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Table 2 Ethnoclassification system of the miriti adopted by the riverine peoples inhabitants of the Sirituba Island, Abaetetuba, Brazil

From: Ethnoecology of miriti (Mauritia flexuosa, L.f.) fruit extraction in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge and practices of riverine peoples contribute to the biodiversity conservation

  Cat. Clas. Characteristics
Miriti palm Sex Male Palm tree that does not bear fruit, just puts flowers. It is usually knocked down for port construction. However, riverine people dwellers emphasize that they only do so in cases of extreme need, as they recognize that female palms need the male to bear fruit.
Female Palm tree that bears fruit. Preserved for fruit collection.
Age Old Palm trees with more than three decades, usually females that for the long time of fruiting are considered providers of good fruits, the “mothers” within the miritizal. They present greater representativeness in the riverine people sociocultural system, as they are attributed name to these palm trees, being respected by the families. Its fruits are special and, therefore, the bunches are not cut; it is only collected on the ground, restricting itself to family consumption and as a gift to friends, neighbors and family members who live in the city.
New Palm trees up to two decades old. In the case of females, their fruits are considered sour and are not very popular for family consumption, although they are collected for sale. When they are close to an old palm tree, they are conserved and cared for, as they are believed to be “daughters,” and when they reach the age of their “mothers,” they will offer fruit as good as them.
Size Large Larger palm trees, which can be attributed to difficulty in climbing to cut the bunches in the period of fruit collection, in some of these no one dares to climb, thus, only take advantage of the fruit that fall. Sometimes, these palms are also considered ancient.
Small Small palm trees which are attributed to the ease of climbing to collect the fruits. They are also considered young.
Miriti fruit Color White Fruit which has clear or pale yellow pulp, tending to white. These fruitare are considered sweeter, better for pulp consumption, and good for preparing wine, although they do not present an attractive color. This factor is also attributed to the low demand for this type of fruit in the market, although it is mainly marketed to riverine people who are living in the city and know that it tastes better and orders it. Its occurrence is less frequent.
Yellow Fruit with yellow-orange pulp, slightly more intense than white. It presents a preference similar to white, also being referred to as sweet fruit and better for the consumption of the pulp and preparation of the wine, which presents better color and, therefore, is preferred for this form of use. It is more accepted in the market than white.
Red Fruit with purple-red pulp. They are generally referred to as sour and strong fruit, although they emerge as the most required by the market and, therefore, they are mainly aimed at commercialization
Shape Round Circular-shaped fruit
Long Oval-shaped fruit
Size Big (Graúdo) Big fruit
Small (Jitito) Small fruit
Pulp ratio Fleshy (Carnudo) Fruits that present a high proportion of pulp in relation to the majority, resulting in greater yield when pulping for commercialization of the mass.
Low flesh (Seco) Fruits that have a low proportion of pulp in relation to the majority, resulting in low yield when pulping for commercialization of the mass.
Collection method Assembled (Juntado) Fruits that are collected under the palm trees of miriti presenting ripe bunches. They are considered the fruit of the “right time” and, therefore, more delicious, “better to eat because it is very ripe”.
Cut (Cortado) Fruits obtained by the bunch cutting process. They are generally considered sour because they were harvested “ahead of time,” which implies that they are unripe. They are predominantly intended for commercialization.