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Table 5 Ethnospecies of Biebrza wetlands and related local traditional ecological knowledge (contains mainly direct quotes from informants)

From: Local traditional ecological knowledge about hay management practices in wetlands of the Biebrza Valley, Poland

Life form Generic taxa Literal translation of folk names Scientific name Habitat Localisation Features Mowing value Grazing and hay value Plant changes Other uses
trawy 'grasses' rzeżucha (all)
rezucha (all)
rzeź (VII)
rodzina rzeżuchowatych (VII)
bittercress family
Carex spp., e.g. Carex elata All., Carex acuta L., Carex acutiformis Ehrh., Carex riparia Curtis Where rzeżucha grew, there was only one mowing; it does not grow in 'river meadows' (VII); tends to grow in higher places (II); grows in lowered places in front of mineral islands (VII); a fine type grows on mineral islands covered by deciduous trees (II) and rarely closer to the river (IV); forms worse, 'white meadows' biele (III, IV, V); grows where the meadow is not used any more (V) Grows halfway between forest and river (VII); small rzeżucha grows closer to the river, on the other side of the river there is plenty of the tall rzeżucha (II); it grows in the 2nd zone; in all further zones 'horse-like grass' końska trawa grows, meaning thicker rzeżucha grazed by horses (IV); on two sides of the melioration ditch (V) It usually forms tussocks or seldom grows flat (II, VII); it is sharp on the edges, one can split one's finger when it is in the hay (II, III, IV, V, VI, VII); one can easily go over it with one's hand in one direction, in the opposite it cuts the hand open, it has little teeth (IV); it can be low, acidic (II) or tall grass, even up to 0.5 m (II, III); it can be broad and even 1 m tall (IV); lightweight (VII); there is a few species of it (VII); When it forms tussocks it is difficult to mow; when it would fall down between tussocks it was difficult to rake by hand; it is easy to cut with a scythe (VII) Young grass is eaten by cattle but it is left when old, hard and dry (IV, VII); cattle eat only the tips of the old grass; generally livestock was not keen to eat it (V, VII); it is 'horse-like grass'—horses are willing to eat it (II, IV); the old and dry has no value (VII); it can be used for bedding or as fodder—it cleans the bodies of cattle and acts like a buffer in fodder (II) Today the only plants that grow are those that can break through the reed bed, like rzeżucha (VII); when we mowed with a scythe it formed tussocks, later tractors and machines destroyed it and the grass is different now (II)  
siwuchowate (VII)
Greyish one
Greyish ones
Carex panicea L., Carex flava L., Carex nigra (L.) Reichard It does not grow alone but is mixed with other grasses; grows in the lowermost area; just in front of the forest where water stays all the time (VII) Grows on the edges of the meadows, just by the forest (VII) It has grey leaves, a little broad; it is different than rzeżucha—it is a rather low and softer grass (VII) Sometimes it was so thin that it was mown from both sites to obtain a good, thick swath (the method na zbijaka) (VII) It is good for cattle; cattle on meadow would eat it immediately; cattle would eat this grass instead of rzeżucha; it does not have too much value and protein (VII)   
  tymotka (VII) Timothy Carex nigra with inflorescences/ seeds The lowest area, where water stays all the time (VII) Just in front of the forest (VII) It is from siwuchowate family but has thick seeds halfway up the plant; when one touches it the single seeds fall down (VII)   Cattle like to eat it (VII)   
  trzcina (II, III, IV,V,VII)
trzcinka (VI, VII)
Small reed
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud Edges of the lakes; in grass where the area is lowered (III); by the river (VI, VII); in old river beds that are overgrown (VII) By the lakes (III) and the river (VI, VII) and in overgrown oxbows (VII) It grows tall and has broad leaves (IV)   Cattle like to eat the young shoots, especially young leaves (IV, VII); in spring cattle do not let it grow because it eats everything immediately (VII); it is sweet like corn (VII); cattle eat it happily because it is sweet (IV); when it is older and thick like a finger cattle do not eat it (IV); it is good grass for fodder (VI) Formerly there was no reed by the river because cattle trampled it out; where was rzeżucha in the past, but now it is not mown, the reed came in; formerly there was just a little of the reed, now it covers hectars (VII); it is moved by the water flow from one place to another (IV)  
  jęczmianka (I, VI, VII)
jemioła (II, III, IV, V)
