Skip to main content

Table 1 Animal species with ethnozoological uses reported by Riffian Berbers of the Eastern Rif (N Morocco; name of the tribes included). Species are arranged in alphabetical order within taxonomic groups for the readers’ convenience. In the use column, numbers between brackets follow the ICD-11 ([62], Table S1). D = Dioscorides, IB = Ibn al-Baytar (coincident uses), M = Magico-religious use, V = Veterinary use, * = Use not currently practiced by at least one informant, UR = Use reports

From: Ethnozoology among the Berbers: pre-Islamic practices survive in the Rif (northwestern Africa)

Scientific name (family) Common name Riffian name [phonetic transcription into English] Arab name Tribe Use Body part used Application mode UR Total UR
Insecta
Apis mellifera (Apidae) Bee Beni Waryager
Bokoya
Targuist
Stomach pain (13) Honey Ingestion 1 4
Against the cold (23) D IB Entire Sting in affected area or in the body 2
Reumatism (15)a Entire Sting in affected area or in the body. 1
 Lampyridae Firefly Beni Tuzin Antivenom (22) Entire Ingestion (dry, pulverized). 2 2
Amphibia
Sclerophrys mauritanica
 (Bufonidae)
Moroccan toad Ketama Rough sole (14) Ma D IB Entire Topical 1 1
Reptilia
Chamaeleo chamaeleon
 (Chamaeleonidae)
Common chameleon Targuist
Beni Waryager
Stomach pain, diarrhea (13) Blood Drink 1 3
Calmative (21)a Blood Drink 1
Against evil eye (26) Ma Entire Inhale smoke when burning 1
Psammodromus algirus
 (Lacertidae)
Large psammodromus Temsaman Reumathism (15) Ma Entire Amulet 1 1
 Ophidia snake Bokoya
Beni Waryager
Cancer (2)a Meat Stewed 4 7
To kill someone (22)a Venom Venom Ingestion 2
Rough skin (14)a skin Rubbing 1
Testudo graeca
 (Testudinidae)
Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise Bokoya,
Beni Waryager
Temsaman
Targuist
Beni Tuzin
Lactation cessation (5)a Meat Stewed 4 22
Entire Ashes ingestion 6
General healing (26)a Meat Stewed 3
Entire Ashes ingestion 1
Stomach pain (13)a Meat Stewed 1
Hypothermia (23)a Meat Stewed 1
Leucodermia (14)a Meat Mixed with henna 1
Start walking delay (20) Ma Entire Wash over 1
Against evil eye (26) Ma Entire Wash over 1
Reumathism (15)a Entire Wash over 1
Pneumonia, bronchitis (12) M Entire Keep in courtyard 2
Aves
Athene noctua
 (Strigidae)
Litle owl Beni Waryager Sorcery (bad omen) (26) M Entire   1 1
Alectoris barbara
 (Phasianidae)
Moroccan partridge Beni Waryager Measles (1) Entire Stewed 2 2
Bubulcus ibis
 (Ardeidae)
Cattle egret Beni Waryager General healing (26)a Entire Stewed 1 1
Columba livia
 (Columbinae)
Rock pigeon Bokoya
Beni Waryager
General healing (26)a Entire Stewed 2 3
General stimulant (21)a Entire Stewed 1
Corvus corax
 (Corvidae)
Raven Targuist
Bokoya
Generate insomnia (7) Ma Entire Stewed 2 4
Improve sight (9)a Entire Stewed 1
Asthma (12)a Blood Drink 1
Gallus gallus
 (Phasianidae)
Hen Beni Waryager
Bokoya
General healing (26) D IB Meat Stewed 1 3
Be cold (23) Entire Stewed 2
Upupa epops
 (Upupidae)
Hoopoe Beni Waryager
Targuist
Beni Tuzin
General healing (26)a Blood Drink 3 13
Meat Stewed 2
Lack of concentration (6) Ma IB Blood Drink 2
Generate insomnia (7) Ma Blood Drink 1
Meat Stewed 1
Against bad luck (26) Ma Bone Mixed with henna 1
Sorcery (26) Ma IB Entire No information 1
Bone No information 1
Feather No information 1
Mammalia
Atelerix algirus
 (Erinaceidae)
Algerian hedgehog Beni Waryager
Targuist
Temsamán
Bokoya
Beni Tuzin
Against evil eye (26) Ma Spines Smoke in contact with eyes when burning 2 18
Weakness, tiredness (21) Meat Stewed 1
General healing (26)a Meat Stewed 2
Blood Drink 3
Stomach disorder, diarrhea (13)a Blood Drink 2
Entire Ashes ingestion 4
Asthma (12)a Blood Drink 1
Hypothermia (23)a Entire Ashes ingestion 2
Livestock general healing Va Gut Inhale the smoke when burning 1
Bos taurus
 (Bovidae)
Cow Bokoya External hemorrhage (23)a Fat Topical 1 4
Hyperglycemia (5)a Fat Topical 1
