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Table 3 List with the plant species included in the chemical analyzes and their respective therapeutic indications

From: Taste and chemical composition as drives for utilitarian redundancy and equivalence: a case study in local medical systems in Northeastern Brazil

Species Family Common name Origin Classes of compounds Region Part of the plant used Taste Therapeutic indications Herbarium voucher
Acanthospermum hispidum DC Asteraceae Federação Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Leaves and roots Tasteless Expectorant, cough, flu and colds IPA91626
      TR Flower and roots Tasteless Cough Sterile material
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f Asphodelaceae Babosa Exotic Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark, leaves and roots Bitter Expectorant, injury, stomach problems, flu and colds, cough and worms Sterile material
Amburana Cearensis (Allemão) A.C.Sm Fabaceae Imburana de cheiro Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark, leaves and seeds Bitter Diarrhea, Headache, Flu and colds, Indigestion and Cough Sterile material
Anacardium occidentale L Anacardiaceae Cajueiro roxo Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark and leaves Astringent Toothache, Injury, Stomach problems and Inflammation in general Sterile material
      TR Bark and fruit Astringent Toothache, Injury, Gynecological and Problem Sterile material
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul Fabaceae Angico Native Phe, Fla, Ter and Tan SDTF Bark Bitter Injury, Flu and colds and Inflammation in general IPA91649
Astraea lobata (L.) Klotzsch Euphorbiaceae Alfavaca de cobra Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter TR Roots Tasteless Stinging of venomous animals Sterile material
Bauhinia acuruana Moric Fabaceae Mororó Native Phe and Ter SDTF Bark, leaves and roots Bitter Diabetes, Flu and colds, Inflammation in general and Cough IPA91660
Borreria verticillata (L.) G. Mey Rubiaceae Vassoura de botão Native Alkaloid, flavonoid Terpene TR Entire plant or roots Bitter Stroke IPA91713
Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart.) J.B.Gillett Burseraceae Imburana de cambão Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark and leaves Astringent Diarrhea, Injury, Hypertension and Cough IPA91663
Copaifera lucens Dwyer Fabaceae Pau D’óleo Native Ter TR Sap and resin Bitter Pain in general and stroke Sterile material
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf Poaceae Capim Santo Exotic Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Leaves Sweet Calming, Diarrhea, Flu and colds, Hypertension and Indigestion Sterile material
      TR Leaves Sweet Diarrhea Sterile material
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants Amaranthaceae Mastruz Exotic Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Entire plant or roots Bitter Expectorant, Injury, Bone fracture, Flu and colds, Cough, Worms and Stomach problems IPA91613
      TR Leaves Bitter Expectorant, Flu and colds, Cough and Worms IPA91714
Genipa americana L Rubiaceae Genipapo Native Phe, Tan and Ter TR Bark and fruit Sweet Anemia Sterile material
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam Malvaceae Mutamba Native NA TR Bark Bitter Bone fracture and Cough IPA91718
Handroantus impetiginosus (Mart.ex DC.) Mattos Bignoniaceae Pau D’arco Roxo Native Phe and Fla SDTF Bark Bitter Stomach problems Sterile material
      TR Bark Bitter Wounds Sterile material
Hymenaea courbaril L Fabaceae Jatobá Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark, fruit and roots Astringent Anemia, Expectorant, Injury, Stomach problems, Flu and colds, Airway inflammation, Inflammation in general and Cough IPA91630
      TR Bark and fruit Astringent Injury and Airway inflammation Sterile material
Jatropha gossypiifolia L Euphorbiaceae Pinhão Roxo Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and, Ter SDTF Leaves, shoot, sap and resin Astringent Stinging of venomous animals IPA91702
Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L.P.Queiroz Fabaceae Jucá Native Phe, Fla and Terpene SDTF Bark and fruit Bitter Toothache IPA91696
Lippia origanoides Kunth Lamiaceae Alecrim do Mato Native Phe, Fla and Ter SDTF Leaves Spicy Toothache and Headache IPA91612
Maranta sp. Maranthaceae Uruba Native NA TR Roots Tasteless Stinging of venomous animals Sterile material
Mentha piperita L Lamiaceae Hortelã da folha pequena Exotic Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Leaves and roots Sweet Expectorant, Flu and colds, Airways Inflammation and Cough Sterile material
Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir Fabaceae Jurema Preta Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark Bitter Injury Sterile material
Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão Anacardiaceae Aroeira Native Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark, stem, flower and leaves Bitter Pain in general, Acariasis and other infestations, Injury, Stomach problems, Indigestion, Inflammation in general and Cough Sterile material
Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez Bromeliaceae Caruá Native NA SDTF Roots Sweet Spine problems IPA91701
Ocimum gratissimum L Lamiaceae Alfavaca Exotic Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter TR Leaves Astringent Stomach problems and conjunctivitis Sterile material
Passiflora cincinnata Mast Passifloraceae Maracujá do Mato Native Alk, Phe, Fla and Tan SDTF Leaves, fruit, roots and seeds Sour Calming, Flu and colds, Inflammation in general and Cough IPA91635
Passiflora edulis Sims Passifloraceae Maracujá Native NA SDTF Leaves NA Indigestion Sterile material
Passiflora foetida L Passifloraceae Maracujá de Estralo Native Alk, Phe, Fla and Tan SDTF Leaves Tasteless Flu and colds and Conjunctivitis IPA91677
Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub Fabaceae Alcançu Native NA SDTF Bark, leaves and roots Sweet Expectorant, Flu and colds, Airways inflammation and Cough IPA91648
Persea americana Mill Lauraceae Abacate Exotic NA SDTF Leaves Tasteless Renal problems HST22158
Phyllanthus urinaria L Phyllanthaceae Quebra Pedra Native Phe, Fla Tan and Ter SDTF Entire plant and roots Bitter Renal problems Sterile material
      TR Entire plant or roots Bitter Renal problems Sterile material
Pityrocarpa moniliformis (Benth.) Luckow and R.W.Jobson Fabaceae Canzenzo Native NA SDTF Bark Astringent Diarrhea IPA91651
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng Lamiaceae Hortelã da folha grande Exotic NA SDTF Leaves Sweet Flu and colds and Cough Sterile material
Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel Myrtaceae Jabuticaba Native Alk, Phe, Fla Tan and Ter SDTF Bark Astringent Diarrhea Sterile material
Plumbago scandens L Plumbaginaceae Louco Native NA SDTF Stem, leaves and roots Tasteless Toothache HST22163
Poincianella microphylla (Mart. ex G.Don) L.P.Queiroz Fabaceae Catingueira rasteira Native NA SDTF Bark, flower and roots Tangy Inflammation in general and Cough IPA91653
Pombalia arenaria (Ule) Paula-Souza Violaceae Papaconha Native NA SDTF Bark and roots Tasteless Expectorant, Flu and colds, Airways Inflammation and Cough IPA91628
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) Fabaceae Algaroba Exotic NA SDTF Bark Bitter Inflammation in general Sterile material
Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) Burseraceae Amescla Native NA TR Sap/resin and Seeds Sweet Toothache, Stomach problems Sterile material
Psidium guajava L Myrtaceae Goiaba Exotic Phe, Fla, Tan and, Ter SDTF Bark and leaves Bitter Diarrhea Sterile material
Psidium guineense Sw Myrtaceae Araçá Native NA TR Leaves Bitter Diarrhea IPA91708
Punica granatum L Punicaceae Romã Exotic NA SDTF Bark, leaves, fruit and seeds Bitter Throat problems, Stomach problems and Inflammation in general Sterile material
Rosmarinus officinalis L Lamiaceae Alecrim Exotic Alk, Phe, Fla Tan and Terpene SDTF Leaves Spicy Headache, Flu and colds Sterile material
