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Table 3 Medicinal plants recorded with scientific name, habit, parts used, mode of use, frequency of citations (FC), and relative frequency of citation (RFC)

From: The use of medicinal plants to prevent COVID-19 in Nepal

Family Scientific name English name Local name Habit Parts used Mode of use FC RFC Herberium specimen code
Acanthaceae Justicia adhatoda L. Malabar nut Asuro Shrub Leaves Raw, powder 11 0.014 KATH-01
Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa L. Onion Pyaj Herb Rhizome Raw, boil with water 20 0.026 KATH-02
Amaryllidaceae Allium hypsistum Stearn Nepali aromatic leaf garlic Jimbu Herb Leaves Powder 1 0.001 KATH-03
Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum L. Garlic Lasun Herb Bulb Dried, boil with water 217 0.280 KATH-04
Amaryllidaceae Crinum latifolium L. Milk and wine lily Sudarsana Herb Root, leaves Dry powder 3 0.004 KATH-05
Apiaceae Carum carvi L. Caraway Kalo jira Herb Seed Raw 2 0.003 KATH-06
Apiaceae Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Water pennywort Ghod tapre Herb Rhizome Raw 3 0.004 KATH-07
Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum L. Coriander Dhaniya Herb Seed, leaves Boil with water, powder 7 0.009 KATH-08
Apiaceae Cuminum cyminum L. Cumin Jira Herb Seed Raw 13 0.017 KATH-09
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Foeniculum fennel Madhesi souf Herb Root, seed Raw, boil with water, powder 3 0.004 KATH-10
Apiaceae Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague Ajowan lovage Jawano Herb Seed Dry powder, boil with water 17 0.022 KATH-11
Asteraceae Artemisia indica Wild. Mugwort/Indianworm/wood fleabane Titepati Herb Leaves Powder 1 0.001 KATH-12
Araceae Acorus calamus L. Sweet flag Bojho Herb Rhizome Raw 17 0.022 KATH-13
Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Indian aloe Ghiu kumari Herb Whole plant Raw paste with water 15 0.019 KATH-14
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L. True hemp/Indian hemp/marihuana Ganja Herb Leaves Raw, powder, boil with water 5 0.006 KATH-15
Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Papaya Meva Shrub Fruit Powder drink with water or milk, dry, boil with water 1 0.001 KATH-16
Combretaceae Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Bastard myrobalan Barro Tree Fruit powder 5 0.006 KATH-17
Combretaceae. Terminalia chebula Retz. Chebulie myrobalan/yellow myrobalan Harro Tree Fruit, bark Powder, boil with water 18 0.023 KATH-18
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta L. Snake weed/asthma weed Dudhi jhar Herb Leaves Dried, soaked 1 0.001 KATH-19
Fabaceae Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Licorice Mulethi Herb Root, rhizome Raw paste 1 0.001 KATH-20
Fabaceae Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek leaf Methi Herb Seed, leaves Raw, fresh, paste 6 0.008 KATH-21
Gentianaceae Swertia chirayita (Roxb. Ex fleming) Karsten Chiretta Chiraito Herb Whole plant Raw, paste, powder, boil with water 2 0.003 KATH-22
Lamiaceae Mentha arvensis L. Pepper mint/field mint Pudina Herb Whole plant Powder, boil with water, paste 37 0.048 KATH-23
Lamiaceae Mentha piperita L. Peppermint Babri Herb Seed Dried, boil powder with water or milk, 2 0.003 KATH-24
Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum L. Basil Tulasi Herb Leaves, seed Dried, boil with water or milk 142 0.183 KATH-25
Lamiaceae Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. Rosemary Dauni Herb Flower Boil, paste 2 0.003 KATH-26
Lauraceae Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. Cinnamon bark Dalchini Tree Bark Boil with water, powder 23 0.030 KATH-27
Lauraceae Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Ness & Eberm Cinnamon leaf Tej pat Tree Leaves Paste, raw 1 0.001 KATH-28
Marantaceae Maranta dichotoma (Roxb.) Wall. Cool mat Shital pati Herb Leaves Dried, raw 4 0.005 KATH-29
