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Table 1 Habitat types used to describe the habitat preference of various mushroom species listed by the respondents (n = 556).

From: Fungal ethnoecology: observed habitat preferences and the perception of changes in fungal abundance by mushroom collectors in Poland

Habitat Frequency Habitat Frequency
Pine Pinus sylvestris L. (occurrence correlated with pine presence) 1178 Blackberries (Rubus L. spp.) 8
Birch (Betula L. spp.) 746 Boar rooting (grounds disturbed by boar activity) 8
Mixed forests (coniferous and deciduous) 622 Orchards 8
Sandy soils 383 Water’s edge 8
Small/young trees 381 Firebreaks 7
Oak (Quercus L. spp). 345 Hazel (Corylus avellana L.) 7
Coniferous forests 334 On trees 7
Meadows 221 Hills/scarps 6
Moss (presence in the groundcover) 217 Potato fields 6
Terrain elevations/hillocks 206 Snow (under the snow-cover) 6
forest edge 170 Bogs 5
Deciduous forests 146 Near feeding rack 5
Various habitats (occurring in many unrelated habitats) 138 Stubble 5
Grasses 135 Thin forests 5
Old/tall forests 129 White moss (Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Ångstr.) 5
Roadsides 104 Balks (i.e. strips between fields) 4
Tree stumps 103 Lichens 4
Common aspen 83 Parks 4
Humid soils 78 Short grass 4
Fields 76 Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) 3
Trenches/depressions 62 Bird cherry (Prunus padus L.) 3
Litter with conifer needles 59 Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) 3
Thickets 52 Fallen pine bark/mulching bark 3
Cows/horses (presence – mainly pastures) 49 Frangula alnus Mill. 3
Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) 48 Robinia pseudoacacia L. 3
Forest clearings 43 Bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) 2
Alder (Alnus Mill. spp.) 41 Secondary forest 2
Heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull) 39 Near tree trunks 2
Under fallen branches 39 Poplars (Populus L. spp.) 2
Clear/light forest 35 Rich undergrowth 2
Clearcutting areas 33 Without undergrowth 2
Dry soils 33 Ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior L.) 1
Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) 29 Burned areas 1
Open areas 29 Compost 1
Yards 28 Dense forest 2
High sun exposure 25 Elder trees (Sambucus nigra L.) 1
Fallows/wastelands 23 Elm (Ulmus L. spp.) 1
Among litter 21 Ferns 1
Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) 19 Fertile soil 1
Juniper (Juniperus communis L.) 16 Fir (Abies alba Mill.) 1
Larch (Larix decidua Mill.) 15 Foxholes 1
Dead wood 14 Garbage dumps 1
Self-sown forest 14 Green moss 1
Forest plantations 12 Hardwood trees 1
Enshadowed areas 11 Near the bunkers (after the war) 1
Medium aged forests 10 Railroad trackway 1
Thick litter layer 10 Ridges 1
Behind the barn (buildings near open areas) 9 Thin litter layer 1
Animal manure 8 Near log piles 1