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Table 2 Ethnobotanical data of wild edible plants used by local people in southern Yemen

From: Wild edible plants traditionally collected and used in southern Yemen

Botanical Data: Plant species name (Plant family), Voucher numbers

Local name of species in (Citation area)

Life form/season

Edible part: Consumed modes; taste; (Number of citations, n = 250)

Similar use in other countries [References]*

Acacia gerrardii Benth (Fabaceae),

SA 83

Tree:

Taleh (1e),

Gum:

Samaq (1e)

Tree/dry

Gum: chewed and eaten or drink fresh;

gum dries as globules from on the stems, it dries while inside is still liquid. It is broken to drink the liquid gum;

mucilage; (40)

Uganda [14]

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile (Fabaceae),

SA 89

Tree:

Qaradh (1a-1e,2a-2c,3),

Gum:

Samaq (1a, 3),

Samaa, Sumaa (1b,1c,1d)

Tree/dry

Gum: chewed and eaten fresh; same as above

mucilage; (150)

Sudan [15]

Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. (Fabaceae),

SA 85

Qutad (1b,1c,1d),

Gum:

Samaa (1b,1c,1d)

Tree/dry

Gum: chewed and eaten fresh;

Same as above

mucilage; (60)

Africa [10]

Aloe lanata T.A.McCoy & Lavranos (Xanthorrhoeaceae),

SA 64

Shrub:

Anded (2),

Flower:

Alhab (2)

Shrub/dry

Flower: fresh cooked with bread or reis;

sweet; (40)

-

Amaranthus blitum L (Amaranthaceae)

SA 70

Ladah (1b-1d),

Annass (1c,1d),

Gana (1e, 3a),

Dhadah (1e,4)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: fresh cooked boiled with little salts; eaten with or without bread

mild sweet (160)

Ethiopia [16]

Himalaya [17]

Pakistan [3]

Amaranthus graecizans L. (Amaranthaceae)

SA 71

Dhadah (1a,1e,4),

Ladah (1b),

Annass (1b,1c),

Gana (1e,3a)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: fresh, cooked boiled wilt little salts; eaten with or without bread;

mild sweet; (160)

Oman [9]

Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae)

SA 72

Dhadah (1a,4)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: fresh, cooked boiled with little salts; eaten with or without bread;

mild sweet (50)

Himalaya [17]

Angola [18]

Libya [19]

Anisotes trisulcus (Forssk.) Nees (Acanthaceae)

SA 51

Mudhadh (1,3),

Sheri (2a),

Masis (2b)

Shrub/rainy

Flower nectar: fresh suck and drink the nectar of the stigma;

sweet (120)

-

Apteranthes tuberculata (N.E. Br.) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae)

SA 40

Khusmaa (1a,2b)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: cut and eaten fresh;

bitter (90)

Pakistan [20]

Boerhavia elegans Choisy (Nyctaginaceae)

SA 30

Hidwan (4)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: eaten fresh with or without bread;

bitter; (50)

Iran [21]

Caralluma subulata (Forssk.) Decne. (Apocynaceae)

SA 42

Shawrer (2a,2c)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: cut and eaten fresh;

bitter; (30)

Namibia [22]

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. (Apocynaceae),

SA 95

Alat-khalah (1b,1c,1d),

Roob (5)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: cut and eaten fresh;

mild sour (70)

Oman [9]

   

Root (tuber); eaten fresh;

sweet (50)

 

Cissus rotundifolia Vahl (Vitaceae),

SA 21

Alfaq (1a,1b,1c),

Alfaq (2a),

Alfaq (3b, 3c)

Hadel (2a,2b),

Climber/all year

Young leaf: fresh boiled cooked with salt; eaten with or without bread or reis

mild sour; (165)

Yemen [23]

Cleome gynandra L. (Cleomaceae),

SA 22

Raab (1b,1c)

