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Table 1 Insect species used by the ethnic groups in Nagaland for treating various human health conditions

From: Entomotherapy: a study of medicinal insects of seven ethnic groups in Nagaland, North-East India

S.No Scientific name Family Local name (TU) Habitat Parts used Diseases (use mentions) Therapeutic knowledge FL% (category)
  Order: Odonata
1 Crocothemis servilia servilia Drury1773 Libellulidae Khapfü/ Sothinogo (AN, C)
Note: adults possess different names
Aquatic Nymph Body ache (39); cold (30); vision (25); operational wound healing (12) 1. Boiled nymphs are eaten
2. Decoction of boiled nymphs are orally administered
60.9 (7); 46.8 (3); 39.1(8); 18.7 (2)
2 Diplacodes trivialis Rambur 1842
3 Neurothemis fulvia Drury 1773
4 Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum (Burmeister 1839)
Conjunctivitis (33) Fumes of boiled nymphs are allowed to get in the eyes (twice daily) 51.5 (8)
5 Orthetrum sabina sabina Drury 1770
6 Orthetrum triangulare (Selys 1878)
7 Pantala flavescens Fabr. 1798
8 Potamarcha congener Rambur 1842
  Order: Orthoptera
9 Melanoplus sp. Acrididae Phvütyara (L) Paddy fields Adult Indigestion (25) Boiled or roasted grasshoppers are eaten for quick recovery 51.0 (1)
Diabetes (23) Roasted grasshoppers are eaten to control blood sugar level 46.9 (12)
10 Tarbinskiellus portentosus (Lichtenstein 1796) Gryllidae Shungrü (L, C) Burrowing Adult Headache (14); indigestion (27); loose motion (25); malaria (7) Boiled or roasted crickets are eaten for quick recovery 21.5 (6); 41.5 (1); 38.4 (1); 10.8 (6)
11 Gryllus spp. Gryllidae Panto (L) Wild Adult Dysentery (32) Boiled or roasted crickets are eaten for quick recovery 50 (1)
12 Pseudophyllus titan White 1846 Tettigonidae Satuqhu (S) Wild Adult Fever (6) Roasted katydids are orally administered to young children 31.6 (6)
13 Elimaea securigera Brunner von Wattenwyl 1878 Tettigonidae Kozüvire (A, AN, C, K, L, S) Paddy fields Adult Nutrient supplement (115) Cooked katydids are eaten to strengthen the body 58.7 (15)
  Order: Mantodea
14 Tenodera sinensis Saussure 1871 Mantidae Shopile (L, S) Wild Adult Warts (19) An adult mantis is allowed to masticate on warts 52.8 (2)
15 Hierodula coarctata Saussure 1869 Mantidae Hinube (AN) Wild Adult Enuresis (8) Roasted mantises are orally administered to young children 42.1 (9)
  Order: Blattodea
16 Epilampra sp.? Blaberidae A Aquatic Nymph,adult Appetizer (6), bloating (6) Raw or roasted cockroaches are eaten 20.0 (15); 20.0 (1)
17 Macrotermes sp. Termitidae Holum (A, K, L, S) Burrowing Adult Nutrient supplement (118) Fried termites are eaten 62.4 (15)
  Order: Phasmatodea
18 Carausius sp. Lonchodidae Hanga (S) Wild Adult Calluses, warts (5) Paste of stick insect is externally applied for quick removal 15.2 (2)
Prickling spines (5) Adult stick insect is rubbed for removal 15.2 (2)
  Order: Hemiptera
19 Darthula hardwickii (Gray 1832) Aetalionidae Muzwü (C) Wild Nymph Body ache (10); jaundice (6) Boiled nymphs are eaten 31.3 (7); 18.8 (6)
20 Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier & Serville 1825) Belostomatidae Khozhü/ Khutsia (AN, C) Aquatic Adult Blood purifier (12); gastritis (13) Decoction of boiled nymphs is orally administered daily for two to three days 11.9 (11); 12.9 (1)
Dry coughs (48); diarrhoea (20); wound healing (13) Soup of boiled bugs is orally administered for quick healing 47.5 (3); 19.8 (1); 26.7 (1)
Rheumatoid arthritis (11) Soup of boiled bugs is orally administered once daily 10.9 (7)
Stomach ache (27) 1. Soup of boiled bugs is orally administered
2. Fumes of boiled bugs are inhaled for quick recovery
12.9 (2)
21 Notobitus meleagris Fabr. 1787 Coreidae Azüpaza (S) Wild Adult Stomach ache (25) Roasted stink bugs are eaten for quick healing 46.3 (1)
