramps, Convulsions
1, 2▲, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6▲, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13▲,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22
Simaroubaceae
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle/UZ-92/T Draviyae Bk
Lf
inf, int
ext, int
Dysentery, Diarrhea
Blood purifier
1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Solanaceae
Solanum villosum Mill./UZ-09/H Kaach, Maach Lf
Fr
dec, int
rfo, Int
Scanty urination
Tongue infection in children
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Urticaceae
Debregeasia salicifolia (D. Don) Rendle/UZ-39/S Sindari Ae inf, ext Eczema, Dermatitis 1, 2, 3©, 4©, 5, 6©, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18©,19,20,21,22
Urtica dioica L./UZ-49/H Kinjii Rt
Rt
inf, int
pas, int
Scanty urination
Anti-allergic
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7▲, 8,9,10,11▲,12,13▲,14,15▲,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲
Valerianaceae
Valeriana jatamansi Jones./UZ-60/H Mushk bala Rh exr, int Intestinal pain, Neurosis, Constipation 1, 2, 3▲, 4▲, 5, 6, 7▲, 8,9,10▲,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲
Verbenaceae
Vitex agnus-castus L./UZ-88/T   Lf exr, int Female reproductive system disorders, Scanty urination, Digestive disorders, Anxiety, Stomachache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 Stomachache ,18,19,20,21,22
Verbena officinalis L./UZ-67/H Chandni Wp inf, int Scanty urination, Reduces inflammation, Control bleeding, Malaria, Nervous exhaustion, Depression, Asthma, Migraine, Jaundice 1, 2▲, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8©,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22
Violaceae
Viola odorata L./UZ-100/H Banafshan Wp boi, int Flu, Cough, Jaundice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5▲, 6, 7, 8,9,10▲,11,12,13,14,15,16▲,17,18,19,20,21,22
  1. Habit: H, Herbs; S, Shrubs; T, Trees; F, Ferns; E, Epiphyte. Part(s) Used: Lf, Leaf; Fr, Fruit; Rt, Root; St, Stem; Ae, Aerial Parts; Wp, Whole Plant; Fd, Fronds; Sd, Seed; Fl, Flower; Bk, Bark; Bl, Bulb; Rh, Rhizome; In, Inflorescence; Sh, Shoot; Lt, Latex; Br, Branches; Rs, Resin; Gr, Grain; Pd, Pods; Pl, Pulp; Ol, Oil. Method of preparation: pow, Powder; dec, Decoction; ext, Extract; pas, Paste; jui, Juice; pou, Poultice; inf, Infusion; che, Chewed; veg, Vegetable; rub, Rubbing; eat, Eaten; coo, Cooked; boi, Boiled; flu, Fluid; fra, Fragrance, mix, Mixture. Mode of Aministration: int, Internal; exr, External. Previous use reports: (©) = plants with similar use(s); (▲) = plants with dissimilar use (s); () = plants not reported in previous study; bold written highlights the frequent use for a given plant. 1: Mahmood et al. [64]; 2: Khan et al. [65]; 3: Amjadet al [41].; 4: Shaheenet al [47].; 5: Ishtiaq et al. [66]; 6: Amjad et al. [67]; 7: Gilani et al. [68]; 8: Gulshan et al. [69]; 9: Mahmood et al. [70];10: Rana et al. [71]; 11: Jadhav [72];12: Gidey et al. [73]; 13: Dar [74];14: Bano et al. [39]; 15: Khan et al. [75]; 16: Hussain et al. [76] 17: Ullah and Bibi [77]; 18: Qaseem et al. [40]; 19: Aziz et al. [14]; 20. Ahmad et al. [32]; Umair et al. [78]; 22. Hussain et al. [76]