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Table 3 C. Pharmacological characteristics and medicinal uses: C1. Medicinal properties; C2. Narcotic, hallucinogenic, poisonous; C3. Aphrodisiac

From: In search of traces of the mandrake myth: the historical, and ethnobotanical roots of its vernacular names

Language/subcategory Name Ethnic transcription Meaning Selected references
C1
Arabic [abu salām] أبو سلام [“father of health”] [145: 709]
Arabic [ʾabd es-salām] عبد السلام [“the servant of health”] [122: 268]
Armenian [t ‘agawor amen
Xotic]
[“king of all (every) grasses (and forbs)”]; see text [141: 389]; [101: 153]
German, Old ârzat uvûrze, arzanwurt, arzatwurz   [“doctor’s root”] [75: 229]; [137: 93]; [134, III:53]; [31: 41]; [114: 330]; [30: 330]; [142: 38]
German heilmännchen,
heilmännlein
  [“healing male”]/healing mannikin [120: 113]; [31: 41]; [81: 23]
Greek [fistulóriza] φιστουλόριζα [“fistula-healing root”] [143: 331]; [59: 427,435]
Greek [fistulóchorto] φιστουλόχορτο [“fistula-healing herb”] [59: 445]
Serbo-Croatian bunovina Бyнoвинa bunilo” (root of the word) means delirium, madness [71: 20]; [70: 291]
Turkish ebîselâm   [“father of health”] [41: 124]; [124: 2]
Turkish hastalık otu   [“sickness plant”] [41: 124] (North Cyprus)
Turkish Kankurutan   [“blood dryer”]
(because it is believed that it stops bleeding; see text)
[144: 334]; [73: 107]; [28: 71]; [41: 124]; [123: 21]
C2
Dutch doodkruid   [“death's herb”] [83: 258]; [28: 71]
Dutch slaapappel   [“sleep’s apple”] [145: 263]; [146: 940]
Dutch slaapkruid   [“sleep’s herb”] [146: 940]
English brain thief    [109: 70]; [147: 169]; [148: 3]
English divine root   May be due to its hallucinogenic effect [30: 331]
English fool’s apple   May be due to its hallucinogenic effect [149: 316]
Gaelic codalian   [“sleep apple”] [83: 258]; [150: 139]
German doilwurz
Spelling variations: doilworz dolwortz, dollwurz, tollwurtz, dilwurz
  [“mad root”] [75: 229]; [134, III:53]; [120: 113]; [31: 41]; [30: 331]; [114: 15]
German dollblume   [“mad flower”] [81: 23]
German schlafbeere, schlafbeer   [“sleep berry”] [30: 334]; [81: 23]; [31: 42]
German tollkraut südliches   [“southern mad herb”] [119: 137]; [31: 42]
German schlafapfel,
schlaf-aepffel
  [“sleep apple”] [150: 693]; [119: 137]; [135: 23]; [134, III:53]; [31: 42]; [30: 334]; [81: 23]
German, Old twalm, tuualm   [“sleep”] [134, III:53]; [31: 42]
Greek [alítis] ἀλοῖτις [“deceiving, alluring, seductive”] [45: IV,75]
Greek [ippóflomos] ιππόφλωμος [“driving horses dizzy”] [59: 446]
Greek [mórion] μώριον [“stupefying plant”] [45: IV,75]; [61: 9,8,8]
Greek [trellóchortaro] τρελλοχόρταρο [“madness herb”] [59: 439]
Greek [vomvóchylos] βομβόχυλος [“humming-inducing juice”; “intoxication-inducing juice”] [45: IV,75]
Greek [rigaléos] ῥιγαλέος [“shiver-inducing, thrilling”] [45: IV,75]
Hungarian bolondfű   [“fool's grass”] [152: 41]
Spanish cerezas de sapo   [“toad cherries”], maybe due to the poisonous effect of toads [66]
C3
Arabic [ˁarūsaḷḷa] عروسالّة Diminutive of [“a bride”] [125: 624–625] (Andalusia, 13th c.)
Arabic [ḥabb at-taˀlīf] حب التأليف [“the fruit that gets the lovers close”] [125: 624–625] (Andalusia, 13th c.)
Arabic [luˁba muṭallaqa] لعبة مطلقة [“the expelled bride”] [99]
Arabic [luˁba mu'allaqa] لعبة معلقة [“the dependent bride”] (lit. “The married bride”) [99]
Danish kærlighedsæble   [“love apple”] [153: 81]
Farsi [mehr gīyah, mihrgiāh] مهر گیاه [“plant of love”];
meher” means affection, “gîah” means grass
[154: 6 note 4]; [95: 152]
Finnish lemmenmarja   [“love berry”] [155: 261]
German (old) chindelina wurz   [“little child’s root”] (see text) [156: 118]; [31: 41]
German kindleinkraut   [“child herb”] [120: 113]; [114: 15]; [81: 23]
German liebesapfel   [“love apple”] [114: 15]; [81: 23]
German liebeswurz, liebeswurzel   [“love herb”] [114: 15]; [81: 23]
Greek [sernikobótano] σερνικοβότανο [“male-birth-inducing herb”] [59: 441]
Hebrew [duda'eem] דודאים Probably related to "דוד" meaning love Genesis 30:14–16; Song of Songs 7:13
Turkish ayıkotu   “vivacity grass” [157]: 128
Turkish muhabbet otu   [“love plant”] [73: 107]; [124: 2]; [41: 124]; [90: 232–234]
Turkish sevgi otu   [“love plant”] [41: 124]; [90: 232–234]
Ukrainian [lubovyća] любoвицa [“love plant”] [12: 162]