22 Aspongopus nepalensis Westwood 1837 Dinidoridae Tsseni (L) Wild Adult Jaundice (11) Boiled stink bugs are eaten twice daily for a week 34.4 (6)
23 Coridius singhalanus Dist. 1900 Dinidoridae Longgea (C, L, S) Wild Adult To induce lactation (6); jaundice (33); malaria (8) Cooked stink bugs are eaten daily for a week 7.6 (4); 41.8 (6); 10.1 (6)
24 Laccotrephes ruber L. 1764 Nepidae Segokikha (AN, C) Aquatic Adult Blood purifier (12) Decoction of boiled nymphs is orally administered daily for two to three days 21.4 (11)
Gastritis (13) Decoction of boiled nymphs is orally administered daily for a month 23.2 (1)
Diarrhoea (18); stomach ache (9); wound healing (20) Soup of boiled bugs is orally administered for quick healing 32.1 (1); 16.1 (1); 35.7 (2)
Rheumatoid arthritis (11) Soup of boiled bugs is orally administered once daily 19.6 (7)
25 Udonga montana Distant 1900 Pentatomidae Shothapü (C) Wild Adult Analgaesic (28); operational wound healing (20) Boiled stink bugs are eaten for quick healing 87.5 (5); 35.7 (2)
Coughs (22) Roasted stink bugs are eaten for quick recovery 68.8 (3)
Diabetes (10) Roasted stink bugs are eaten to control blood sugar level 31.3 (12)
  Order: Neuroptera
26 Myrmeleon spp. Myrmeleontidae Kudushürhu (AN, C) Sandy Larva Boils (5); warts (24) Paste of antlion is externally applied to cure boils and warts 11.9 (2); 57.1 (2)
  Order: Coleoptera
27 Cybister limbatus (Fabr. 1775) Dytiscidae Dzübolo (AN) Aquatic Adult Diarrhoea (30) Boiled diving beetles are eaten for quick recovery 46.9 (1)
28 Cybister tripunctatus lateralis (Fabr. 1775)
29 Hydrophilus caschmirensis Redtenbacher 1846 Hydrophilidae Khujü (AN, C) Aquatic Adult Operational wound healing (20) Cooked water beetles are eaten for quick healing 20.0 (2)
30 Mylabris sp. Meloidae Chupnanutsü (A, AN, S) Wild Adult Blisters (8); warts (33) Blister beetle extract is externally applied 28.6 (2); 100 (2)
31 Batocera rubus L.1775 Cerambycidae Loyie (ALL) Trees Larva Analgaesic (79); diarrhoea (16) Decoction of boiled larvae are orally administered 44.9 (5); 9.1 (1)
32 Batocera parryi Hope 1845 Aphrodisiac (10); malaria (12); joint pain (20); stomach ache (17); typhoid (8) Soup of boiled larvae are orally administered 5.7 (4); 6.8 (6 ); 11.4 (7); 9.7 (1); 4.5 (6)
33 Batocera rufomaculata De Geer 1775
34 Orthosoma brunneum (Forster 1771) Cerambycidae Lewo (ALL) Trees Larva Analgaesic (79); diarrhoea (16) Decoction of boiled larvae are orally administered 27.4 (5); 5.6 (1)
Aphrodisiac (10); malaria (6); stomach ache (17); typhoid (8) Soup of boiled larvae are orally administered 3.5 (4); 4.2 (6); 5.9 (1); 2.8 (6)
Asthma (10); coughs (10) Roasted larvae are orally administered 3.5 (3); 3.5 (3)
  Order: Hymenoptera
35 Apis cerana indica (Fabr.1798) Apidae Tukhrü (ALL) Wild Honey Blood pressure (14); cholera (14); cold (110); common illness (163); cough (131); diarrhoea (75); hangover (8); sinusitis (11); vertigo (213) One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered for quick recovery 3.8 (11); 3.8 (6); 29.7 (3); 44.1 (15); 35.4 (3); 25.3 (1); 2.2 (15); 3.0 (3); 57.6 (15)
Honey Mouth ulcers (57) Raw honey is applied on affected parts 15.4 (2)
Honey Asthma (14); cancer (4); gastritis (23) One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered once daily 3.8 (3); 1.1 (13); 6.2 (1)
Larva, pupa Nutrient supplement (105) Boiled/cooked larvae and pupae are eaten 28.4 (15)
Honey/bee comb Bone fractures (19); body ache (7); facial (12); wound healing (117) 1. Raw honey is externally applied
2. Poultice of bee comb is externally applied
5.1 (7); 1.9 (7); 3.2 (2); 31.6 (2)
Honey Conjunctivitis (22) One or two drops of honey is applied on the eyes twice daily 5.9 (8)
Adult Headache (8); joint pain (7) Bee sting on target points on the body 2.2 (6); 1.9 (5)