niemioła (II, III, IV)
trzcinówka (III)
Phalaris arundinacea L Grows in the 'river meadows' (II, III, VI); on higher mineral islands (VI, VII); generally in higher places in wetlands (II, VII); by the river, where is red sand and two mowings in the year (VII); it dominates in the second mowing (VII) Grows in the 2nd zone, on the other side of the river (III, IV); or in the 1st zone and on small mineral islands (II, VI, VII); grows between mineral islands and river, not by forest (VII) It is tall (II, III, IV, VII); has broad leaves that come apart on the sides (III, IV); similar to reed; main stem is hard like a straw and thick like cereal; it does not grow densely (VII); softer than reed and a little twisted (II); it grows tall like rye, up to 1 m (IV); is massive and hard (I, IV, V); blossoming it has a raceme, little seeds like groat (I) Extremely difficult to mow (I, III, VII); man needs a really good scythe to cut it (I); if somebody was too slow then one could not cut it (VII); it gives a really long swath, long like a scythe (VII); It is not the best but not the worst grass (III, VII); it is not so edible (III); cattle eat leaves very happily, so probably it is sweet but neither calf nor mature cattle eat the hard stems; cattle eats it when there is nothing else to eat; the old people always said that it is a sweet grass and horses eat it happily; when one brought it to horse for a night, in the morning one could find only little remnants (VIII); the old, 1 m tall grass is too old for cattle; it gives better hay when it is mown early (IV); cattle likes it (IV, V); it is good grass for fodder (VI), but worse than bluszcz (VII) Formerly, this grass was very rare, now it has replaced bluszcz (III); it appeared after melioration (VI)  
  mózga (all) Might derive from verb 'to touch fleetingly' or from Polish mozga, botanical name of reed canary grass Not blossoming parts/stage of Agrostis stolonifera L., Glyceria fluitans (L.) R.Br., Alopecurus geniculatus L Lowered places, in hollows in wetlands (I, II, III, IV, VI, VII); it dominates in a second swath na potraw, it is rare in the hay from the fist mowing (I, III); it likes to grow at waterlogged conditions; in hollows between mineral islands (VII); in 'river grasses' (I, II, IV, VII) It grows in the 1st zone (III, IV); by the river (I, VII) and by mineral islands (VII) Has pointed leaves (III); it is soft, dense, fine and small grass (I, III, IV, V, VII); one cannot cut oneself with this grass; when it grows higher it lies down immediately, it cannot stay straight, because it is thin at the bottom and has broader leaves higher up that go sideways; there is no main stem, leaves grow directly out of the ground (IV); it has a nice scent (III, IV); it is a little darker grass (VI); it is not blossoming; leaves are broader than okrąglica; one can walk barefoot on it; when one squeezes it up, it is gone, it is like a foam (II); one walks on it like on an eiderdown (I, IV); one can sleep on it (IV); when it dries out it becomes cyanic (VII) It is challenging to mow it because it is so soft; the mower just takes and mills it instead of cutting (VII); a scythe must be sharpened, peened, otherwise the grass just lies down (I,IV) Cattle eat it happily (III, V, VII); formerly, when we pastured pigs, they loved it (III); it is highly good fodder grass (VI, VII); horses like it most (VII); basically, all animals liked it (I, VII), even rabbits, because it is tasty and probably also has some special properties (I); it is something good!; it is a noble grass; cattle loves it because it is fatty and the most valuable (II); when it was in the hay, everyone gave it directly to little calves; it is good fresh and dried (IV); it is the best grass of them all (IV, V) There is much less of it because it is drier now (I, II)  
  okrąglica (II, III, IV, VII) Rounded one Carex appropinquata Schumach., Carex diandra Schrank It grows in worse quality meadows (III, VII); it grows in 'peat meadows'; in the place where there is no body of water, no lake, no river (VII); it is in the higher places (II) It grows in further zones (III); it grows in meadows belonging to the village VI; it grows far away from the river, by the forest (VII); it does not grow in our meadows (II) It usually grows in tussocks (III, VII); it is a tall grass; has rounded leaves; more rounded than rzeżucha (III); the stems are extremely hard; they are so hard that they shine; the stem is very thin, similar to reed but thinner; when covered with water it turns red; it is generally red; it has very less glue inside (VII); the stem is rounded (II); the stem is rounded at the