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Table 2 Ethnobotanical data of wild edible plants used by local people in southern Yemen

From: Wild edible plants traditionally collected and used in southern Yemen

Botanical Data: Plant species name (Plant family), Voucher numbers Local name of species in (Citation area) Life form/season Edible part: Consumed modes; taste; (Number of citations, n = 250) Similar use in other countries [References]*
Acacia gerrardii Benth (Fabaceae),
SA 83
Tree:
Taleh (1e),
Gum:
Samaq (1e)
Tree/dry Gum: chewed and eaten or drink fresh;
gum dries as globules from on the stems, it dries while inside is still liquid. It is broken to drink the liquid gum;
mucilage; (40)
Uganda [14]
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile (Fabaceae),
SA 89
Tree:
Qaradh (1a-1e,2a-2c,3),
Gum:
Samaq (1a, 3),
Samaa, Sumaa (1b,1c,1d)
Tree/dry Gum: chewed and eaten fresh; same as above
mucilage; (150)
Sudan [15]
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. (Fabaceae),
SA 85
Qutad (1b,1c,1d),
Gum:
Samaa (1b,1c,1d)
Tree/dry Gum: chewed and eaten fresh;
Same as above
mucilage; (60)
Africa [10]
Aloe lanata T.A.McCoy & Lavranos (Xanthorrhoeaceae),
SA 64
Shrub:
Anded (2),
Flower:
Alhab (2)
Shrub/dry Flower: fresh cooked with bread or reis;
sweet; (40)
-
Amaranthus blitum L (Amaranthaceae)
SA 70
Ladah (1b-1d),
Annass (1c,1d),
Gana (1e, 3a),
Dhadah (1e,4)
Herb/rainy Leaf: fresh cooked boiled with little salts; eaten with or without bread
mild sweet (160)
Ethiopia [16]
Himalaya [17]
Pakistan [3]
Amaranthus graecizans L. (Amaranthaceae)
SA 71
Dhadah (1a,1e,4),
Ladah (1b),
Annass (1b,1c),
Gana (1e,3a)
Herb/rainy Leaf: fresh, cooked boiled wilt little salts; eaten with or without bread;
mild sweet; (160)
Oman [9]
Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae)
SA 72
Dhadah (1a,4) Herb/rainy Leaf: fresh, cooked boiled with little salts; eaten with or without bread;
mild sweet (50)
Himalaya [17]
Angola [18]
Libya [19]
Anisotes trisulcus (Forssk.) Nees (Acanthaceae)
SA 51
Mudhadh (1,3),
Sheri (2a),
Masis (2b)
Shrub/rainy Flower nectar: fresh suck and drink the nectar of the stigma;
sweet (120)
-
Apteranthes tuberculata (N.E. Br.) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae)
SA 40
Khusmaa (1a,2b) Herb/rainy Young stem: cut and eaten fresh;
bitter (90)
Pakistan [20]
Boerhavia elegans Choisy (Nyctaginaceae)
SA 30
Hidwan (4) Herb/rainy Leaf: eaten fresh with or without bread;
bitter; (50)
Iran [21]
Caralluma subulata (Forssk.) Decne. (Apocynaceae)
SA 42
Shawrer (2a,2c) Herb/rainy Young stem: cut and eaten fresh;
bitter; (30)
Namibia [22]
Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. (Apocynaceae),
SA 95
Alat-khalah (1b,1c,1d),
Roob (5)
Herb/rainy Young stem: cut and eaten fresh;
mild sour (70)
Oman [9]
    Root (tuber); eaten fresh;
sweet (50)
 
Cissus rotundifolia Vahl (Vitaceae),
SA 21
Alfaq (1a,1b,1c),
Alfaq (2a),
Alfaq (3b, 3c)
Hadel (2a,2b),
Climber/all year Young leaf: fresh boiled cooked with salt; eaten with or without bread or reis
mild sour; (165)