Honey/bee comb Pneumonia (18) 1. Honey is mixed with turmeric powder and externally applied on the chest (as per requirement)
2. Poultice of bee comb is externally applied on the chest
4.9 (3)
Honey/bee comb/wax Stomach ache (75) 1.One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water is orally administered
2. Poultice of bee comb/wax is orally administered
20.3 (1)
36 Apis dorsata dorsata (Fabr. 1793) Apidae Khwize (AN, C, L, S) Wild Honey/bee comb Appetizer (12); cold (70); coughs (91); diarrhoea (78); vertigo (91) 1. One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered
2. A small piece of bee comb is eaten or dissolved in a cup of warm water and orally administered
5.7 (15); 33.3 (3); 43.3 (3); 37.1 (1); 43.3 (15)
Honey Common illness (35) One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered for quick recovery 16.7 (15)
Adult Oedema (6) 1. Soup of boiled adult is orally administered
2. Paste of boiled adults are externally applied on affected body parts
2.9 (15)
Larva, pupa Heart disease (12); nutrient supplement (70) Cooked larvae and pupae are orally administered 5.7 (11); 33.3 (15)
37 Apis laboriosa Smith 1871 Apidae Liuniutso (C, L) Wild Honey/bee comb Appetizer (12); cold (56); coughs (91); diarrhoea (38); vertigo (56) 1. One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered
2. A small piece of bee comb is eaten or dissolved in a cup of warm water and orally administered
10.9 (15); 50.9 (3) 82.7 (3); 34.5 (1); 50.9 (15)
larva, pupa Nutrient supplement (61) Cooked larvae and pupae are orally administered 55.5 (15)
38 Apis florea Fabr. 1787 Apidae Rhontso (C, L) Wild Honey/bee comb Appetizer (12); cold (56); coughs (91); diarrhoea (38); vertigo (56) 1. One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered
2. A small piece of bee comb is eaten or dissolved in a cup of warm water and orally administered
10.9 (15); 50.9 (3); 82.7 (3); 34.5 (1); 50.9 (15)
Larva, pupa Nutrient supplement (61) Cooked larvae and pupae are orally administered 55.5 (15)
39 Lepidotrigona arcifera Cockerell 1929 Apidae Ruyo (ALL) Wild Honey Analgaesic (32); appetizer (12); blood pressure (34); cancer (12); chest pain (18); coughs (75); gastritis (37); common illnesses (90); heart disease (12); vertigo (69) One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered 8.6 (5); 3.2 (15); 9.2 (11); 3.2 (13); 4.9 (3); 20.3 (3); 10(1); 24.3 (1); 3.2 (11); 18.6 (15)
40 Lophotrigona canifrons (Smith 1857)
Honey/nest entrance Diarrhoea (109) 1. One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered
2. A small piece of nest entrance is dissolved in a cup of warm waterand orally administered
29.5 (1)
Honey/nest entrance Bone fracture (42); body ache (11); dog bite (16); oedema (11); joint pain (17); mouth ulcers (34); pneumonia (12); skin burns (59); snake bite (72); wound healing (177); tooth aches (11) 1. Honey is externally applied on affected body parts
2. Paste or poultice of nest entrance is externally applied
11.4 (7); 3.0 (7); 4.6 (7); 4.3 (2); 3.0 (15); 9.2 (2); 3.2 (3);15.9 (2); 19.5 (10); 47.8 (2); 3.0 (15)
Honey Conjunctivitis (33) One or two drops of honey is applied on the eyes twice daily 8.9 (8)
Honey/nest entrance Easy labour (61) 1. One table spoonful of honey is mixed in a cup of warm water and orally administered
2. Small piece of nest entrance is dissolved in a cup of warm water and orally administered
3. Paste or poultice of nest entrance is externally applied on the belly
16.5 (4)
Nest entrance Ritual (10) A piece of nest entrance is carried along to ward off evil spirits 2.7 (14)
41 Oecophylla smaragdina Fabr. 1775 Formicidae Tssonthen (A, L, K, S) Trees All Analgaesic (8); coughs (13) 1.Cooked ants are orally administered
2. Decoction of boiled ants are orally administered for quick recovery
3.9 (5); 6.3 (3)