Ruta graveolens L Rutaceae Arruda Exotic Alk, Phe, Fla Tan and Ter SDTF Leaves Bitter Headache, Pain in general Sterile material
Sambucus nigra L Adoxaceae Sabugueira Exotic Alk, Phe and TerAlk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Flower Tasteless Flu and colds and Cough HST22162
      TR Flower and leaves Bitter Colds and flu, Sterile material
Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl Anacardiaceae Baraúna Native NA SDTF Bark, stem, leaves, sap and resin Astringent Headache, Flu and colds Sterile material
Schinus terebinthifolia var. acutifolia Engl Anacardiaceae Aroeira Native Alk, Phe, Fla Tan and Ter TR Bark, leaves Astringent Injury, General inflammation and Gynecological problem Sterile material
Senegalia bahiensis (Benth.) Seigler and Ebinger Fabaceae Carcará Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark and roots Bitter Spine problems and Kidney problems IPA91697
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Fabaceae Mangerioba Native NA TR Flower and seeds Bitter Headache, Airways Inflammation IPA91706
Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Schrad.) H.S.Irwin and Barneby Fabaceae Canafístula Native NA SDTF Bark Bitter Diarrhea HST22166
Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. and Schult.) T.D.Penn Sapotaceae Quixabeira Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark Astringent Injury, General inflammation, Stroke and Gynecological problem Sterile material
Solanum paniculatum L Solanaceae Jurubeba Native Alk, Phe, Fla Tan and Ter SDTF Leaves, fruit, roots and seeds Bitter Injury, Stomach problems, Flu and colds, Inflammation in general and Cough IPA91633
      TR Bark, flower, leaves, fruit, entire plant, roots, sap/resin and seeds Bitter Expectorant, Flu and colds and Cough IPA91709
Sorocea sp. Moraceae Pau Teiu Native NA SDTF Bark, sap and resin Bitter Stinging of venomous animals Sterile material
Spondias tuberosa L Anacardiaceae Umbuzeiro Native NA SDTF Bark and leaves Sour Calming, Diarrhea and Insomnia Sterile material
Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc Arecaceae Coco Ouricuri Native NA SDTF Roots Sweet Airways inflammation and Spine problems Sterile material
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Myrtaceae Azeitona Roxa Exotic NA TR NA Tasteless Diabetes Sterile material
Tapirira guianensis Aubl Anacardiaceae Cupiuba Native NA TR Sap and resin NA Injury Sterile material
Tarenaya spinosa Jacq.) Raf capparaceae Mussambe Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter TR Flower and roots Bitter Flu and colds Sterile material
Tocoyena formosa (Cham. and Schltdl.) K.Schum Rubiaceae Genipapo Native NA SDTF Bark Bitter Stroke IPA91611
Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Choisy Hypericaceae Lacre Native Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter TR Bark, leaves and roots Tasteless Arterial hypertension and Renal problems IPA91717
Ximenia americana linn Olacaceae Ameixa Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter SDTF Bark and leaves Bitter Injury, Throat problems, Stomach problems, Inflammation in general and Gynecological problem Sterile material
Xylopia frutescens aubl Annonaceae Imbira Vermelha Native Alk, Phe, Fla, Tan and Ter TR Seeds Spicy Pain in general Sterile material
Ziziphus joazeiro Mart Rhamnaceae Juazeiro Native NA TR Bark Bitter Expectorant, Toothache, Flu and colds, Airway inflammation and Cough Sterile material
      SDTF Bark, leaves and roots Bitter Expectorant, Acariasis and other infestations and Cough IPA91676
  1. In the fifth column are the classes of compounds attributed to the cited plants, namely Alkaloids (ALK), Phenols (PHE), Flavonoids (FLA), Tannins (TAN) and Terpenes (TER). In the sixth column, SDTF indicates that the species in question was obtained in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest, while TR indicates that the species was obtained in the Tropical Rainforest. Cells containing NA mean that this information does not apply to the analyses or that these data were not obtained