bottom; it belongs to the same group of species as miotlica; it is very hard; it is 0.5 m tall or more and on the top has very fine, single ears; its thin stems lie down sideways (IV) One mows this grass a bit later because it grows slowly; especially when it is grazed it has little growth; difficult species to mow; it is so hard that a scythe just lies it down or it is humming on its stem and cannot go through it; moreover when it is mown, a swath goes between tussocks and it is difficult to take it out with a rake; rakes would lose teeth during this work; usually it is mown on two sites (na zbijaka) to give a thicker swath (VII) People mowed it for hay because they had no choice; it is low quality, weak grass; now they mow it just for bedding because it is not suitable for fodder; in autumn they gave it to heifers because milky cows did not want to eat it (VII) I cannot find it on our meadows… Maybe it changed so much? The one I see here now, is much softer (VII)  
  mietlica (III),
miotlica (II, IV)
miotła (II, III)
miotełka (III, V)
jęczmianka (III)
Little broom
Blossoming stage of Poa palustris L., Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. and other thin Poaceae species in wetlands One can find it also in the cereal crop field polna mietlica 'crop field mietlica' (Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv.) when it is not artificially fertilised (III); it prefers higher places (V)   It is tall and thin (II); it has dense, fine leaves and a long stem with ears; when it starts fruiting, the seeds will be everywhere (IV); fine grass (V)   Cattle like it (III, IV) In front of the forest there should okrąglica grow but now grass is another, much thinner (Deschampsia flexuosa); has okrąglica changed so much? (VII)  
  hoszczka (all)
hoscka (III)
Of more onomatopoeic derivation naming something that is crackling, creaking Equisetum fluviatile L. (syn. Equisetum limosum L.), Equisetum palustre L Muddy places, lowered places (I, II, III, VII); in 'river meadows' (VI); it can grow by the river (V) only when water stays longer and there is a good soil (VII); more often it is in hollows between mineral islands (VII); it accompanies Menyanthes trifoliata (II); it is everywhere in the meadows; here more, over there less, but everywhere in our meadows in general (IV); in watery meadows (V); it likes when there is water (I); there is also hoszczka polna 'crop field hoszczka' (Equisetum arvense L.), which is similar but does not grow in wetlands (III, VII) Grows in parowy (area with muddy meadows) (III); closer to the river (II, VI); in muddy places on smugi (pastures) (II); it grows in the middle between the river and forest zone (VII); everywhere in wet meadows (IV); grows on two sides of the melioration ditch (V) It is extremely fragile; has no glue inside (VII); it is easy to break, because the steam is divided in pieces (II); it is rounded; grows tall; the stem has 'knees', 'connectors' and when grass is dry it breaks in the knees; it is pipe-like (IV); it makes a 'snapping' sound (I); it can be even up to 1 m tall (II); one can find a similar type in the crop field (I, IV), but the river type of hoszczka is thicker and taller (IV) It is not suitable for mowing (III); it is easy to mow; we could mow it with a scythe during a day (I, VII); when it dries out, then it is extremely fragile; raking had to be done in the early morning 'with the dew' or in the evening when it is softer and not so fragile; when it is dry one cannot rake it and put it on the haystack (I, II, IV, V, VI, VII); it could be raked and brought to a stack also on a humid day (IV); because of lack of the glue it would 'escape' from the rake; we had to carry small haystacks, kopki, with a hoszczka, to a haystack, supported by four pairs of forks, otherwise it escaped (VII); hay containing only hoszczka would be very difficult for a bale maker to collect (II) Cattle eat hoszczka from wetlands but the one from the crop fields they do not even touch; but generally it is not the best grass (II); it is a tasty grass; cattle and sheep like it, but horses less (I); it is good fodder grass (VI); cattle ate hay with it, but when it was prepared in good way—sometimes when it was in a haystack in too wet form and was pressed too much, it got mouldy, so cattle did not want to eat it (IV) Formerly, there used to be more of it (II); now there is much less of it because it is too dry (I) It is a medicinal plant, collected and sold (II, III); only hoszczka from the crop field is a medicinal plant, from it wet meadows is not (IV)
  bluszcz (all)
blusc (III)
miecz (VII)
trawa mieczowata (VII)
Sword-like grass