Adult Malaria (21); typhoid (17) Decoction of boiled ants are orally administered daily for a week 10.2 (6); 8.3 (6)
Adult Oedema (9) Adult ants are made to sting on swollen body parts 4.4 (15)
Adult Fever (19); headache (13) Ants are cooked with local spices (garlic and ginger) and orally administered 9.3 (6); 6.3 (6)
Adult Sinusitis (67) 1. Fumes of ants are inhaled thrice daily
2. Boiled ants are orally administered
3. Soup of boiled ants are orally administered
32.7 (3)
42 Provespa barthelemyi (Byusson 1905) Vespidae Angüi (S) Wild Adult Analgaesic (23) Wasp sting on affected body parts 38.9 (7)
All Insomnia (5) 1. Boiled wasps are orally administered
2. Soup of boiled wasps are orally administered
8.5 (15)
43 Vespa mandarinia Smith 1852 Vespidae Nati (ALL) Burrowing Larva, pupa Diabetes (10) 1. Boiled wasps are orally administered
2. Soup of boiled ants are orally administered
2.7 (12)
Larva, pupa Nutrient supplement (334) Raw/cooked larvae and pupae are eaten 90.2 (15)
All Sharpens memory (7) Boiled/cooked wasps are eaten 1.9 (15)
44 Vespa tropica tropica (L. 1758) Vespidae Akizu (S) Trees Adult Oedema (27) Roasted adults are consumed or externally applied on affected body parts 38.6 (15)
Larva, pupa Nutrient supplement (49) Raw/cooked larvae are eaten 70.0 (15)
  Order: Lepidoptera
45 Cossus sp. Cossidae Loyie (ALL) Trees Larva Analgaesic (62); bloating (10); nausea(11) Boiled/cooked larvae are eaten for quick recovery 22.8 (5); 3.7 (1); 4.0 (1)
Larva Common illnesses (19) Boiled/cooked larvae are orally administered 7.0 (15)
Larva Gastritis (19) Boiled larvae are eaten daily 7.0 (1)
Larva Joint pain (40); rheumatoid arthritis (48) 1. Boiled/cooked larvae are eaten daily
2. Paste of raw larvae are externally applied on the affected body parts
14.7 (7); 17.6 (7)
Larva Asthma (11) Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered daily 4.0 (3)
Larva Diabetes (7) Roasted larvae are eaten to maintain blood sugar level 2.6 (12)
Larva Cough (13); general weakness (11); stomach ache (21) 1. Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered
2. Roasted larvae are eaten
4.8 (3); 4.0 (15); 7.7 (1)
Larva Typhoid (5) Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered for a week 1.8 (6)
Larva Blood purifier (24) 1. Boiled larvae are eaten
2. Soup of boiled larvae is orally administered
8.8 (11)
Larva Malaria (5) 1. Boiled larvae are eaten in alternate days for a week
2. Two to three piece of raw larvae are eaten in alternate days for a week
1.8 (6)
46 Omphisa fuscidentalis Hampson 1896 Crambidae Keselu (AN, A) Wild Larva Analgaesic (29) 1. Cooked larvae are eaten
2. Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered
36.7 (7)
47 Erionata torus Evans 1941 Hesperiidae Niakirülo (AN, L) Home garden Larva Aphrodisiac (7); snake bite (11) 1. Cooked larvae are eaten
2. Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered
6.1 (4); 9.6 (9)
48 Malacosoma sp. Lasiocampidae Meshangra (L) Trees Larva Analgaesic (3); joint pain (3) 1. Cooked larvae are eaten
2. Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered
12.0 (7); 12.0 (7)
49 Samia cynthia ricini (Boisduval 1854) Saturniidae Eriapok (ALL) Wild/Home garden Larva Analgaesic (16); blood pressure (11); diabetes (29) 1. Cooked larvae are eaten
2. Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered
4.7 (5); 32. (11); 8.6 (12)
Larva Nutrient supplement (164) Cooked larvae are eaten 48.4 (15)
  Order: Diptera
50 Tipula spp. Tipulidae Sonhe (AN, C, KH) Aquatic Larva Analgaesic (51) Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered 38.9 (5)
Larva Eyesight (5); fatigue (11) Cooked larvae are eaten 3.8 (8); 8.4 (15)
Larva Measles (6) 1. Cooked larvae are eaten
2. Decoction of boiled larvae is orally administered
4.6 (6)
  1. TU Tribe utilization, A-Ao AN-Angami, Al all tribes, C Chakhesang, KH Khiamnuingan, K Konyak, L Lotha, S Sumi