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Table 3 Habitat preferences and abundance changes of selected fungal taxa.

From: Fungal ethnoecology: observed habitat preferences and the perception of changes in fungal abundance by mushroom collectors in Poland

Species Habitat Habitat (n) Abundance changes
Increase (n) Increase cause Decrease (n) Decrease cause
Macromycetes general Table 1 Table 1 1 Imprecise 186 Drought
   60 Imprecise
   30 Forest management
   21 Climate changes
   19 Antropopression (general)
   16 Pollution
   11 Habitat overgrowing
   10 Mycelium/litter damage
   3 Boars
   3 Grazing abandonment
   3 Low night temperatures
   2 Incorrect collection
   2 Urbanization
   2 Increased pest activities
   1 Logging
   1 Unraked litter
   1 High night temperatures
Agaricus campestris s.l. Meadow 104 0 None 12 Grazing abandonment
Field 31     
Cows/horses 31     
Other 29     
Amanita vaginata Various habitats 6 0 None 1 Forest management
Mixed forest 5     
Coniferous forest 3     
Other 5     
Armillaria mellea s.l. Tree stumps 100 0 None 2 Imprecise
Old/tall forest 20     
Clearcut area 18     
Pine 17     
Young/small forest 16     
Deciduous forest 12     
Dead wood 12     
Humid ground 10     
Oak 9     
Alder 7     
Other 61     
Boletus edulis s.l. Oak 194 0 None 9 Imprecise
Pine 158    6 Drought
Mixed forest 102    2 Pollution
Birch 90    1 Antropopression (general)
Coniferous forest 32    1 Forest management
Forest edge 30     
Deciduous forest 26     
Old/tall forest 26     
Other 189     
Boletus reticulatus Oak 13 0 None 0 None
Sandy ground 5     
Birch 3     
Mixed forest 2     
Other 4     
Boletus subtomentosus s.l. Mixed forest 27 0 None 1 Imprecise
Pine 15     
Various habitats 14     
Birch 9     
Moss 5     
Forest edge 4     
Grasses 4     
Other 42     
Cantharellus cibarius s.l. Mixed forest 106 0 None 13 Imprecise
Pine 99    5 Drought
Birch 64     
Oak 43     
Moss 37     
Sandy ground 35     
Coniferous forest 32     
Deciduous forest 20     
Various habitats 20     
Other 127     
Cortinarius caperatus Pine 32 0 None 2 Drought
Moss 20    1 Forest management
Mixed forest 16    1 Imprecise
Coniferous needles 16     
Old/tall forest 12     
Birch 8     
Sunny areas 8     
Clear/transparent forest 8     
Other 52     
Craterellus cornucopoides Pine 4 0 None 2 Imprecise
Oak 4     
Mixed forest 2     
Gyromitra esculenta Pine 10 0 None 0 None
Forest plantation 8     
Young/small forest 5     
Clearcut area 4     
Sandy ground 3     
Mixed forest 2     
Firebreaks 2     
Other 6     
Gyroporus cyanescens Sandy ground 21 0 None 2 Imprecise
Pine 7     
Roadside 6     
Oak 4     
Yard 4     
Forest edge 3     
Young/small forest 3     
Juniperus spp. 2     
Moss 2     
Other 2     
Hygrophorus hypothejus Pine 9 0 None 0 None
Coniferous forest 3     
Young/small forest 3     
Moss 2     
‘Man's forest’ 2     
Other 6     
Imleria badia Pine 200 15 Imprecise 2 Imprecise
Mixed forest 82     
Moss 61     
Coniferous forest 51     
Various habitats 20     
Other 163     
Lactarius deliciosus s.l. Grasses 29 0 None 16 Drought
Pine 24    8 Imprecise
Forest edge 15    2 Forest management
Meadow 15    1 Pollution
Mixed forest 14     
Trenches/depressions 14     
Coniferous forest 12     
Spruce 10     
Oak 7     
Moss 7     
Humid ground 7     
Other 50     
Leccinum aurantiacum s.l. Birch 175 0 None 3 Drought
Aspen 69    1 Pollution
Mixed forest 33     
Deciduous forest 26     
Alder 15     
