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Table 6 Navy bean production constraints experienced by farmers

From: Farmers’ perceptions of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production constraints, preferred traits and farming systems and their implications on bean breeding: a case study from South East Lowveld region of Zimbabwe

  Villages  
Sex Constraint Gudyanga (%) rank Maunganidze (%) rank Nenhowe (%) rank Tonhorai (%) rank Mean (%) Overall rank P value
Females Heat stress 60 2 64 2 48 2 60 2 58 2 0.046*
Drought stress 84 1 80 1 100 1 80 1 86 1 0.025*
Susceptibility to pod shattering 32 5 32 4 28 5 36 4 32 4 0.208
Poor soil fertility 36 4 24 6 40 3 28 7 32 4 0.042*
Diseases 24 7 24 6 28 5 28 7 26 8 0.417
Insect pests 28 6 32 4 28 5 32 5 30 6 0.417
Seed availability 24 7 24 6 28 5 32 5 27 7 0.152
Low-yielding cultivars 20 10 20 10 20 10 20 9 20 10 0.591
Power outages 48 3 52 3 44 4 40 3 46 3 0.083
Shortage of labour 20 10 20 10 20 10 16 11 19 11 0.556
Lack of access to transport 24 7 24 6 24 9 20 9 23 9 0.556
Males Heat stress 48 3 44 2 60 1 68 1 55 2 0.018*
Drought stress 76 1 84 1 68 2 64 2 73 1 0.028*
Susceptibility to pod shattering 44 4 44 2 36 4 44 4 42 4 0.139
Poor soil fertility 28 5 40 5 36 4 28 7 33 6 0.062
Diseases 24 7 24 7 28 6 32 6 27 9 0.152
Insect pests 28 5 28 6 28 6 36 5 30 8 0.139
Seed availability 24 7 24 7 24 8 20 8 23 10 0.556
Low-yielding cultivars 20 10 20 10 20 9 16 10 19 11 0.556
Power outages 60 2 44 2 14 3 14 3 54 3 0.046*
Shortage of labour 80 10 20 10 16 11 16 10 33 6 0.417
Lack of access to transport 96 7 24 7 20 9 20 8 40 5 0.417
  1. The % indicates the percentage of respondent; * denotes that the villages differed significantly at P ≤0