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Table 2 IPPP in Tripura

From: Indigenous plant protection practices of Tripura, India

Sl. No Technology/plant protection methods Crops/ location Procedure/use Target pests Rationale FC RFC
A Usage of home-utilized products or waste materials and appliances       
1 Ash application
[Vernacular language: (Bangla—Chai/Chali, Kokborok—Thapla)]
-Amaranthus, vegetable crops, kitchen garden
-Legume crop storage
-Application of wood ashes on crops and around the crop
- Ashes mixed with pulse seeds
-Chewing pests like beetles (e.g., blister beetle Mylabris phalerata), termites (Odonotermes spp.)
-Bruchids
Abrasion of mouth parts, particularly mandibles, repels insects due to irritation [40]
-Physical barrier in oviposition [41]
109 0.545
2 Tin boxes like oil cane, amul cane or any food supplement box (Fig. 4) Coconut Banding the cut open tin on stem near ground region Rats: coconut rat: Bandicota indica
(Burrowing rat)
Squirrels: (Funambulus spp.)
Slippery surface of the substrate reduce the frictional force resulting barrier for climbing [64] 44 0.22
3 Tying ribbons, cassette reels or plastic bags (Fig. 3a) Maize, rice Colored ribbon or cassette reels or plastic bags, particularly during grain filling stage Grain feeding bird, viz. common pigeon or blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) Acts as bird scarrer [65] 19 0.095
4 Placing fish nets Nursery seed beds or main field Immediately after sowing the fish nets are covered over it and fixing with bamboo pegs Birds like sparrow (Passer domesticus), pigeon (Columba livia) Physical barrier check the lifting and feeding of sowing seeds [66] 25 0.125
5 Dhup/Dhoya (coconut husk or paddy husk or maize cobs) Citrus orchard Smokes produced by burning coconut husk or paddy husk Fruit sucking moth (Eudocima fullonia) Acts as repellent [67] 38 0.19
6 Soap and detergent Vegetables Foams of the products applied on plant Sucking pests, viz. whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) etc. Creates slippery surface acts as non-host plant, i.e., antixenosis [48] 6 0.03
7 Hookah water (Fig. e,f) Kitchen garden vegetable After consumption, the left-out water is used Pod borers (Bhendi pod borer, Earias vitella Fab., sucking bugs (Riptorus spp., Clavigralla spp.) of vegetables etc Repellent mechanism [37] 98 0.49
B Food Products       
8 Shaft of jackfruit Cucurbits, fruit crops Placing the middle portion of jackfruit (shaft) in gourd types crops and also in mango, guava orchard Fruit fly (Bactrocera spp.) Sweet smell lure and attract the pest for oviposition and the sticky surface glued with ovipositor of fruit fly leads to killing of insects (act as trap) 16 0.08
9 Placement of pomelo/citrus Rice Cut open piece of citrus/pomelo placed in rice field Stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) Repellent action [51] 11 0.055
10 Jackfruit latex Paddy field Putting bamboo sticks with jackfruit latex around the rice field Rat (Bandicota indica) Rat used to stuck in sticky late [50] 9 0.045
C Use of organisms/birds       
11 Erection of bird perches Brinjal, rice, maize, cruciferous crops, sorgum, pearl millet Putting bamboo stem on field having many lateral branches Brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee), rice stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (particularly vegetative stage), different lepidopterous larvae infesting in cruciferous crops, stem borer in millets and maize (Chilo spp.) Attract carnivorous birds for rest and promote prey searching;
Larvicidal properties and hydrocyanic acid content of bamboo boost the pest management strategy [68]
75 0.375
12 Duck rearing Rice Duck rearing near rice field encourage predation Rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera (Olivier) Biological control agent [69] 34 0.17
D Animal products and wastages       
13 Cow dung slurry Moringa Putting the cow dung slurry on top surface of the rejuvenated moringa tree Borer and subsequently check pathogen attack Creates barrier and check secondary infection [53] 66 0.33
14 Putting rotten crabs or snails or dead frogs Rice Placement of crushed and fermented crabs or snails or dead frogs in rice field, particularly during milking stage Gundhi bug (Leptocorisa spp.) Acts as repellent, foul smell deter the insects [54] 17 0.085