Yemen [23]
Cleome gynandra L. (Cleomaceae),
SA 22
Raab (1b,1c) Shrub/rainy Leaf: cooked by boiling with salts, mostly in mixture with Cissus rotundifolia leaf;
bitter; (60)
Ethiopia [4]
Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Cucurbitaceae),
SA 25
Maqd, (1a,1e,2c),
Mad (1b,1c,1d)
Climber/rainy Fruit: eaten fresh ripe; mild sweet (60) Himalaya [17]
Ethiopia [4]
Saudi Arabia [24]
Corchorus tridens L. (Malvaceae),
SA 26
Weakeh (1b),
Legen (1b,1c),
Quddah (2b)
Herb/rainy Leaf: fresh cooked;
mild bitter (80)
South Africa [25]
Corchorus trilocularis L. (Malvaceae),
SA 27
Legen,
Weakeh (1)
Herb/rainy Leaf: fresh cooked;
mild bitter (60)
Ethiopia [26]
Crepis rueppellii Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae),
SA 12
Kaanan (1c,1d,3),
Hamham (5)
Herb/rainy Root excluding coat: eaten fresh;
sweet (50)
Oman [9]
Cynanchum vanlessenii (Lavranos) Goyder (Apocynaceae),
SA 44
Qalab (1a) Shrub/rainy Flower: eaten fresh;
mild sweet; (5)
-
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. (Apocynaceae),
SA 41
Arnaq (1b,1c,1d),
Khal (1c),
Radhaa (2a,2c),
Bidar (3)
Shrub/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild sour (150)
Oman [9]
South
Africa [27]
Cynanchum viminale subsp. stipitaceum (Forssk.) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),
SA 60
Radhaa (2a,2c),
Milab (3)
Shrub/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
Sour (30)
-
Cynanchum viminale subsp. suberosum (Meve & Liede) Goyder (Apocynaceae),
SA 43
Zab-Imbaeer (1b,1c,1d,1e) Shrub/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
sour (65)
Oman [9]
Desmidorchis awdelianus (Deflers) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),
SA 45
Uruz (1b,1c),
Kuaaur, (1b,1c,1d,1e,3d),
Muqrer, (2a,2b),
Kuaath (3f)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (80)
-
Desmidorchis flavus (N. E. Br.) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),
SA 46
Uruz (1b,1c,1d),
Dhaba, Dhagohom (5)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (85)
Oman [28]
Desmidorchis lavrani (Rauh & Wertel) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),
SA 47
Uruz (1b,1c,1d),
Obar (1b,1c,1d,2a,3e)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (60)
-
Ficus ingens (Mig.) Mig. (Moraceae),
SA 09
Dharef (3) Tree/all
year
Fruit: eaten fresh ripe; mild sour; (30) Uganda
[29]
Ficus palmata Forssk. (Moraceae),
SA 10
Tree:
Areen (1a),
Fruit:
Balas (1a,2a,b)
Tree/all
year
Fruit: eaten fresh ripe; mild sour (120) Ethiopia [4]
Pakistan [3]
Saudi Arabia [30]
Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae),
SA 11
Saqam (1,2),
Suqmi (2a,2b),
Saqum (3)
Tree/all
year
Fruit excocarp: eaten fresh ripe; sweet; (20) Ethiopia [4]
Sudan [31]
Palestine [32]
Ficus vasta Forssk. (Moraceae),
SA 13
Tauluq (1,2),
Tauluq (3)
Tiq (5)
Tree/all year Fruit excocarp: eaten fresh ripe; sour; (15) Ethiopia [4]
Gladiolus candidus (Rendle) Goldblatt (Iridaceae),
SA 14
Bedhah (5) Herb/dry Corm: stir-fried cooked; sweet (20) Oman [9]
Glossonema varians (Stocks) Benth. ex Hook.f. (Apocynaceae),
SA 15
Qumredh (1c),
Kobash (1d)