Shrub/rainy

Leaf: cooked by boiling with salts, mostly in mixture with Cissus rotundifolia leaf;

bitter; (60)

Ethiopia [4]

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Cucurbitaceae),

SA 25

Maqd, (1a,1e,2c),

Mad (1b,1c,1d)

Climber/rainy

Fruit: eaten fresh ripe; mild sweet (60)

Himalaya [17]

Ethiopia [4]

Saudi Arabia [24]

Corchorus tridens L. (Malvaceae),

SA 26

Weakeh (1b),

Legen (1b,1c),

Quddah (2b)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: fresh cooked;

mild bitter (80)

South Africa [25]

Corchorus trilocularis L. (Malvaceae),

SA 27

Legen,

Weakeh (1)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: fresh cooked;

mild bitter (60)

Ethiopia [26]

Crepis rueppellii Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae),

SA 12

Kaanan (1c,1d,3),

Hamham (5)

Herb/rainy

Root excluding coat: eaten fresh;

sweet (50)

Oman [9]

Cynanchum vanlessenii (Lavranos) Goyder (Apocynaceae),

SA 44

Qalab (1a)

Shrub/rainy

Flower: eaten fresh;

mild sweet; (5)

-

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. (Apocynaceae),

SA 41

Arnaq (1b,1c,1d),

Khal (1c),

Radhaa (2a,2c),

Bidar (3)

Shrub/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild sour (150)

Oman [9]

South

Africa [27]

Cynanchum viminale subsp. stipitaceum (Forssk.) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),

SA 60

Radhaa (2a,2c),

Milab (3)

Shrub/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

Sour (30)

-

Cynanchum viminale subsp. suberosum (Meve & Liede) Goyder (Apocynaceae),

SA 43

Zab-Imbaeer (1b,1c,1d,1e)

Shrub/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

sour (65)

Oman [9]

Desmidorchis awdelianus (Deflers) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),

SA 45

Uruz (1b,1c),

Kuaaur, (1b,1c,1d,1e,3d),

Muqrer, (2a,2b),

Kuaath (3f)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (80)

-

Desmidorchis flavus (N. E. Br.) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),

SA 46

Uruz (1b,1c,1d),

Dhaba, Dhagohom (5)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (85)

Oman [28]

Desmidorchis lavrani (Rauh & Wertel) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),

SA 47

Uruz (1b,1c,1d),

Obar (1b,1c,1d,2a,3e)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (60)

-

Ficus ingens (Mig.) Mig. (Moraceae),

SA 09

Dharef (3)

Tree/all

year

Fruit: eaten fresh ripe; mild sour; (30)

Uganda

[29]

Ficus palmata Forssk. (Moraceae),

SA 10

Tree:

Areen (1a),

Fruit:

Balas (1a,2a,b)

Tree/all

year

Fruit: eaten fresh ripe; mild sour (120)

Ethiopia [4]

Pakistan [3]

Saudi Arabia [30]

Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae),

SA 11

Saqam (1,2),

Suqmi (2a,2b),

Saqum (3)

Tree/all

year

Fruit excocarp: eaten fresh ripe; sweet; (20)

Ethiopia [4]

Sudan [31]

Palestine [32]

Ficus vasta Forssk. (Moraceae),

SA 13

Tauluq (1,2),

Tauluq (3)

Tiq (5)

Tree/all year

Fruit excocarp: eaten fresh ripe; sour; (15)

Ethiopia [4]

Gladiolus candidus (Rendle) Goldblatt (Iridaceae),

SA 14

Bedhah (5)

Herb/dry

Corm: stir-fried cooked; sweet (20)

Oman [9]

Glossonema varians (Stocks) Benth. ex Hook.f. (Apocynaceae),

SA 15

Qumredh (1c),

Kobash (1d)

Herb/rainy

Fruit: Fresh unripe eaten; very sweet; (10)

Oman [9]

Grewia erythraea Schweinf (Malvaceae),

SA 80

Shrub:

Schohudt (1b,1c,1d,1e),

Fruit:

Hunqass (1b,1c,1d,1e)

Shrub/ all year

Fruit (ripe, red): eaten fresh;

sweet (50)

Soqotra [6]

Oman [9]

Angola [18]

Ethiopia [16]

Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae),

SA 81

Nashem (2a)

Shrub/ all year

Young fruit: eaten fresh;

Sweet; (20)

Ethiopia [33]

Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori (Malvaceae),

SA 59

Schohudt (1a,1b,1c,1d,1e),

Khedar (2a)

Shrub/ all year

Young fruit: eaten fresh;

sweet; (60)

Ethiopia [16]

Sudan [31]

Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Aristolochiaceae),

SA 03

Nabeekh (1b),

Trateef (1c,1e),

Fateekh (1c,3a,3b),

Twacheen, Kuaarer, Twhoot (2b),

Ftookh (3c),

Imlokh (5)

Herb/rainy

Fleshy Flower: eaten fresh or stir-fried cooked;

fresh: astringent; mild sour, aroma;

cooked: mild sweet; (160)

Yemen [34]

Uganda [29]

Lactuca serriola L. (Asteraceae),

SA 04

Lessan- imthawr (1b,1c,1e)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;

mild bitter; (60)

Turkey [35]

Libya [19]

Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd (Asteraceae),

SA 05

Hawa (1a),

Lessan- imthawr (1b,1c,1e),

Hawa (2a),

Lessan-albaqarah (4)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;

mild bitter (60)

Ethiopia [11]

Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal (Asteraceae),

SA 06

Hawa (1a,2a)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;

mild bitter; (20)

Ethiopia [4]

Lavandula pubescens Decne. (Lamiaceae),

SA 07

Feheh (2b)

Shrub/dry

Leaf: eaten fresh with bread;

mild bitter, aromatic; (20)

Monolluma hexagona (Lavranos) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae)

SA 52

Mequrezh (1a, 1e),

Uruz (1b,1c)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (60)

Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes (Apocynaceae),

SA 48

Mequrezh (1a, 1e),

Uruz (urzh) (1b,1c,1d,2b),

Mulaauzah (2a),

Qarnat-adhabia (3a),

Hwimadhah (3c),

Dhaba, Dhagohom (5)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (180)

Oman [9]

Monolluma solenophora (Lavranos) Meve & Liede (Apocynaceae),

SA 49

Khusmaa (1a,2b),

Uruz (1b,1c)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (50)

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae),

SA 53

Tarung (1a),

Rangah, Teen (2b)

Shrub/ all year

Fruit: eaten fresh peeled;

sweet; (120)

Ethiopia [4]

Libya [19]

Algeria [36]

Orbea wissmannii (O. Schwartz) Bruyns var. wissmannii (Apocynaceae),

SA 50

Khusmaa (1a),

Uruz (1b,1c,1d)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (60)

Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae),

SA 54

Lessan-imthaur (1b,1c,1d,1e)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: eaten fresh;

Bitter; (25)

Spain [37]

Libya 19]

Lebanon [38]

Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae),

SA 55

Dhuras (1a,1b,1c,1d),

Sungulah (2a),

Qalqalah (2b),

Rubidta (4),

Hamdhieh (5)

Herb/rainy

Leaf, stem:

eaten fresh as salad with bread or without; cooked with Corchorus tridens;

mild sour; (180)

Turkey [35]

Oman [9]

Libya [19]

Egypt [39]

Palestine [32]

Lebanon [38]

Morocco [39]

Jordan [40]

Sudan [41]

Saudi Arabia [42]

Somalia [43]

Iraq [44]

Portulaca quadrifida L. (Portulacaceae),

SA 56

Dhuras (1d)

Herb/rainy

Leaf, stem: eaten fresh or cooked;

mild sour;

[49]

Ethiopia [11]

