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Table 2 Raw data from the interviews

From: Socialising over fruits and vegetables: the biocultural importance of an open-air market in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Characteristics Total respondents % Visit the Tamu leisurely (n = 51) % Do not visit the Tamu leisurely (n = 109) % p value^ Indigenous (n = 87) % Non-indigenous (n = 73) % p value^
Gender Male 83 51.9 29 56.9 54 49.5 0.488 47 46 36 49.3 0.664
Female 77 48.1 22 43.1 55 50.5   40 54 37 50.7  
Age 20–39 49 30.6 20 39.2 29 26.6   22 25.3 27 37  
40–64 97 60.6 25 49 72 66.1 0.122 54 62.1 43 58.9 0.073
65 above 14 8.8 6 11.8 8 7.3   11 12.6 3 41.1  
Marital status Married 129 80.6 39 76.5 90 82.6 0.487 75 86.2 54 74 0.08
Single 31 19.4 12 23.5 19 17.4   12 13.8 19 26  
Residential status Local 110 68.8 37 72.5 73 67 0.599 84 96.6 26 35.6 < 0.001*
Foreigner 50 31.2 14 27.5 36 33   3 3.4 47 64.4  
Period of Stay Tourist 2 4.0 1 7.2 1 2.8       
< 1 year 1 2.0 0 0 1 2.8 0.12      
1–5 years 9 18.0 5 35.7 4 11.1       
> 5 years 38 76.0 8 57.1 30 83.3       
Frequency of market visit in native country Regularly 34 68.0 7 50 27 75       
Sometimes 13 26.0 6 42.9 7 19.4 0.154      
No 3 6.0 1 7.1 2 5.6       
Frequency of Tamu visit Regularly 101 63.1 29 56.9 72 66.1   49 56.3 52 71.2  
Sometimes 56 35.0 20 39.2 36 33 0.224 38 43.7 18 24.7 0.008*
Only during festival 0 0.0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0  
Others 3 1.9 2 3.9 1 0.9   0 0 3 4.1  
Are you from an indigenous community? No 73 45.6 22 43.1 51 46.8 0.793      
Yes 87 54.4 29 56.9 58 53.2       
If yes, which group are you from? Malay 58 66.7 18 62 40 69       
Kedayan 17 19.5 7 24.1 10 17.2       
Dusun 3 3.5 1 3.5 2 3.5 0.211      
Iban 5 5.7 0 0 5 8.6       
Melayu Tutong 3 3.5 2 6.9 1 1.7       
Serawak Kuching 1 1.1 1 3.5 0 0       
Monthly Income < BND1000 90 56.2 28 54.9 62 56.9   48 55.2 42 57.5  
BND1000–1999 35 21.9 11 21.6 24 22 0.592 22 25.3 13 17.8 0.492
BND2000–2999 18 11.3 8 15.7 10 9.2   10 11.5 8 11  
> BND3000 12 7.5 2 3.9 10 9.2   6 6.9 6 8.2  
Not available 5 3.1 2 3.9 3 2.7   1 1.1 4 5.5  
Education level None 0 0.0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0  
Primary 13 8.1 6 11.8 7 6.4   6 6.9 7 9.6  
Secondary 95 59.4 26 51 69 63.3 0.395 57 65.5 38 52 0.005*
Vocational/diploma 25 15.6 11 21.5 14 12.8   17 19.5 8 11  
BA 21 13.1 6 11.8 15 13.8   7 8.1 14 19.2  
MA and above 6 3.8 2 3.9 4 3.7   0 0 6 8.2  
Main reason for visiting Tamu Cheap prices 16 10.0 5 9.8 11 10.1   8 9.2 8 10.9  
Lots of vegetables/fruits 90 56.3 31 60.8 59 54.1   45 51.7 45 61.6  
Local fruits and vegetables 18 11.3 5 9.8 13 11.9 0.729 13 14.9 5 6.9 0.508
Meeting familiar people 0 0.0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0  
Can bargain 1 0.6 0 0 1 0.9   1 1.2 0 0  
Fresh 11 6.9 2 3.9 9 8.3   6 6.9 5 6.9  
Convenient 4 2.5 0 0 4 3.7   1 1.2 3 4.1  
Medicinal plants 0 0.0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0  
Snacks 10 6.2 5 9.8 5 4.6   7 8 3 4.1  
Others 10 6.2 3 5.9 7 6.4   6 6.9 4 5.5  
Other reasons for visiting Tamu# Cheap prices 91 56.9 28 54.9 63 57.8   51 58.6 40 54.8  
Lots of vegetables/fruits 112 70.0 40 78.4 72 66.1   57 65.5 55 75.3  
Local fruits and vegetables 79 49.4 24 47.1 55 50.5   35 40.2 44 60.3  
Meeting familiar people 40 25.0 15 29.4 25 22.9   21 24.3 19 26  
Can bargain 38 23.8 12 23.5 26 23.9   15 17.2 23 31.5  