15 Cow dung with water or cow urine Rice Suspended slurry application in open field during nursery stage Thrips, Stenchaetothrips biformis (Bagnall) Odor of cow dung and cow urine acts as repellent [70] 21 0.105
16 Chicken egg shell Rice, sugarcane and maize Placement of crushed eggshell as powder Snails, molluscs, lice, beetles, rats, and ants Eggshell powder (contain calcium carbonate) acts as repellant [71] 22 0.11
E Synthetic products       
17 Petrol/ kerosene application Mango, citrus Injecting kerosene or petrol in stem bore hole and plastered with cement or soil slurry Mango stem borer; Batocera rufomaculata DeGeer, citrus trunk borer: Anoplophora spp. Burning sensation, respiration choking, and killing of insect due to asphyxiation (deficiency in oxygen) [56] 58 0.29
18 Tire burning Rice Synthetic tire burning near rice field just before panicle initiation or milking stage Gundhi bug (Leptocorisa spp.) Strong smell repels the pests [72] 17 0.085
F Natural resources       
i Pesticidal plant       
19 Tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tabacum L.) extract application Brinjal, okra, maize and pulses Direct application of water extracts of tobacco leaves after boiling Chewing insects (blister beetle: Mylabris phalerata, hadda beetle: Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius)), sucking pests (aphid: Aphis gossypi Glover, Rhopalosiphum maidisi (Fitch), leaf hopper: Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida, thrips: Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and borer, viz. brinjal fruit and shoot borer: Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee, early shoot borer Earias vitella Fab Secondary plant metabolite, i.e., nicotine acts as insecticide [37] 76 0.38
20 Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extract application Cereals, pulses, vegetables (almost all crops) Steam decoction of neem leaves and the water extracts is sprinkled on
plants after filteration with normal white cloths
All types of insects (chewing, sucking, borer, miners etc.) Broad spectrum insecticidal activities having insect growth disruption; oviposition suppressant and sterilant and antifeedant action [37] 108 0.54
21 Neem leaf (A. indica A. Juss.) Stored products Dried neem leaf placed with stored commodities Stored grain pest, viz. rice weevil: Sitophilus oryzae L., pulse beetle: Callosobruchus spp., Angoumois grain moth: Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver), rice moth: Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) Antifeedant and repellent action keeps the pest away [37] 97 0.485
22 Holarrhena pubescens (Buch-Ham) Wall. (Apocynaceae), [Vernacular language: (Bangla- Kurcha gachha/kuchima gachha, Kokborok- kuchimavompang)] (Fig. 2b) Rice Placement of twigs in rice field, particularly during vegetative stage Leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee), stem borer: Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) Conessine, the steroidal alkaloid has repellant action [46] 88 0.44
23 Placing of turmeric leaf (Curcuma longa L.) (Fig. 2c) Rice Keeping leaf in submerged rice field during vegetative stage Leaf folder: Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) Active principles, viz. alkaloids, tannins, phenolics, terpenoids present in turmeric leaf has repellent action [73] 69 0.345
24 Dried chilli: Capsicum annum L., calotropis leaf: Calotropis gigantea (L.), tobacco leaf, curry leaf: Murraya koenigii Spreng Stored commodities Placing with stored grain products during packaging time for long term storage Stored grain pests -Chilli, containing capsaicin component having insecticidal activity [35]
-calotropis, having active toxic principle, viz. alkaloids repels the insects [36]
-tobacco, nicotine as insecticide [37]
-curry leaves, repellant and antifeedant action [38]
119 0.595
25 Use of fresh branch of crofton weed, Eupatorium adhenophorusm
[Vernacular language: (Bangla- pisach)]
Paddy Branch is cut about 1 m height and placed in rice field @100/ha Brown plant hopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stal)] alkaloid compounds, terpenoids etc. [74] 61 0.305
ii Miscellaneous       
26 Bamboo beating or empty drum beating Brinjal, chilli, maize rice, til, water melon, pumpkin particularly in jhum cultivation Beating of bamboo sticks nearby field Grain feeding birds like parrot: Psittacula spp., pigeon: Columba livia Noisy sound threatens the bird acts as bird scarrer [75] 45 0.225