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb Lowered places, hollows (II, IV, VII); it grows in places with waterlogged conditions; it sometimes grows between mózga (II) in river meadows (II, III) but also accompanies jemioła (IV); in muddy places, but not everywhere (V) It grows in the 2nd zone, on the other side of the river (III, IV); it grows in the 1st zone (II); grows in the middle place, halfway between forest and river, but closer to the river (VII) It is tall (III, VII); has broad leaves like two fingers; grows dense; it is hard; they called it fern because it has dense flowers on one side (III); the broad leaves are like feathers on two sides (IV, VII); it is from the sword-like grass family mieczowata; it has sweet glue inside stem; it has a nice scent; it is very sharp, rough; one can cut his fingers; it is sharper than rzeżucha; similar to reed but smaller (VII); it is a thick grass (IV, VII); it has broader leaves than jemioła and is shorter; when it is young it stays more straight, the older lies down on the ground; it bends to its side like wheat or rye; it twines, creeps; when one straightens it up, it is long; when jemioła grows on the side bluszcz vines on jemioła(IV) It is demanding to mow it because it is hard (III); it is generally easy to mow, any scythe could cut it; but it takes time to dry it out because it has so much glue inside (VII); it is not easy to mow, when it lies down and somebody is not a good mower then they just touch it on surface and the whole mass stays unmown (IV) Because it is sweet, cattle likes it (II, III, VII); it is a very good fodder grass; cattle and horses and other animals eat it happily (II, V, VII); especially young plants are a delicacy for cattle (III, IV); the old form is too hard for cattle (IV); all sword-like grasses mieczowate are good fodder (VII); when it ferments in bales it becomes yellow and is excellent; especially, one can give this grass to a cow when the cow is not giving milk (VII) Now there is much less of this grass (II); formerly, there was more bluszcz, now it is replaced by jemioła (III); formerly it was rare, because it was mown every year; now there is more of it, because one cuts the grass higher (with machines) (VII); now it is more common than in former times (I)  
  tatarak (all)
trawa mieczowata (VII)
Sweet flag
Sword-like grass
Acorus calamus L On the edges of the river (III, VII); mainly by the lakes (IV, VII); it grows by bodies of water in wetlands and generally everywhere in wetlands (VII); in more wet, muddy places, hollows, in waterlogged conditions, not on mineral islands (IV) By the river (III, VII) and lakes (VII, IV), in the 1st zone (III) Has broad leaves (II, III); has smelly roots (II); leaves are flat (II); it has a characteristic, thick rhizome; sword-like family grass (VII)   Cattle prefer not to eat it (IV, VII)   Medicinal plant; rhizomes are collected for sale (II, III, IV); leaves put under bread to keep it fresh (II, VII)
kosac (VII)
kosaciec (IV)
trawa mieczowata (VII)
kosaciec is a Polish name of Iris, kosa means a scythe
sword-like grass
Iris pseudacorus L On muddy edges of the lakes and river (IV) By the lakes and river (IV) When it is ripe, it has a pod similar to the broad bean (III); it blossoms yellow; sword-like family grass (VII)   It is an exception when cattle eat it (VII)   
  sitorz (III)
sitnik (VI, VII)
sitarz (VII)
sit in Polish means rush, all the local names are variations of sit Juncus conglomeratus L. (III, VI, VII), Juncus articulatus L. (III) Grows in acidic soils, in acidic meadows; where it grows, the grass has no value; grew in front of the forest, where cattle used to graze (VII) Used to grow ca. 100 m in front of the forest, where cows used to graze, near the grobel (causeway) (VII) It is thin and has seeds at the top; grows in groups (VII)   This grass has no value; cattle do not like it; a cow will not take it in its mouth (VII) w When cattle grazed it, there used to be a lot of it, now there is much less of it and generally it is overgrown by reed (VII)  
sitkorz (III)
scypiorek (III, IV)
sit in Polish means rush, all the local names are variations of sit,
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult It grows between other grasses in meadows; on the elevated mineral islands (III) Mineral islands (III) It is very small and thin (III)     
  sitarz (IV) sit in Polish means rush, all the local names are variations of sit Schoenoplectus lacustris L. (Palla)        It was used for swimming lessons. One collected two handfuls of long stems and tied each of them up with a string at the ends. Then one clenched them so strongly that one got two bolsters. They would not soak with water. Then one connected the two bolsters with a strings. One could lie down on this strings and had bolsters on two sides. Then one could swim easily