Fresh 78 48.8 25 49 53 48.6   32 36.8 46 63  
Convenient 73 45.6 23 45.1 50 45.9   26 29.9 47 64.4  
Medicinal plants 20 12.5 8 15.7 12 11   11 12.6 9 12.3  
Snacks 75 46.9 25 49 50 45.9   26 41.4 39 53.4  
Others 7 4.4 3 5.9 4 3.7   5 5.7 2 2.7  
Whom did you purchase from? Regular vendor 65 40.6 14 27.5 51 46.8   33 37.9 32 43.8  
Whoever offers cheap prices 27 16.9 11 21.5 16 14.7 0.066 16 18.4 11 15.1 0.718
Any vendor offering clean and healthy product 68 42.5 26 51 42 38.5   38 43.7 30 41.1  
Do you visit Tamu with friends? Yes 22 13.8 8 15.7 14 12.9   9 10.3 13 17.8  
Sometimes 41 25.6 17 33.3 24 22 0.214 20 23 21 28.8 0.195
No 97 60.6 26 51 71 65.1   58 66.7 39 53.4  
Have you made friends at the Tamu? Yes 97 60.6 28 54.9 69 63.3 0.401 61 70.1 36 49.3 0.012*
No 63 39.4 23 45.1 40 36.7   26 29.9 37 50.7  
If yes, with whom did you make friends with? Vendors 84 86.6 28 100 56 81.2   53 86.9 31 86.1  
Visitors 32 33.0 10 35.7 22 31.9   17 27.9 15 41.7  
Others 4 4.1 0 0 4 5.8   3 4.9 1 2.8  
Do you purchase groceries as a favour for your neighbour? Yes, often 23 14.4 8 15.7 15 13.8   15 17.2 8 11  
Yes, sometimes 48 30.0 17 33.3 31 28.4 0.72 28 32.2 20 27.4 0.322
No 89 55.6 26 51 63 57.8   44 50.6 45 61.6  
Would you visit the Tamu even if you don't have a purchase to make? Yes 51 31.9       29 33.3 22 30.1 0.793
No 109 68.1       58 66.7 51 69.9  
How often do you purchase from supermarket? Regularly 64 40.0 20 39.2 44 40.4   38 43.7 26 35.6  
Yes, only if it is not available in Tamu 28 17.5 6 11.8 22 20.2 0.457 15 17.2 13 17.8 0.573
Rarely 67 41.9 25 49 42 38.5   34 39.1 33 45.2  
Never 1 0.6 0 0 1 0.9   0 0 1 1.4  
Should every city have local markets? Yes 153 95.6 49 96 104 95.4   86 98.8 67 91.8  
No 4 2.5 1 2 3 2.8 1 1 1.2 3 4.1 0.081
Do not know 3 1.9 1 2 2 1.8   0 0 3 4.1  
Do you think there are groceries only in local market? Yes 81 50.6 26 51 55 50.5 1 53 60.9 28 38.4 0.007*
No 79 49.4 25 49 54 49.5   34 39.1 45 61.6  
If yes, name some of these groceries Local goods 54 81.1 16 69.6 38 88.4   37 86 17 73.9  
Traditional goods 13 19.7 6 26.1 7 16.3   8 18.6 5 21.7  
Traditional medicines 6 9.1 4 17.4 2 4.7   3 7 3 13  
Fish/seafood 11 16.7 7 30.4 4 9.3   5 11.6 6 26.1  
Live poultry 3 4.5 2 8.7 1 2.3   2 4.7 1 4.3  
Beverage 2 3.0 1 4.3 1 2.3   1 2.3 1 4.3  
Nuts and legumes 1 1.5 0 0 1 2.3   1 2.3 0 0  
Do you think there are groceries only in supermarket? Yes 86 53.8 23 45.1 63 57.8 0.183 53 60.9 33 45.2 0.068
No 74 46.2 28 54.9 46 42.2   34 39.1 40 54.8  
If yes, name some of these groceries Imported goods 33 47.1 9 50 24 46.2   20 48.8 13 44.8  
Processed goods 33 47.1 7 38.9 26 50   19 46.3 14 48.3  
Poultry 15 21.4 3 16.7 12 23.1   9 22.2 6 20.7  
Local products 2 2.9 0 0 2 3.8   2 4.9 0 0  
Grain products 3 4.3 1 5.6 2 3.8   2 4.9 1 3.4  
Meat 9 12.9 2 11.1 7 13.5   6 14.6 3 10.3  
Eggs 1 1.4 1 5.6 0 0   1 2.4 0 0  
Condiments/seasoning/spices 2 2.9 2 11.1 0 0   2 4.9 0 0  
Dairy products 2 2.9 0 0 2 3.8   1 2.5 1 3.4  
Fish 2 2.9 0 0 2 3.8   1 2.5 1 3.4  
Nuts/legumes/by-product 1 1.4 0 0 1 1.9   1 2.5 0 0  
Gate where interview took place West 80 50.0 23 45.1 57 52.3 0.497 46 52.9 34 46.6 0.526
East 80 50.0 28 54.9 52 47.7   41 47.1 39 53.4  
  1. #Multiple responses were allowed
  2. ^Derived from independent chi-square or Fisher's exact test (whichever is appropriate)
  3. *p value is statistically significant (< 0.05)