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Table 2 Ethnobotanical profile of plants from the area. Plants with novel medicinal uses are highlighted in bold

From: An ethnopharmacological survey and comparative analysis of plants from the Sudhnoti District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Family BN. Acc. LN PU Rec App Uses N UV CSI Previously reported uses References
Acanthaceae Dicliptera roxburghiana Nees. FK-5006   Aerial parts Fodder Oral Used to treat sun stroke in buffaloes. 1 0.023 1.70 The powder is used as a general tonic [20]
Justicia adhatoda L. FK-5022 Bhekar Leaves Wrap Topical Used with onion, turmeric and oil for papules and pimples. 3 0.103 8.86 Used for wound infections. Decoction is antispasmodic, expectorant and abortifacient [21]
Nerium oleander L. FK-5038 Kneera Shoots/flowers Powder, aerial parts Oral Used to treat diabetes. Used to treat gum bleeding and toothache. 7 0.139 7.25 Used to treat stomach pain. Used to treat ear pain and eyes problems. Considered poisonous. [22]
Strobilanthes attenuata Nees FK- 5065 Malol Flower    Used to prepare local dyes. 1 0.007 2.40 The decoction is used for the treatment of boils. It is also laxative and anti-helminthic. [23]
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spinosus L. FK-4986 Ganar Aerial parts Vegetable Oral Cooked as vegetable Effective against constipation and obesity. Used as fodder. 8 0.103 2.40 Seeds are cooked with rice and given for joint pain. [24]
Apocynaceae Carissa spinarum L. FK-4995 Granda Fruit    Fruit is edible 2 0.021 3.00 Fruit is used as a blood purifier. [25]
Araliaceae Hedera helix L. FK-5019 Batkal Leaves Infusion Oral Used to treat diabetes. 6 0.029 1.60 Used for benign warts [26]
Asteraceae Achillea millefolium L.FK-4984 Kangi Root Infusion Oral Root extract is used to treat gum problems. Infusion is used to remove kidney stone. 4 0.022 3.60 Used for fever, colds, and urinary disorders. Aerial parts are used to improve bile flow. [27]
Artemisia vulgaris L. FK-4988 Chaoo Aerial parts Vegetable Oral Cooked as vegetables. Decoction is used for fevers. 6 0.044 2.00 Kills parasitic worms. Leaf extract is used for malaria and fever. [28]
Artemisia absinthium L. FK-4989 Isanteen Whole plant Powder Oral Dried ground powder of whole plant is used as hypoglycemic. 8 0.120 4.00 Leaf powder is used for gastric issues. Paste is applied on teeth for pain relief [28]
Cichorium intybus L. FK-4998 Kasni Leaves Vegetable/decoction Oral Cooked as a vegetable; decoction is used to treat liver inflammation. Laxative, effective against constipation.   0.059 6.00 Leaves are used as vegetables. Roots and leaves are used as a diuretic, laxative and tonic. Used for fever, gas trouble, and body swelling. Effective for stomach problems. [29]
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist. FK-5000 Gandi booti     Reported as allergic. Causes skin irritations. 1 0.01 0.24 Uses as fodder [10]
Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. P.Beauv. FK-5041 Chura kaha Aerial parts    Fodder grass 4 1.290 1.37 Fodder grass [22]
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. FK- 5071 Hand Leaves Vegetable Oral Cooked as vegetable for women after child birth. Used as antidiabetic and for jaundice. 6 0.260 8.00 Used to treat bone fractures. Used for cattle after delivery for 15 days for strengthening bones and muscles. [30]
Tagetes minuta L. FK- 5072 Satbarga Inflorescence Ointment Topical Used as ointments for skin care by females. 4 0.135 2.60 Used for skin disease.
Effective against fungal infections. Used in fevers and fits, for piles and earache.