Other 121     
Leccinum pseudoscabrum Hornbeam 7 0   3 Imprecise
Old/tall forest 4     
Humid ground 2     
Bog 2     
Birch 2     
Other 3     
Leccinum scabrum Birch 195 0 None 1 Imprecise
Mixed forest 38    1 Drought
Grass 16     
Pine 14     
Various habitats 14     
Other 97     
Leccinum spp. Birch 137 0 None 2 Drought
Mixed forest 29     
Oak 14     
Pine 11     
Other 99     
Macrolepiota procera Meadow 78 0 None 1 Imprecise
Forest edge 50     
Field 36     
Mixed forest 33     
Various habitats 19     
Open area 16     
Grasses 13     
Roadsides 12     
Pine 11     
Fallow 10     
Other 91     
Marasmius oreades Roadside 16 0 None 2 Grazing abandonment
Cows/horses 13     
Yard 7     
Meadow 4     
Trenches/depressions 2     
Other 8     
Morchella esculenta s.l. Pine 5 0 None 2 Habitat overgrowing
Clear-cut area 3     
Fallen bark 3     
Oak 2     
Mixed forest 2     
Moss 2     
Other 4     
Paxillus involutus s.l. Mixed forest 20 0 None 4 Drought
Various habitat 12    1 imprecise
Pine 7     
Deciduous forest 4     
Other 15     
Pleurotus ostreatus Mixed forest 2 0 None 0 None
Dead wood 2     
Clear-cut area 2     
Other 4     
Russula aeruginea s.l. Mixed forest 13 0 None 2 Imprecise
Various habitats 9    1 Drought
Birch 7     
Coniferous forest 4     
Pine 3     
Forest edge 2     
Grass 2     
Other 7     
Russula integra s.l. Birch 3 0 None 0 None
Coniferous forest 2     
Various habitats 2     
Mixed forest 2     
Other 2     
Russula virescens Birch 4 0 None 2 Imprecise
Various habitats 2     
Other 4     
Russula spp. Mixed forest 22 0 None 2 Drought
Various habitats 11    1 Antropopression (general)
Pine 4    1 Imprecise
Birch 4     
Coniferous forest 3     
Deciduous forest 3     
Oak 3     
Grasses 3     
Other 10     
Sarcodon squamosus Pine 14 0 None 2 Drought
Coniferous forest 8    2 Forest management
Old/tall forest 8    1 Imprecise
Elevations/hillocs 5     
Mixed forest 3     
Other 3     
Suillus bovinus Pine 15 0 None 1 Drought
Various habitats 7    1 Imprecise
Mixed forest 4     
Young/small forest 4     
Forest edge 3     
Elevations/hillocks 3     
Grasses 3     
Coniferous forest 2     
Moss 2     
Blackberries 2     
Humid ground 2     
Boar rooting 2     
Other 6     
Suillus grevillei Larch 12 0 None 0 None
Other 1     
Suillus luteus s.l. Pine 239 0 None 5 Imprecise
Young/small forest 204    3 Drought
Coniferous forest 78    2 Antropopression (general)
Grasses 20     
Thickets 19     
Other 112     
Suillus variegatus Pine 19 0 None 1 Imprecise
Humid ground 7     
Young/small forest 7     
Mixed forest 5     
Coniferous forest 4     
Moss 4     
Deciduous forest 2     
Juniper 2     
Elevations/hillocks 2     
Grasses 2     
Blueberries 2     
Clear/transparent forest 2     
Trenches/depressions 2     
Other 10     
Tricholoma equestre Sandy ground 82 0 None 5 Imprecise
Pine 78    2 Antropopression (general)
Elevations/hillocks 47    1 Habitat overgrowing
Coniferous forest 21     
Young/small forest 20     
Moss 19     
Mixed forest 12     
Other 61     
Tricholoma portentosum Sandy ground 77 0 None 1 Antropopression (general)
Pine 62    1 Drought
Elevations/hillocks 43    2 Imprecise
Coniferous forest 23     
Moss 18     
Young/small forest 18     
Mixed forest 10     
Roadside 10     
Other 54     
Tricholoma spp. Pine 124 0 None 10 Imprecise
Sandy ground 118    8 Drought
Elevations/hillocks 54     
Coniferous forest 33     
Mixed forest 28     
Young/small forest 28     
Moss 24     
Other 79