Melanthiaceae Paris polyphylla Sm. Love apple Satuwa Herb Rhizome Powder, paste 1 0.001 KATH-30
Meliaceae Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem tree Nim Tree Leaves, bark Boil with water, dried 73 0.094 KATH-31
Menispermaceae Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. Gulancha tinospara Gurjo Climber Stem Boil with water or milk 74 0.096 KATH-32
Moraceae Ficus religiosa L. Peepal tree Pipal Tree Leaves Raw 2 0.003 KATH-33
Myrtaceae Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr.& L.M. Perry Clove Lwang Tree Flower Raw, paste 12 0.016 KATH-34
Myrtaceae Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Java plum Jamun Tree Fruit, leaves Raw 2 0.003 KATH-35
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava L. Guava Amba Tree Leaves Powder boil with water or milk 3 0.004 KATH-36
Myristicaceae Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nutmegs Jayaphal Tree Seed Raw 2 0.003 KATH-37
Oleaceae Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Night jasmine/coral jasmine Parijaat Tree Leaves Paste 4 0.005 KATH-38
Orchidaceae Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) SoĆ³ Orchid Panc aunle Herb Tuber, root Powder, paste 2 0.003 KATH-39
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola L. Star fruit Kantara Tree Fruit Powder, boil with water or milk 1 0.001 KATH-40
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corymbosa DC. Pink wood sorrel Cariamilo Herb Leaves Raw 1 0.001 KATH-41
Pedaliaceae Sesamum indicum L. Sesame Til Herb Seed Raw, juice 1 0.001 KATH-42
Piperaceae Piper nigrum L. Black pepper Marich Climber Fruit Boil with water 15 0.019 KATH-43
Phyllanthaceae Phyllanthus emblica L. Emblic myrobalan Amala Tree Fruit Paste, soaked 23 0.030 KATH-44
Plantaginaceae Bacopa monnieri (L.) Edwall (L.) Wettst. Thyme leaved graticula Brahmi Climber Whole plant Raw, paste, dried, soaked 1 0.001 KATH-45
Poaceae Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stap.f. Lemon grass Pirhe ghans Herb Whole plant Raw boil with water 4 0.005 KATH-46
Ranunculaceae Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson Jadwar Nirbisi Herb Root Dried,boil with water 1 0.001 KATH-47
Rosaceae Potentilla fulgens Wall. Ex Hook. Himalayan cinquefoil Bajradanti Herb Root Raw 1 0.001 KATH-48
Rosaceae Rosa alba L. Rose Gulaph Shrub Petals Raw, dried 2 0.003 KATH-49
Rutaceae Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Bael fruit Bel Tree Leaves, bark, root, fruit, seed Boil with water 1 0.001 KATH-50
Rutaceae Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swingle Lime/lemon Kagati Tree Fruit Raw, juice, boil with water 116 0.150 KATH-51
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Nepal pepper/prickly ash Timur Shrub Fruit Raw 13 0.017 KATH-52
Solanaceae Capsicum annuum L. Capsicum chilly Khursani Shrub Fruit Raw mixed with vegetable 2 0.003 KATH-53
Solanaceae Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Winter cherry Ashvagandha Shrub Root, seed, leaves Boil with water, powder, paste 1 0.001 KATH-54
Theaceae Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Tea Chiya Shrub Leaves Paste, raw boil with water 2 0.003 KATH-55
Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. Vine grape Dakh Climber Fruits Raw 1 0.001 KATH-56
Zingiberaceae Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. Turmeric Besar/Haledo Herb Rhizome Boil with water or milk, raw, powder taken with water or milk 264 0.341 KATH-57
Zingiberaceae Amomum aromaticum Roxb. Black cardamom/Nepal cardamon Alainchi Herb Fruits Boil with water or milk, powder boil with water or milk 4 0.005 KATH-58
Zingiberaceae Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton Cardamon fruit Sukumel Herb Seed Boil with water, powder taken with water or milk 1 0.001 KATH-59
Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Rosc. Ginger Aduwa Herb Rhizome Boil with water, paste, powder 308 0.398 KATH-60