Berberendiaceae Berberis lycium Royle FK-4992 Sumblo Root bark Decoction Oral Decoction of root bark is boiled and used for wound healing and as anti-infective. 10 0.163 9.60 Used to treat external injuries and to stop bleeding. [32]
Boraginaceae Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. FK-5003    Infusion Oral Aphrodisiac, demulcent 4 0.140 3.41 Infantile diarrhea, heals sores, wounds, joins cracked and fractured bones and relieves swollen limbs [33]
Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm. FK- 5075   Roots   Oral Used for inflammation 2 1.331 1.87 Ethno-veterinary uses [34]
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. FK-4994 Trepatri Whole plant Infusion Oral Whole plant is used for intestinal problems, i.e. vomiting. Used as fodder. 3 0.014 3.00 Decocotion of the plant is used to lower blood pressure and abdominal pain, bile secretion, obesity and hemorrhages. [35]
Sorghum halepense FK-5037   Leaves Vegetable Oral Cooked as vegetable for its carminative effect. 2 0.014 6.60 Rhizome is used by “hakeems” for stomach pain and indigestion [27]
Buxaceae Sarcococca saligna (D.Don) Müll. Arg. FK-5059 Naidroon Leaves Infusion Oral Root extract is used to treat toothache. Leaves are antipyretic. Used for thatching 5 0.022 5.0 Used for hypertension, hypoglycemia. [36]
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L. FK-4997   Aerial parts Vegetable Oral Used as fodder. 4 0.088 1.80   
Cypraceae Eriophorum comosum (Wall.) Nees FK-5012 Smakh Aerial parts    Fodder grass 8 0.074 0.93 Used for abdominal pain care. [37]
Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris ramose (C. Hope) C. Chr. FK-5008 Leengri Aerial parts vegetable Oral Used as a vegetable to treat ulcer and constipation. 6 0.037 1.70 Plant juice is used for stomach pain. Fronds are used as fodder for horses. [38]
Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus L. FK-5007 Amlook Fruit/ leaves Food Oral Fruit eaten to cure stomach troubles, leaves used as fodder and wood for fuel. 4 0.111 4.80 Juice of unripe fruit in used to lower blood pressure. Fruit is used as a remedy for hiccups. [20, 38]
Eleagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. FK-5009 Kankooli Fruit Juice Oral Fruit is edible and fruit juice is taken as a treatment for chronic liver problems including hepatitis. 7 0.177 9.10 Root is edible. Green parts are used as a source of forage. Wood is used for fuel. [20, 39]
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia helioscopia L. FK-5011 Dodhal Aerial parts Latex Oral Used to treat constipation. 7 0.070 3.20 Roots are used as anthelmintic. Aerial parts are used for constipation. Seeds are used for cholera. [10]
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mill Arg. FK-5029 Kamella Fruit    Considered toxic due to its purgative effects. Fruit was used to extract red dye previously. 2 0.092 1.80 Anthelminthic effects are reported [40]
Fabaceae Astragalus psilacanthus Boiss. FK-4990 Kanda Aerial parts    Used as fodder. 5 0.031 1.13 Leaves are used for flu and toothache. [28]
Indigofera heterantha Wall Brandis FK-5020 Jand Aerial parts Infusion   Used for stomach disorders. Used to make baskets. Used as fodder. 3 0.074 2.50 .  
Lespedeza juncea Wall FK-5023 Jandi Aerial parts    Fodder grass 4 0.170 0.79 Used to treat a variety of skin diseases [9]
Lotus corniculatus L. FK-5024 Trepatri Aerial parts    Fodder 5 0.195 0.69   
Melilotus indica L. All. FK-5033 Sree kaha Leaves Vegetable Oral Cooked as vegetable. Seeds are used to treat genital infection 1 0.07 2.0 Infusion is used in cough and bronchial disorders. [3]
Trifolium repens L. FK- 5074 Shatahl Leaves Vegetable Oral Used to treat gout. Used as fodder. 3 0.037 3.48 Anti-rheumatic and depurative, used in cough, cold, gout and leucorrhoea. [41]
Fagaceae Quercus incana W. Bartram. FK- 5050 Erruti Seeds Powder Oral A major source of fuel wood. Seeds are used to treat dysentery. Used to make traditional plough. 3 0.109 1.30 Astringent, used in diarrhea and indigestion, wood is used to make agriculture Tools. [12, 38]
Gentianaceae Gentiana olivieri (Griseb)
Neel kanth Leaves Decoction Oral Decoction is used for cough. Roots are used to treat infection of genitals in male child. 6 0.051 7.80 Used for cardiac ailments. Root is used for stomachache [42]
Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. FK- 5066 Chraita Leaves Infusion Oral Used against fevers i.e. typhoid and malarial fevers. 3 0.213 5.40 The decoction is used for the treatment of boils. Laxative and anti-helminthic [10]
Swertia alata C.B.Clarke. FK- 5067 Chraita Whole plant Decoction Oral Used for fever and liver inflammation 4 0.201 3.33   
Geraniaceae Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet FK-5015   Leaves Paste Topical Leaf paste is used for joint pain. 4 0.044 1.60 Root extract is used in chronic diarrhea. Rhizome is used in powder form for backache, mouth ulcers and chronic diarrhea [43]
Geranium nepalense Sweet FK-5016   Roots Tea Oral Gives relief from pains, i.e. migraine. Used to treat renal disorders. 7 0.022 3.50 Astringent, used to cure renal problems. [44]
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L.