zioła 'grerb' (+ Lythrum salicaria L.) bociany (III) Storks Lysimachia vulgaris L., Symphytum officinale L    Plants from herb family that are visible above the grasses (III)   They have no fodder value (III)   
  żywokost (III, VII) Comfrey Symphytum officinale Grows on the edges of waterbodies, like river, lakes (III, VII)   Has long, broad leaves; it blossoms pinkish; has brown roots; belongs to the herb family (VII)   It has no fodder value (III, VII)   Medicinal plant (III, IV, VII); it is good for joint pain (VII); I collected it in the winter, digged it out with an axe, cut the roots, dried it out and made an ointment with oil (VII); my mother told me that people harvested it barefoot and directly put it on aching places (III)
  tabuła (IV, VII) Spiraea Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim Grows in little elevated places and on mineral islands (VII); it grows in a muddy olsyna (Alnus) forest (IV)   It blossoms white; it is tall; has quite a hard and thick stem; belongs to the herb family (VII)   It has no fodder value   Medicinal plant; people collect and sell it; only flowers are harvested; it can be cut with a sickle (VII)
  drabinka (V, VII)
srebrnik (III)
gęsie łapki (IV)
A little ladder
Little goose paws
Potentilla anserina L It grows, though not neccesarily, in wet meadows; it grows close to the river (IV) It grows in the 1st zone; it does not really grow in the further zones (III, IV) It looks like a small ladder; has a nice scent; belongs to the herb family (VII)   Cattle eat it   Medicinal plant, people collect it and sell
  gęsie łapki (III, VII) Little goose paws Comarum palustre L It grows in wet meadows, on the other side of the river (III, IV); it grows at waterlogged conditions; on the edges of lakes (VII) It grows in further zones, closer to the forest (III, VII) The stem creeps on the ground; one can stumble against it and fall over (IV)   It is more like weed; it is not a good fodder; it is not edible (VII); cattle do not eat it (IV)   
  mięta (all) Mint Mentha aquatica L In wet meadows, everywhere (all)   It is from the herb family (VII)     
kacaki (+ Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Sagittaria sagittifolia L. [III,IV]) bobrek (II, III, IV)
bobik (I, II, III, IV, VI, VII)
gęsie łapy (III)
boberek (II)
bober (II)
bobownik (V)
A little bean
Goose paws
Menyanthes trifoliata L It grows in waterlogged conditions; it must be in water (II, IV); in lowered places, in hollows (IV, V); between the tussocks (IV); in hollows in front of the mineral islands, together with lepka and łopian (VII); where lepka grows there is also bobik (VII); it can grow in the Alnus forest, olsyna, and in front of the forest in biele (white meadows) (III) It grows in the zones further from the river (III, IV); in smugi (pasture), in places far from the river (II); in the middle place between river and forest; by mineral islands (VII) Has three rounded leaves that are thick (all) but soft (VII); it used to grow in large aggregations in meadows (VII); it is very bitter (II) It is really easy to mow, very light; where the bobik grows, the swath is extremely thick (VII) Cattle and sheep eat it happily; when sheep finds bobik in a hay they are delighted; it is a highly valuable fodder (VII); cattle eat it (I); I did not give it to cattle because it was too bitter (IV); the mixture of bobik, lepka and łopian, which grow by the mineral islands, in hay has an amazing scent and sheep eat it directly in the air (very quickly); the hay with this mixture was deliberately rationed to sheep (VII) Formerly, it used to be abundant (V, VII); back then, there were extensive fragments of bobik in meadows; today there is much less of it (VII); formerly, there was plenty of it, now there is much less because it is drier (I, IV) It is a medicinal plant that is collected and sold; it used to be collected and sold fresh and wet (I, II, III, IV, V); it pays off to sell it; people used to harvest it directly from boats (IV); we use it at home to heal stomach pains (II)
  kacak (III)
kaczeniec (II, III, IV, VI, VII)
łopian (VII)
nikwiat (II)
Marsh marigold-like
Marsh marigold