Bronchitis, pneumonia (12)a Meat Stewed 1
Renal disturb (16)a Meat Stewed 1
Bos taurus
 (Bovidae)
Bull Bokoya Snake repellent (26) Ma Horn Inhale vapor when boiled 1 4
Hair strengthening (14)a Urine Rubbing 1
Vomit (13)a Liver Drink 2
Camelus dromedarius
 (Camelidae)
Camel Temsamán
Beni Waryager
Bokoya
Fever (21) Meat Stewed 1 26
Join pain (15)a Meat Stewed 1
Fat Topical 1
Aging (21) Meat Stewed 1
Painful urination (16) Meat Stewed 1
General healing (26) Meat Stewed 1
Meat Topical 1
Urine Topical 1
Milk As a drink 1
Herpes (1) Meat Topical 1
Sight improving (9) M Meat Boiled. Eyes in contact with steam 1
Hemorrhois (20) Fat Topical 1
Diabetes (7) Fat Topical 4
Milk Drink 4
Snake repellent (26) Fat Topical 1
Lices (1) Urine Rubbing 1
Dandruff (20) Urine Rubbing 1
Hair color loss (14) Urine Rubbing 1
Nose mucus excess (12) Urine Topical 1
Nose-bleed (12) Urine Topical 1
Canis lupaster
 (Canidae)
African wolf Bokoya
Beni Waryager
Targuist
Temsaman
Against fear (26) Ma Meat Stewed 1 10
General healing (26) Meat Stewed 1
Entire Ashes ingestion 1
Stay awake (7) Ma Meat Stewed 1
General weakness (21) M Meat Stewed 1
Baldness prevention (14) Ma Fat Topical 1
Against coldness (23)a Fat Topical 1
Entire Ashes ingestion 2
Stomach pain (13)a Gut Oil ingestion after frying 1
Canis lupus familiaris
 v(Canidae)
Dog Targuist
Temsamán
Anti-envenomation (22) Ma Blood Drink 1 2
Stomach cancer (2) Ma Meat Stewed 1
Capra aegagrus
 (Bovidae)
Domestic goat Bokoya
Beni Waryager
Anti-envenomation (22) Ma Meat Stewed 1 3
Recovery after fall (15) Ma Skin Sleep on the leather 1
Against fear (26) Ma Dung Heated by charcoal above the patient 1
Equus asinus
 (Equidae)
Donkey Bokoya
Targuist
Beni Waryager
Lactation cessation (5)a Milk Drink 3 9
Make a person acquire an idiot behavior (26) Ma Ear Stewed 6
Equus caballus
 (Equidae)
Horse Beni Waryager Migraine (8)a Hoof Inhale smoke when burning 1 1
Felis lybica
 (Felidae)
Domestic cat Beni Waryager Nail troubles (20) Ma Ear Nails inside cat ears 4 4
Gazella cuvieri
 (Bovidae)
Cuvier’s gazelle Beni Waryager Diuretic (16)a Meat Stewed 1 1
Hyaena hyaena
 (Hyaenidae)
Striped hyena Beni Tuzin Sorcery (26) Ma Unknown No information 2 2
Mustela nivalis
 (Mustelidae)
Weasel Beni Tuzin Sorcery (26) Ma Entire No information 1 3
Asthma (12)a Blood Drink 1
General healing (26) Meat Stewed 1
Oryctolagus cuniculus
 (Leporidae)
Rabbit Bokoya Epilepsy (8) Ma Meat Stewed 1 3
Lower body paralysis (8) Ma Meat Stewed 1
Urinary retention (16)a Meat Stewed 1
Ovis aries
 (Bovidae)
Sheep Beni Waryager
Bokoya
Cough (12)a Meat Stewed 1 4
Chest pain (12)a Meat Stewed 1
Painful urination (16)a Meat Stewed 1
Against fear (26) Ma Dung Heated by charcoal above the patient 1
Ovis aries
 (Bovidae)
Lamb Beni Waryager
Bokoya
Oral inflammation, dental problems (20) Jaw Heated and topical 2 2
Panthera leo
 (Felidae)
Lion Beni Waryager Back pain (15)a Fat Heated and topical 1 3
Reumathism (15)a Fat Heated and topical 1
Heart weakness (11)a Meat Stewed 1
Sus scrofa
 (Suidae)
Wild boar Bokoya and Beni Waryager Stomach pain (13)a Gut Stewed 1 5
Gut troubles (13)a Gut Stewed 1
Against evil eye (26) Ma Tusks Amulet 3
Vulpes vulpes
 (Canidae)
Fox Beni Waryager
Bokoya
Targuist
Ketama
Temsamán
Beni Tuzin
Join pain (15)a IB Meat Stewed 1 26
Asthma (12)a Meat Stewed 1
Entire Ashes ingestion 6
Blood Drink 6
Livestock general healing Va Meat Stewed 1
Children weakness (21)a Entire Ashes ingestion 1
General healing (26)a Entire Ashes ingestion 7
Tuberculosis (12)a Entire Ashes ingestion 1
Cancer (2)a Blood Drink 2
  1. Species are arranged in alphabetical order within taxonomic groups for the readers’ convenience. In the use column, numbers between brackets follow the ICD-11 ([62], Table S1)
  2. D Dioscorides, IB Ibn al-Baytar (coincident uses), M Magico-religious use, V Veterinary use, UR Use reports
  3. aUse not currently practiced by at least one informant