FK- 5021
Khour Bark Chewing stick Oral Bark is used as chewing sticks to cure gum sores and colorize lips as a traditional cosmetic item. 4 0.150 8.80 Plant is astringent. Used for toothache, bark is used as chew stick. Fruits is edible and sold in market. [10, 12]
Lamiaceae Colebrookea oppositifolia Lodd. FK-4999 Muskana Bhekar Leaves Wrap Topical Paste is wrapped on injury site. 3 0.19 2.92 Antibacterial, antifungal [28]
Mentha longifolia (L.) L. FK-5031 Jangli pondna Aerial parts Powder Oral Carminative. Used as an ingredient of sausage 5 0.190 9.80 Used against diarrhea. Used as tonic to cough, flu and asthma. Anti-cholera and anti-dyspepsia effects. [10]
Mentha arvensis L.
Podna Aerial parts Sauce Oral Carminative. Used for its cooling effects; considered good for digestive system. 7 0.99 9.90 Used to cure bronchial disorders and abdominal pain. [10]
Micromeria biflora (Buch - Ham. ex D. Don) Benth. FK-5035   Roots Infusion Oral Used for a muscular itching of the stomach; locally known as “naar”. 1 0.012 3.80 Used to treat kidney stone.
Used as an herbal tea ingredient. Used to treat toothache.
[10, 45, 46]
Otostegia limbata (Benth), Boiss. FK-5040 Chitti sumbal Aerial parts Paste Topical Used to cure open wound infections 4 0.341 2.48 Antibacterial [47]
Lilliaceae Tulipa stellata Hook. FK- 5073 Goggar Bulb    Bulb locally known as “gogger” is edible. 3 0.038 3.50 It has toxic effects on the CNS of animals resulting in high fever, abdominal cramps, violent tremors and twitching of the muscles [43]
Lythraceae Punica granatum L. FK-5048 Drunni Fruit peel Powder Oral Fruit is edible, used to prevent infection and to heal wounds. 9 0.111 5.50 Powder made from fruit is used for diabetes and gastric ulcer. Ground rind of dried flower is given for leucorrhea. [48]
Malvaceae Grewia optiva Drumm. ex Burret FK-5018 Tahamman Aerial parts Fodder Oral Effective for childbirth in cattle. Fruit is edible. Used to make ropes. Used as forage. 5 0.133 2.20 Used for smooth delivery and quick discharge of afterbirth, given to young animals to induce puberty. [9]
Moraceae Broussonetia papayrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. FK-4993 Jangli Toot     Used as fuel and leaves as fodder. 5 0.066 4.20 The plant is toxic and causes allergies. It is also used for fodder and fuel purposes. [11]
Ficus palmata Forrsk
Tussa Leaf Ash Nasal Fruit is edible. Leaves are used as fodder, wood as fuel. Ash of leaves is sniffed as expectorant. 7 0.190 7.0 Latex is applied on viral warts present on skin. Fruit is used to cure respiratory disorders [43]
Onagraceae Oenothera rosea L’Her ex Aiton. FK-5039 Nashtar Whole plant Infusion Oral Used to treat whooping cough and asthma. 3 0.014 2.00 Used to reduce thrombosis, menopause and other degenerative diseases. Plant is used as fodder. [10, 49]
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L. FK-5042      Used as fodder 2 0.040 0.98 Reported for antioxidant and antitumor activity. [50]
Pinaceae Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don FK-4996      Used as furniture wood. 7 0.148 1.39 Used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic,anti-hyperglycemia, antispasmodic, insecticidal, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, immmuno-modulatory, molluscidal, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties. [21]
Plantaginiaceae Plantago lanceolata L. FK-5043 Batti aerial parts Dried
Oral Used for the treatment of constipation and hemorrhoids. 4 0.007 0.10 Used in rheumatism and griping pain of bowels. Astringent. Leaves used in fevers and dysentery and to prevent prolonged bleeding after giving birth. Chopped leaves are used to color skin. [10, 51,52,53]
Plantago major L. FK-5044 Salathee Leaves Paste Oral Used for wound healing and constipation. Used as fodder also 5 0.004 2.00 Used in rheumatism and griping pain of bowels, astringent, leaves. Used in fevers dysentery and to prevent prolonged after birth bleeding. [51]
Poaceae Arundo donax L. FK-5036 Nal Whole plant Pipes   Used to make pipes and thatching material. 4 0.145 4.40   
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. FK-5002   Aerial parts Paste Topical Paste of aerial parts is applied on broken bones for healing 5 0.133 1.20 .  