Herb/rainy Fruit: Fresh unripe eaten; very sweet; (10) Oman [9]
Grewia erythraea Schweinf (Malvaceae),
SA 80
Shrub:
Schohudt (1b,1c,1d,1e),
Fruit:
Hunqass (1b,1c,1d,1e)
Shrub/ all year Fruit (ripe, red): eaten fresh;
sweet (50)
Soqotra [6]
Oman [9]
Angola [18]
Ethiopia [16]
Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae),
SA 81
Nashem (2a) Shrub/ all year Young fruit: eaten fresh;
Sweet; (20)
Ethiopia [33]
Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori (Malvaceae),
SA 59
Schohudt (1a,1b,1c,1d,1e),
Khedar (2a)
Shrub/ all year Young fruit: eaten fresh;
sweet; (60)
Ethiopia [16]
Sudan [31]
Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Aristolochiaceae),
SA 03
Nabeekh (1b),
Trateef (1c,1e),
Fateekh (1c,3a,3b),
Twacheen, Kuaarer, Twhoot (2b),
Ftookh (3c),
Imlokh (5)
Herb/rainy Fleshy Flower: eaten fresh or stir-fried cooked;
fresh: astringent; mild sour, aroma;
cooked: mild sweet; (160)
Yemen [34]
Uganda [29]
Lactuca serriola L. (Asteraceae),
SA 04
Lessan- imthawr (1b,1c,1e) Herb/rainy Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;
mild bitter; (60)
Turkey [35]
Libya [19]
Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd (Asteraceae),
SA 05
Hawa (1a),
Lessan- imthawr (1b,1c,1e),
Hawa (2a),
Lessan-albaqarah (4)
Herb/rainy Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;
mild bitter (60)
Ethiopia [11]
Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal (Asteraceae),
SA 06
Hawa (1a,2a) Herb/rainy Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;
mild bitter; (20)
Ethiopia [4]
Lavandula pubescens Decne. (Lamiaceae),
SA 07
Feheh (2b) Shrub/dry Leaf: eaten fresh with bread;
mild bitter, aromatic; (20)
Monolluma hexagona (Lavranos) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae)
SA 52
Mequrezh (1a, 1e),
Uruz (1b,1c)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (60)
Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes (Apocynaceae),
SA 48
Mequrezh (1a, 1e),
Uruz (urzh) (1b,1c,1d,2b),
Mulaauzah (2a),
Qarnat-adhabia (3a),
Hwimadhah (3c),
Dhaba, Dhagohom (5)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (180)
Oman [9]
Monolluma solenophora (Lavranos) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),
SA 49
Khusmaa (1a,2b),
Uruz (1b,1c)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (50)
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae),
SA 53
Tarung (1a),
Rangah, Teen (2b)
Shrub/ all year Fruit: eaten fresh peeled;
sweet; (120)
Ethiopia [4]
Libya [19]
Algeria [36]
Orbea wissmannii (O. Schwartz) Bruyns var. wissmannii (Apocynaceae),
SA 50
Khusmaa (1a),
Uruz (1b,1c,1d)
Herb/rainy Young stem: eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (60)
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae),
SA 54
Lessan-imthaur (1b,1c,1d,1e) Herb/rainy Leaf: eaten fresh;
Bitter; (25)
Spain [37]
Libya 19]
Lebanon [38]
Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae),
SA 55
Dhuras (1a,1b,1c,1d),
Sungulah (2a),
Qalqalah (2b),
Rubidta (4),
Hamdhieh (5)
Herb/rainy Leaf, stem:
eaten fresh as salad with bread or without; cooked with Corchorus tridens;