27 Dried colocasia leaves: Colocasia esculenta L., grease/castor oil or any sticky substance Vegetable crops Yellow dried leaves of colocasia smeared with any sticky material placed in field White fly: Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, aphid: Aphis gossypi Glover Yellow color attracts the sucking pests [58]
and the glued to the sticky surface and killed
24 0.12
28 Use of catapault [Vernacular language: (Bangla- guloil/gulti/gulari)] Fruit crops or cereals crops during grain ripening stage Throwing stones or any hard material by using catapault Birds or animals Scare the target organism [76] 29 0.145
29 Soil application Maize crop Dried soil or slurry directly applied on whorl region of maize Fall armyworm: spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) Unavailability of free space for movement, lack of oxygen leads to death by asphyxiation 6 0.03
30 Drying of seeds Grains used for seed and consumption purpose Post-harvest drying of grains by exposing to sunlight Stored grain pests Proper drying helps in cure of field infested commodities by killing hidden stages of insect life cycle and also reduce the moisture level to optimum level which prevents the infestation due to unfavorable state to pest [34] 135 0.675
31 Weed removal Rice Removal grassy weeds from rice bunds, viz. Imperita cylindrica Brown plant hopper: Nilparvata lugens (Stal) Destruction of alternate hosts abolish the microhabitat of insects during off season [77] 41 0.205
32 Rotation of crops Solanaceae/cruciferaceae-pulses-cereals Avoid monocropping and follow crop rotation procedures like pulses after rice and vegetables after pulses Monophagous (brinjal fruit and shoot borer: Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee, rice stem borer: Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and oligophagous pest (pulse pod borer: Maruca vitrata Fab., Cruciferous head borer: Hellula undalis (Fabricius), diamond back moth: Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) etc. Avoiding continuous supply of food subsequently break the life cycle of particular insect [78] 72 0.36
33 Bird scarer
[Vernacular language:(Bangla: Kaktarua)]
Rice, maize, chilli, etc. Placement of a statue like human, i.e., human effigies (with stick, straw and clothes) in middle of the field or pseudo-human/ghost structure of different kinds using earthen painted pots are used Grain feeder Birds Structure threatens the birds as resemblance with human [55] 69 0.345
34 Ploughing Potato Deep ploughing with country plough Potato tuber moth: Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Expose pupae to sunlight, dried and killed [79] 13 0.065
35 Sand over potato Potato Sand cover of one to two inches over potato in storage condition Potato tuber moth: Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Prevents oviposition [80] 21 0.105
G Mixed application       
36 Lantana camara and cow dung Vegetable cropping system Stem decoction of L. camara mixed with cow dung is applied on plants Aphid: A. gossypi Glover, leaf hopper: A. biguttula biguttula Ishida, thrips: T. tabaci Lindeman Bioactive principle of secondary metabolites repels insects [80]
(synergized by cow dung) [53]
27 0.135
37 Rope pulling and kerosinized water Rice In water logged rice kerosene is mixed with water and rope is pulled across the field Rice case worm: Nymphula depunctalis (Guenee) Dislodging the pupae through rope pulling in kerosinized water killed insects 19 0.095
H Local traps       
38 Traditional bamboo trap with bait (Fig. 5) Rice Bait is placed inside the trap (made in bamboo or woods, dimension: length, 18 inches × width 4 inches) Rodents Luring and killing (as rats unable to move backward) [45] 98 0.49
I Storage structures       
39 Granary: Storage structure
(Fig. 3d,g)
Rice Bamboo plastered with cow dung or mud slurry using in storage purpose (man height structure in varying dimension) and on the top of which branches with leaves of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium or Calotropis spp were placed Rice weevil: Sitophilus oryzae L., rice grain moth: Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) Well-plastered bamboo prevents entry of insect pests and maintain proper aeration, and the leaves having repellant activities [81] 107 0.535