Poa annua L. FK- 5046 Malla Aerial parts    Grazed on by cattle. 2 0.034 1.80 Used as fodder [10]
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem & Schult FK- 5064   Whole plant    Used as fodder 2 0.071 0.21 Chewed for toothache and infection. Powder is applied for infection. [54]
Polygonaceae Rumex hastatus D. Don. FK-5056 Chukhree Aerial parts Infusion Oral Used for jaundice and antidote for allergies caused by weeds. 3 0.051 2.40 Used as antirheumatic, tonic and laxative. Antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial Antioxidant, and to cure dental problems. [55,56,57,58]
Rumex nepalensis Spreng FK-5057 Khoh Aerial parts Infusion Oral Used as antidote for allergic reaction of other weeds. Cooked as vegetable 5 0.074 3.40 Leaf extract is used as antiseptic, cooked as vegetable. [10]
Pteridaceae Adiantum capillus-veneris. L. FK-4983 Kakwai Whole plant Infusion Oral Infusion of whole plant is used to treat flu and urinary tract infection (UTI). 6 0.029 2.40 Used to treat bronchitis, hair loss, inflammatory and skin diseases. [59]
Pteris cretica L. FK-5045 Koochi Aerial parts    Used to clean milk utensils as an antifungal agent. 2 0.083 2.40 The paste wrapped in a bandage is applied on External wounds. [10]
Ranunculaceae Clematis grata Wall FK-5001   Aerial parts Decoction oral Aqueous extract of aerial parts is used as to treat worms. 6 0.050 6.00 Used to treat intestinal worms in man and cattle. [32]
Ranunculus laetus Wall. Ex Royle. FK. 5051 Mleeth aerial parts Paste Topical Used for skin conditions, rashes and burns. 2 0.035 2.40 Paste of fresh leaves is germicidal, applied once a day. [3]
Ranunculus arvensis L. FK- 5052 Chochumba Aerial parts Vegetable Oral Used to cure infections Part of a traditional vegetable 2 0.093 1.50 Used to treat gout, fever and asthma. [23]
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujube Mill. FK- 5085 Tukbair Leaves Powder Oral Considered sacred, leaves and fruit are used as pain healers.   0.091 5.50 Pain healer, gum problems, stomach disorder, heart burn, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, emoilient, skin disease [60]
Rosaceae Fragaria vesca L.