mild sour; (180)
Turkey [35]
Oman [9]
Libya [19]
Egypt [39]
Palestine [32]
Lebanon [38]
Morocco [39]
Jordan [40]
Sudan [41]
Saudi Arabia [42]
Somalia [43]
Iraq [44]
Portulaca quadrifida L. (Portulacaceae),
SA 56
Dhuras (1d) Herb/rainy Leaf, stem: eaten fresh or cooked;
mild sour;
[49]
Ethiopia [11]
Raphionacme velutina Schltr. (Apocynaceae),
SA 86
Qurs-bathilan (1b,1c) Herb/rainy Root (tuber); eaten fresh;
Sweet; (20)
South Africa [27]
Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth (Asteraceae),
SA 85
Khasoor (2b,2c),
Hawa (2b)
Herb/rainy Leaf, stem: eaten fresh with bread;
mild bitter; (20)
-
Rhytidocaulon macrolobum Lavr. subsp. macrolobum (Apocynaceae),
SA 87
Quarran (1b,1c,1d) Herb/rainy Young stem: chewed and eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (70)
Tropical Africa [45]
Rhytidocaulon tortum (N.E. Br.) M.G. Gilbert (Apocynaceae),
SA 88
Quarran (1b,1c,1d) Herb/rainy Young stem: chewed and eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (70)
Tropical Africa [45]
Rumex nervosus Vahl (Polygonaceae),
SA 16
Uthrub (1b) Shrub/ all year Flower nectar: fresh sucked;
mild sweet; (10)
 
  Uthrub (1a,1e)   Leaf: chewed and eaten fresh;
mild bitter; (50)
Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst. (Rhamnaceae),
SA 89
Niem (1a) Shrub/ all year Fruit: ripe fruit, eaten fresh;
sweet; (20)
Oman [28]
Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae),
SA 90
Shub:
Rak (1c),
Fruit:
Mard (1c)
Shrub/ all year Fruit: ripe fruit, eaten fresh;
sweet; (10)
Oman [9]
Senna italica Mill. (Fabaceae),
SA 91
Ushruq (2a,3) Shrub/dry Fruit: eaten fresh;
bitter; (50)
Oman [9]
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (Asteraceae),
SA 92
Lessan- imthawr (1b,1c),
Lessan Albuqri (2b),
Lessan- athawr (3),
Lessan al-baqarah (4)
Herb/rainy Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;
mild bitter; (90)
Turkey [35]
Egypt [39]
Tunisia [46]
Ziziphus leucodermis (Baker) O. Schwartz (Rhamnaceae),
SA 94
Elb (3),
Labdhi,
Habedh (4),
Dhood (5)
Tree/all year Fruit: eaten fresh or dried;
sweet; (50)
Oman [9]
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. (Rhamnaceae),
SA 93
Tree:
Elb (1,2,3,4),
Dhaood (5),
Fruit:
Daoom (1,2,3,4),
Girem (5)
Tree/all year Ripe fruit excluding kern: eaten fresh or dried;
Sweet; (250)
Soqotra [6]
Angola [18]
Ethiopia [26]
Oman [9]
Libya [19]
Saudi Arabia [47]
Egypt [39]
Sudan [31]
Palestine [32]
Tunisia [48]
Morocco [49]
  Seed: Agarah (1a,1b,1c,1d),
Seed excluding coat: Fersoos, Ferquoos, (1a,1b,1c,1d)
  Seeds excluding coat: chewed and eaten fresh;
Oily; (50)
Ethiopia [4]
Sudan [31]
  1. Citation area, where the WEP is collected: 1–5 The names of the governorates, 1-Abyan governorate, 1a-Mukeiras, 1b-Lawdar, 1c-Modyah, 1d-Al-Wadhee, 1e-Gischan, 2-Lahj and Al-Dhalee governorates, 2a-Radfan-Halymeen, 2b-Yafee (Yaher), 2c-Al-Dhalee, 3-Shabwa governorate, 3a-Gardan, 3b-Ataq, 3b-Alrowdhah, 3c-Haban, 3d-Saaeed, 3d-Nasab, 3e-Maifaah, 3f-Arma, 4-Hadhramout governorate, Syoon, Dawaan, Al-Mukalla, Sheher, 5-Al-Mahrah governorate, Qeedhah, Haoof