Raphionacme velutina Schltr. (Apocynaceae),

SA 86

Qurs-bathilan (1b,1c)

Herb/rainy

Root (tuber); eaten fresh;

Sweet; (20)

South Africa [27]

Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth (Asteraceae),

SA 85

Khasoor (2b,2c),

Hawa (2b)

Herb/rainy

Leaf, stem: eaten fresh with bread;

mild bitter; (20)

-

Rhytidocaulon macrolobum Lavr. subsp. macrolobum (Apocynaceae),

SA 87

Quarran (1b,1c,1d)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: chewed and eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (70)

Tropical Africa [45]

Rhytidocaulon tortum (N.E. Br.) M.G. Gilbert (Apocynaceae),

SA 88

Quarran (1b,1c,1d)

Herb/rainy

Young stem: chewed and eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (70)

Tropical Africa [45]

Rumex nervosus Vahl (Polygonaceae),

SA 16

Uthrub (1b)

Shrub/ all year

Flower nectar: fresh sucked;

mild sweet; (10)

 
 

Uthrub (1a,1e)

 

Leaf: chewed and eaten fresh;

mild bitter; (50)

Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst. (Rhamnaceae),

SA 89

Niem (1a)

Shrub/ all year

Fruit: ripe fruit, eaten fresh;

sweet; (20)

Oman [28]

Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae),

SA 90

Shub:

Rak (1c),

Fruit:

Mard (1c)

Shrub/ all year

Fruit: ripe fruit, eaten fresh;

sweet; (10)

Oman [9]

Senna italica Mill. (Fabaceae),

SA 91

Ushruq (2a,3)

Shrub/dry

Fruit: eaten fresh;

bitter; (50)

Oman [9]

Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (Asteraceae),

SA 92

Lessan- imthawr (1b,1c),

Lessan Albuqri (2b),

Lessan- athawr (3),

Lessan al-baqarah (4)

Herb/rainy

Leaf: eaten fresh without or with bread;

mild bitter; (90)

Turkey [35]

Egypt [39]

Tunisia [46]

Ziziphus leucodermis (Baker) O. Schwartz (Rhamnaceae),

SA 94

Elb (3),

Labdhi,

Habedh (4),

Dhood (5)

Tree/all year

Fruit: eaten fresh or dried;

sweet; (50)

Oman [9]

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. (Rhamnaceae),

SA 93

Tree:

Elb (1,2,3,4),

Dhaood (5),

Fruit:

Daoom (1,2,3,4),

Girem (5)

Tree/all year

Ripe fruit excluding kern: eaten fresh or dried;

Sweet; (250)

Soqotra [6]

Angola [18]

Ethiopia [26]

Oman [9]

Libya [19]

Saudi Arabia [47]

Egypt [39]

Sudan [31]

Palestine [32]

Tunisia [48]

Morocco [49]

 

Seed: Agarah (1a,1b,1c,1d),

Seed excluding coat: Fersoos, Ferquoos, (1a,1b,1c,1d)

 

Seeds excluding coat: chewed and eaten fresh;

Oily; (50)

Ethiopia [4]

Sudan [31]

  1. Citation area, where the WEP is collected: 1–5 The names of the governorates, 1-Abyan governorate, 1a-Mukeiras, 1b-Lawdar, 1c-Modyah, 1d-Al-Wadhee, 1e-Gischan, 2-Lahj and Al-Dhalee governorates, 2a-Radfan-Halymeen, 2b-Yafee (Yaher), 2c-Al-Dhalee, 3-Shabwa governorate, 3a-Gardan, 3b-Ataq, 3b-Alrowdhah, 3c-Haban, 3d-Saaeed, 3d-Nasab, 3e-Maifaah, 3f-Arma, 4-Hadhramout governorate, Syoon, Dawaan, Al-Mukalla, Sheher, 5-Al-Mahrah governorate, Qeedhah, Haoof