Ammal budha Fruit Tea Oral Fruit is edible and used to treat heart burn. Diarrhea in children is treated with leaves. Used to make tea. 8 0.125 9.70   
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
FK- 5047
Arwari Fruit    Fruit is edible, wood is used for fuel. 6 0.186 8.00 Antiseptic, used for external wounds. Used for fuel wood and fodder [12]
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham ex D. Don. FK- 5049 Tangi Leaves Decoction Oral Used for hepatitis B and C. Wood is used in agriculture for tools and as lumber wood. 4 0.191 4.50 Used as forage. Wood is used for making sticks, leaf extract is used for hair loss. [10]
Rosa brunonii Lindl FK- 5053 Jangli gulab Leaves Paste Oral Flower is used against scabies. Used as fodder. 4 0.098 5.40 Decoction is taken internally for constipation [20]
Rubus ellipticus Sm. FK-5054 Akhray     Used for fencing. Leaves are used as fodder. Fruit is edible. 5 0.220 8.80 The fruits is edible and laxative. Used in fencing and hedges. [61]
Rubus fruticosus L. FK-5055 Pamnar Fruit/
Food Oral Used for paling. Fruit is used for chilling effect. Leaves used as fodder. 5 0.066 3.50 Fruits are edible and have cooling effect. Spiny branches are used for fencing. [10]
Rubiaceae Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming FK- 5063 Tharyat     Used as fodder. 2 0.191 1.00   
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC. FK- 5084 Timber Seed/
Sauce Oral Shoot is used to make tooth stick for treatment of oral infections. 5 0.267 8.85 Ground leaves used for digestion. Fruit is carminative and is used in sauce. Fruit is also used for piles. [10]
Sapindaceae Dodonaea viscoa Jacq. FK-5005 Sanatha Woody parts    Used as fuel wood and roof thatching in mud houses. 7 0.430 3.80   
Saxifragraceae Bergenia stracheyi Auct. FK-4991 Bhatphary Tuber Powder Oral The plant is used to remove kidney stone. Tuber powder is used for wound healing and diabetes. 3 0.014 4.00 Root extract is used to cure ulcers, coughs and colds. Bark is antiseptic and used to heal cuts and wounds. [43]
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissimus (Mill) Swingle. FK- 4985 Drave Woody parts    Used for fuel and timber. 6 0.029 3.00 Used for timber and fuel. [27]
Solanaceae Solanum villosum Mill FK-5060 Kachmach Fruit/
aerial parts
Vegetable Oral Fruit is edible and effective for mouth sores. Cooked as vegetable and used to treat stomachache. 3 0.480 5.40 Fresh leaves are applied Externally for swelling joints. Decoction is drunk for constipation. [62]
Solanum pseudocapsicum L. FK-5061 Marcholi Leaves Paste Topical Used to treat boils. Excessive use may cause vomiting. 3 0.014 0.30 Fresh leaves are applied externally for swelling joints. Decoction is drunk for constipation. [10]
Solanum surattense Burm. f. FK- 5062 Mokri Whole plant Vegetable Oral Cooked as vegetable that is effective for menstrual problems. 2 0.180 0.30   
Ulmaceae Ulmus wallichiana Planch. FK- 5077 Mannu Leaves    Used as fodder. Wood is used to make furniture and fuel. 4 0.170 4.20 Used as fuel, and for making furniture, branches for fencing and thatching. [63, 64]
Urticaceae Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd.
  Fruit Food Oral Fruit is used to treat bloody diarrhea. Used for fodder and fuel. 3 0.110 4.20 The fruits are grinded and are used against bloody diarrhea. Used as fodder. [10]
Verbenaceae Verbascum thapsus L. FK-5080 Jangli tmako Leaves Wrap Topical Used in combination with mustard oil and salt to treat physical trauma. 3 0.140 2.20 Leaves are smoked to treat asthma and sore throat. Leaves are applied to inflamed body parts [65]
Verbena officinalis L. FK- 5079 Choro     Used as fodder. 2 0.037 2.50   
Viburnaceae Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. Ex DC. FK- 5081 Jammar Fruit/
Infusion Oral Infusion is used to treat typhoid fever. Extract of flower is used to treat respiratory problems. 5 0.207 1.60 Extract of leaves is used for whopping cough and also to relieve abdominal pain. Fruits are used to treat constipation. [65]
Violaceae Viola odorata L. FK- 5082 Gul naksha Flower Decoction Oral Decoction has cooling effect. Juice is used to treat earache. 6   7.70 Leaves are taken internally to treat respiratory problems. used in “kahwa” to treat cough and headache. [61]
  1. Abbreviations: BN botanical names and accession number (Acc.), Fam family, LN local name, SN scientific name, PU part used, Re. recipe, App. mode of application, UV use value, CSI cultural significance index, N absolute number of informants