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Table 1 Analogies reported in the study regions of Amanã (ASDR) and Ribeira valley (RV)

From: Sympathetic science: analogism in Brazilian ethnobiological repertoires among quilombolas of the Atlantic forest and Amazonian ribeirinhos

No. Topic/site Short description of analogies
1 Hunting/ASDR Administering predatory beetle1 to a dog improves hunting ability
2 Hunting/ASDR Administering animals with a keen sense of smell to a dog improves olfactory capacity
3 Hunting/ASDR Administering the ear and snout of a cutia (agouti)2 to a dog improves the dog’s hearing and sense of smell in pursuit of prey
4 Hunting/ASDR Administering brain (miolo) of the japiim (yellow-rumped cacique)3, considered intelligent due elaborate nests, makes the dog more intelligent
5 Hunting/ASDR Administering the brain of primates, considered intelligent, makes the dog more intelligent
6 Hunting/ASDR Administering the brain of calango (lizard)1, considered a good predator, makes the dog a better hunter
7 Hunting/ASDR Administering brain of urubu (vulture)4, which “sees prey from afar”, improves dog’s hunting ability
8 Hunting/ASDR Administering the tooth of boto (Amazon river dolphin)5 or tucuxi6, “which hunt a lot”, improves a dog’s hunting ability
9 Hunting/ASDR Administering ants1 that “walk in groups” improves the dog’s ability to chase herds of caititu (peccary)7
10 Hunting/ASDR Administering morcegos (bats)1 that “roost in a row” improves the ability of the dog to corner herds of caititu (peccary)7
11 Hunting/ASDR Administering caba (wasp)1, because it is a predator (a hunter), makes dog a better hunter
12 Hunting/ASDR Depositing a small piece cut from a dog’s ear on prey tracks improves the ability of the dog to chase prey
13 Hunting/ASDR Depositing a dog’s fur on prey tracks improves the dog’s ability to chase prey
14 Hunting/ASDR Depositing a dog's fur on onça (jaguar or puma)8 tracks improves the ability of the dog to chase jaguars or pumas
15 Hunting/ASDR Blowing the smoke of burnt onça (jaguar or puma)8 fur on a dog improves the dog’s ability to chase jaguars or pumas
16 Hunting/RV Administering a powder made from burnt caçadeira (huntress wasp)1 that is predatory and burrows, improves the dog’s ability to hunt burrowing animals
17 Hunting/RV In addition to practice 16, the powder should be placed in a single point in the dog’s food so that the dog can go directly to where the prey is. If the powder is spread, the dog will lose its prey
18 Hunting/RV Administering feathers of urubu (vulture)4, considered an excellent detector of prey, improves the ability of a dog to detect prey from afar
19 Hunting/RV In addition to practice 18, the urubu (vulture)4, by feeding on dead animals, causes the dog to die early
20 Hunting/RV When the smoke from burnt embaúba (Cecropia)9 leaf (located up high) is blown on a dog, the dog is better able to corner arboreal animals
21 Hunting/RV When butchering bugio (howler monkey)10, some hunters keep the animal’s sac-shaped hyoid bone, responsible for vocalization. Depositing chili pepper in the stored hyoid bone irritates the throat of howler monkeys in the forest, making them easier to hunt
22 Hunting/RV The hunter holds a tree leaf next to the shotgun when shooting a bugio (howler monkey)10: when shot, howler monkeys attempt to heal themselves by rubbing leaves on their wounds
23 Childbearing/ASDR Burying the umbilical cord near the mother’s home accelerates the time to her next pregnancy (according to some reports, the opposite is also true)
24 Childbearing/ASDR It is locally recognized that the umbigo da castanha (operculum of the Brazil nut)11 does not pass through the orifice of the pericarp and, thus, can only be accessed by cutting the pericarp open (Fig. 3). Throwing a Brazil nut operculum behind a pregnant woman's back causes the child to “stay stuck in her belly”, preventing natural childbirth
25 Childbearing/ASDR If a pregnant woman eats a jabuti (red-footed tortoise)12, which is a slow animal, labor will be prolonged
26 Childbearing/ASDR If a pregnant woman eats pato (duck)13, which frequently defecates and has “soft stool”, the baby will have severe diarrhea
27 Childbearing/ASDR If a pregnant woman eats jabuti (red-footed tortoise)12, which retracts its head, the fetus will also retract in the mother's uterus, making natural childbirth impossible
28 Childbearing/ASDR If a pregnant woman eats meat from an animal that was difficult to kill, it will lead to difficult childbirth (according to some reports the opposite is also true)
29 Childbearing/ASDR An injury or disfigurement caused to an animal during a hunt by the father will manifest in the newborn child
30 Childbearing/ASDR If a hunter unnecessary injures an animal, his child is born with the appearance of the mistreated animal
