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Table 4 Time and place of traditional farming practices such as mowing and grazing in the Biebrza Valley

From: Local traditional ecological knowledge about hay management practices in wetlands of the Biebrza Valley, Poland

Traditional practice When Where
Mowing First Around St. Peter's Day 29th of June (II, III, V, VI, VII), around St. John's Day 24th of June (I, IV) biele (V) + river grasses (I, II, III, IV, VII); peat meadows (VI); smugi (I); mineral islands (all); grąd (II); depressions (VII)
Second; called Otawa or Potraw End of August/beginning of September (I, II, IV, V), around The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary 8th of September (VII) River grasses (I, IV, VII); river grasses in front of the river (II); depressions (VII)
Grazing Cattle April/May—15.10/01.11 smugi + biele + mineral islands (II) + Alnus forest (III); grąd (V); Alnus forest (VI)
15.05–01.11 parowy + biele (I)
In May, before 1st mowing Mineral islands (VII)
During mowing time Alnus forest (VII)
After 1st mowing biele (V, VII); peat meadows (VI)
After 2nd mowing River grasses in front of the river (II); river grasses (IV, VII)
Horses 1.05–15.10 smugi + Alnus forest (II) + biele + mineral islands (III); grąd (V); peat meadows + Alnus forest (VI); river grasses + biele + mineral islands (VII)
15.05–01.11 Mineral islands + biele (I)
After 1st mowing biele (V)
After 2nd mowing River grasses (IV)
Sheep 1.05–15.10 smugi (III)
15.05–01.11 Mineral islands + smugi (I)
After 2nd mowing river grasses (IV)
Autumn Alnus forest + biele (VII)
Pigs 1.05–15.10 smugi (III); Alnus forest (VI, VII)
15.05–01.11 smugi (I)
Geese and ducks 1.05–15.10 smugi (III)
  1. The Roman numerals in parentheses indicate the village: I—Sośnia, II—Pluty, III—Brzostowo, IV—Rutkowskie, V—Kołodzieje, VI—Gugny, VII—Olszowa Droga