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Table 3 Elements of the wetland landscape of the studied villages (Biebrza Valley, Poland) and their traditional use

From: Local traditional ecological knowledge about hay management practices in wetlands of the Biebrza Valley, Poland

Element of landscape Meaning Traditional use No. of toponyms/village
biele All wet meadows in general Various uses 1 1 1 1 1 1
biele, biele wytrzebowe (VII) White meadows Mown 1/y and grazed by cattle (I, II, VII); mown 1/y + grazed by cattle and horses (III, IV); mown 1/y or seldom 2/y + grazed by cattle and horses (V) 11 20 5 14 9 13
dołek (VII) Small depression near mineral islands; generally hollow in wetlands (VII) Cattle waded there (I); cows were milked here (III); mown 2/y + grazed by cattle (VII) 3 0 1 0 0 1
droga, grobel, drożyna (VI) Road, causeway; generally unpaved, piled up roads in wetlands Used for transporting logs to the river (I); used to get to distant meadows (I, II, IV, VI, VII); river crossing for livestock (III); used to get to the distant village (IV/V); 6 4 1 3 2 1
grądziki Mineral islands; woody patches in wetlands with deciduous trees like Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Pyrus spp. etc For drying of żaki (fyke nets) (I); grazed by cattle (I, II, V, VII) and horses (I); grazed in spring by cattle (II, VII); grazed smugi (III); mown 1/y (I, II, III); source of wooden material for faming tools and structures (all); source of wood for burning (II, VII) 13 7 2 4 1 8
jeziora, bajora Lakes (oxbow lakes), swampy ponds Fishing with niewód (seine) (VII), brodnia (type of drag net) (I, VI, VII), żaki (fyke nets), kozak (a type of a fyke net with ‘hearts’ on two sides [I]), kłomla (wooden landing net) (I, IV); soaking freshly cropped hemp (II); cleared with a scythe (I, II, III, IV, V, VII) 11 7 3 9 3 11
krzewina Shrubs on wet meadows; usually applied to shrubby Salix spp. (e.g. Salix cinerea) Source of material for farming tools and haystack structures (all); used for basket weaving (IV) 0 2 1 1 1 0
kultury Cultivated forest fragments; freshly planted fragments of Alnus or Pinus sylvestris or Picea abies forest A state property; they used to be fenced for some periods to prevent grazing 0 0 0 0 1 1
las, grąd Forest, deciduous forest on hills and hollows (II,III,V) Source of wood for burning (II, III, V); source of material for farming tools and structures (all); mown for hay (II); grazed by cattle (II, V) 0 2 3 2 3 0
las iglasty Pinus sylvestris or Picea abies forest (I,V) Source of material for farming tools and haystack structures (all); source of wood for burning (I, V, VI, VII); 2 0 0 4 1 1
łąki uprawne Cultivated meadows Generally not present during the time of traditional management but now present in the areas and in the narration of people 0 1 1 1 0 0
łąki torfowe (VI) Peat meadows Mown 1/y + grazed by cattle and horses 0 0 0 0 1 0
ogrody Gardens Growing of vegetables (I, III, IV, V, VI); grazed by sheep (I, VI); growing of vegetables and hemp (II); growing of flax (III) 1 1 1 1 1 0
olsyna; las olszynowy Alnus glutinosa forest Source of material for farming tools and haystack structures (all); grazed by cattle (II) + horses (III) + pigs (VI) + sheep (VII); source of wood for burning (VI, VII) 1 2 1 2 1 1
parowy, błota Muddy meadow, muds Used as a pasture for cattle (I); mown 1/y + freely grazed (II) 1 1 0 1 1 0
pola Crop fields Arable land used to grow cereals and potatoes (all); mixed in landscape with smugi (I) 9 1 1 1 1 1
rów, rowek Ditch, small ditch Local melioration (I, II); cattle would drink water here (II); general melioration in the 19th c. (IV/V, VI); fishing with brodnia (type of drag net [VI]); cleared with a scythe (I, II, IV, V, VI) 2 5 0 2 1 0
rzeka Main river course For fishing (II, III, IV, VII) 1 1 1 2 0 1
siedlisko Settlements Farm buildings 1 3 1 3 1 1
smugi Typical pastures on wet meadows or between crop fields Used for hay making + grazed by sheep and pigs (I); grazed by horses and cattle (II, V), grazed by geese, ducks, cattle, horses, sheep, pigs (III); grazed by cattle (IV) 1 19 3 1 0 0
torfy Place with peat excavation Peat was excavated for burning (I, II) 2 2 0 0 0 0
trawy rzeczne, łąki rzeczne, równe łąki (IV) River grasses, river meadows, flat meadows; generally wet meadows directly by the river Mown twice a year (I) + grazed by cattle (VII) + horses, sheep (IV); mown 1/y or 2/y + grazed by cattle (II); used as pasture or mown 1/y + grazed by cattle, horses (III) 3 8 1 3 1 5
   In total 69 87 27 55 30 46
  1. The Roman numerals in parentheses indicate the village: I—Sośnia, II—Pluty, III—Brzostowo, IV—Rutkowskie, V—Kołodzieje, VI—Gugny, VII—Olszowa Droga. The landscapes of vil. IV and V overlap, hence the no. of toponyms are summed up