31 Childbearing/ASDR The same suffering experienced by an animal mistreated by a pregnant woman will manifest in the child
32 Childbearing/ASDR A harming caused by a pregnant woman to a dead animal (carcasses) will manifest in the newborn
33 Childbearing/ASDR If a father exerts physical effort in any activity during his wife’s pregnancy, the child will also exert a lot of physical effort and suffer as a consequence
34 Childbearing/ASDR The bark of trees that regenerates quickly is applied to the genitalia of women after childbirth to speed recovery
35 Childbearing/RV If a pregnant woman eats an animal with large claws, the child will “scratch her belly”
36 Childbearing/RV Eating animal de casco (turtles), which retracts its head, causes the child to retract during childbirth
37 Childbearing/RV If a pregnant woman eats tatu (armadillo)14 tail, considered large by the locals, the child will be born with a large penis
38 Childbearing/RV During resguardo (immediate postpartum period) a woman cannot eat prey killed in a mundéu (a trap that crushes the animal with tree trunks) "because the child’s guts will come out, like what happens with an animal in a mundéu"
39 Childbearing/RV Eating an animal killed in a mundéu—a trap that crushes the animal – will cause back pain in women who have recently given birth
40 Childbearing/RV If a lactating woman eat female veado (deer)15 meat “her milk will dry” (she won’t have more milk)
41 Childbearing/RV A woman who has recently given birth who eats jacutinga (black-fronted piping guan)16, which has white feathers on its head, will get gray hair early
42 Childbearing/RV Eating a domestic pig17 that has already given birth and that has a lump (or inflammation) in the uterus causes the same problem in women who have recently given birth
43 Childbearing/RV Eating galinha botadeira (laying hen)18 with a lump (or inflammation) in the uterus causes the same problem in women who have given birth
44 Childbearing/RV Eating fish1 with reddish eyes gives women who have recently given birth reddish eyes
45 Childbearing/RV Eating bloody meat causes hemorrhaging in women who have recently give birth
46 Childbearing/RV Eating an adult rooster18 can make its song “get stuck in the head of a woman who has recently given birth, which can make her crazy”
47 Child health/RV If a newborn wears yellow clothes, they will get amarelão (“jaundice” associated locally with hookworm infection)
48 Child health/RV Twisting a newborn's diaper causes the baby to have stomach pain and diarrhea
49 Virility/ASDR The broth from jabuti (tortoise)12, which has a retractable head, retracts the penis of the man who drinks it
50 Virility/RV A man who eats a preparation made with the reproductive organ of coati20 (grated and mixed with rum) will have better sexual performance
51 Virility/RV Regarding practice 50, grating the organ from the bottom up leads to an erection, bottom down leads to impotence
52 Meteorology/ASDR If an ave coã (laughing falcon)21 lands on a dry tree, it signals dry weather. If it lands on a leafy tree, it signals rain
53 Meteorology/RV The weather conditions in the first 12 days of the year indicate how they will be throughout the entire 12 months of that year
54 Meteorology/RV The moon derramando (“pouring”), that is, in a vertical or inclined position, indicates rain or cloudy weather
55 Other Medicines/ASDR The use of cachorro pelado (pencil cactus)19 extract, due to the highly branched (articulated) architecture of its branches (Fig. 3), cures dislocated limbs
56 Other Medicines/ASDR Eating watermelon22 (red and liquid) can cause bleeding in menstruating women
57 Other Medicines/RV A person with a flesh wound who eats tatu (armadillo)14 will feel the wound scratching (because of armadillos’ long claws)
58 Other/ASDR The relative physical weakening of a farmer weakens plants1 that he or she cultivates
59 Other/RV Attaching the tip of the tail of a newly acquired dog to the post of the house prevents it from returning to its former home. In this kind of sympathetic belief, in which the part represents the whole, fixing part of dog in its new home is a way of not letting it run away
60 Other/RV If a person destroys the tubular clay nest of a certain vespa (wasp)1, “everything they pick up is damaged”
  1. 1: Generic local term which may represent different scientific taxa; 2: Dasyprocta fuliginosa; 3: Cacicus cela; 4: Cathartidae; 5: Inia geoffrensis; 6: Sotalia fluviatilis; 7: Dicotyles tajacu; 8: Panthera onca or Puma concolor; 9: Cecropia sp.; 10: Alouatta guariba; 11: Bertholletia excelsa; 12: Chelonoidis sp.; 13: Cairina moschata; 14: Dasypodidae; 15: Mazama sp.; 16: Aburria jacutinga; 17: Sus scrofa domesticus; 18: Gallus gallus domesticus; 19: Euphorbia tirucalli; 20: Nasua nasua; 21: Herpetotheres cachinnans; 22: Citrullus lanatus