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Table 3 Food and liquid recommended during pregnancy and the reasons

From: Traditional food taboos and practices during pregnancy, postpartum recovery, and infant care of Zulu women in northern KwaZulu-Natal

Education background
None
n = 23
Grades 1–7
n = 24
Grades 8–12
n = 63
TEd
n = 30
Total
n = 140 (%)
Recommended food and liquid Reason(s)
11 13 33 15 72 (51) Vegetables (leafy) Provides vitamins, increases blood, healthy mind, builds bones, improves growth of the baby
4 5 15 12 36 (26) Fruits Healthy for baby
2 1 12 6 21 (15) Liver Restores, increases and cleanses blood
1 1 6 6 14 (10) Fish Makes the baby clever, delivery will be easy like a fish swimming in water, restores blood
4 1 6 2 12 (9) Peanuts Healthy for the baby, protect one’s body from infections, a good source of healthy oil
2 3 5 2 12 (9) Phuthu pap (maize porridge) and Samp Healthy for baby, energy for the baby
  2 4 6 12 (9) Milk For health and lactation reasons, strong bones, baby will be light in complexion, strong teeth, white eyes
4 4 2 1 11 (8) Red meat, meat Provide vitamins
4 1 1 4 10 (7) Amasi (sour milk) Provides good nutrition for the baby/lightens the skin of baby
  1 4 5 10 (7) Water Avoid dehydrating and for healthy baby
1 3 4 1 9 (6) Apple Give white eyes (cleans the eyes), strengthens the babies bones and makes the baby’s skin to be fresh
1 4 3   8 (6) Beans Healthy for the baby, strong bones
  1 4 2 7 (5) Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Increases and cleanses blood
  1 5   6 (4) Carrot (Daucus carota (Hoffm.) Schubl. & G.Martens) Clear the eyes of a baby and the mother, good eye sight, promote brain development of the baby
   1 3 4 (3) Igushe (slimy leafy vegetable) (Corchorus olitorius L.) To helps dilate the uterus when one deliver
   1 2 3 (2) Banana (Musa acuminata Colla) Gives mother strength/for nutrients, help monitor urination if one is traveling a long distance
1   2   3 (2) Yogurt For Healthy baby with fresh and beautiful skin
   2 1 3 (2) Ijuba (traditional beer) Makes the baby pretty and lighter in skin color
    2 2 (1) Prickly pear fruit
(Opuntia spp.)
Because it is a slippery fruit it will ease the delivery, baby will be comfortable inside you
   2   2 (1) Raw egg, boiled egg To facilitates labor
   1 1 2 (1) Cheese Healthy for baby, causes the baby’s skin to be fresh
  1    1 (0.7) Ihlala fruit (Strychnos spinosa Lam.) Healthy for baby
1     1 (0.7) Chicken Healthy for baby
1     1 (0.7) Maize (Zea mays L.) Healthy for baby
1     1 (0.7) Brown bread Healthy for the baby
   1   1 (0.7) Starchy food Improve fitness of the baby
   1   1 (0.7) Tomato Clean the baby’s eyes
   1   1 (0.7) Mopane worms (Gonimbrasia belina Westwood) Provides Protein for the baby
    1 1 (0.7) Rooibos tea (Aspalanthus linearis (Burm.f.) R. Dahlgren) Cleans the system of the baby
    1 1 (0.7) Amadumbe Healthy for baby
  1. n number of participants responded, TEd tertiary education, Grade refers to the twelve classes (grades 1–12) that one attends at basic education before qualifying for the senior certificate to tertiary institutions