Caltha palustris L Grows in spring (II, III, VII); in the whole biele (all wet meadows) (III, VII); it grows when water is still there; after a long winter with snow, in spring there is plenty of them in the water (VII) All biele (wet meadows) (II, III, VII) It is quite fragile (III); it blossoms yellow (II,VII)   The leaves used to be harvested for pigs (VI); when cattle used to graze it in spring, they had a fatty, yellowish milk later on, it looked dyed; the milk trader always said that it is dyed with carrot (II, VII) It needs high water in spring to grow; when the winter is long and snowy then there is a lot of water in the spring and kaczeniec is there (VII)  
  osty (II, III)
oset jeziorny (IV)
Lake thistle
Stratiotes aloides L Usually in the lakes (II, III, IV, VII); plenty of lakes have a name derived from osty   It breaks high through the surface (III); it blossoms white or blue (II); it blossoms white (II); it is so spiny that one can split one's legs during fishing; it is difficult to fish with a net because of it; even with a boat it is difficult to go through it (IV) People used to mow it with a scythe to clean the lakes (IV)    
  grążel (II)
ryjki (IV)
Little snouts
Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm On the whole surface of the lakes (IV) We have a lot of it in lakes (IV) It has roots like an arm (IV)     
  grzebilja (VII)
lilija (VII)
Nymphaea alba L Lakes (VII) We have it in lakes (VII) It blossoms white (VII)     
unaffiliated taxa lepka (II, III, IV, VII) Sticky one Galium uliginosum L., Galium palustre L It grows between rzeżucha (III); it grows closer to the river, where there are floods from the river; it grows together with bobik in hollows by mineral islands (VII) In the middle place between the river and forest, but closer to the river; by mineral islands (VII) It blossoms white (III, VII); it creeps; it grows quite massively (VII); it winds over other plants and sticks to them (II, IV); it is a soft grass; it sticks to the fingers (IV, VII); when there are other plants around, it grows on them, if there are none, it creeps on the ground; it is somewhat heavy; it has little, fine leaves on the whole stem (IV); it is from seradela (bird's-foot) family; it blossoms for the first early mowing (VII) It trails behind the scythe (VII) It is a very good fodder grass (VII); cattle and sheep eat it happily (IV, VII)   
  powójka (III, IV, VII)
powojka (IV)
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br It grows between tall grasses, like bluszcz, rzeżucha, reed (III, IV, VII); by the river it is very rare; a similar species grows in the crops fieds and climbs on the cereal (Convolvulus arvensis) (IV) It does not grow by the river but in the zones further from the river (III, IV, VII) It blossoms white (VII); it climbs high and winds over other tall plants (III, IV, VII); it is very difficult to break through this plant by hands (VII)   All animals like to graze it (III); cattle eat it like honey; it is a delicacy, a luxury for cattle (VII) When in the 1980s we ceased mowing biele intensively, it started to grow everywhere (VII)  
  kobylak (II, III, IV, VI)
kobylak bielny (II)
łopian (VII)
szczaw koński (VII)
wet meadow kobylak
giant water dock
Rumex hydrolapathum Huds It grows in lowered places, in hollows (III) massively (VII); in muddy places; on the edges of the lakes (IV); a similar species grows in gardens and is called szczaw (dock) (II) By the lakes and bodies of water (IV), everywhere in lowered wet meadows (III, VII) It has very broad leaves, that is why sometimes they call it łopian (burdock) (III, VII); the leaves are more rounded; the whole plant is more green (VII); its roots are thick like an arm; its seeds are like groat (IV)   Cattle prefer not to eat it (IV, VII); it was mown for hay because cattle like it, too (III) Formerly, there used to be plenty of it; when there was ice in winter, kobylak constantly moved with the pulled out ice to new places and would root there; now the years are dry, there is no ice that moves it to the new places, so it grows rarely It is a medicinal plant and people collect and sell it
  marchlak (III)
marchwianka (IV)
Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir It grows when a lot of water stays in spring (III); in 'river meadows' (III, IV); grows in muddy places (IV) Grows in the 1st zone, on the other side of the river (III, IV) It has a hollow inside the stem; one could stand on it like on a bridge (IV)   Cattle prefer not to eat it (IV) In the years when the meadows stay dry it does not grow (III)  
  truskawka (VII) Strawberry Fragaria vesca L It grows in Alnus forest, olsyna (VII) olsyna Alnus forest (VII) It blossoms white; grows very low, just over the ground (VII)   Pigs like to eat it; sheep with cattle used to graze it in autumn; sheep could only eat strawberries, does not need anything else; it is a delicacy for sheep (VII) Back then, there used to be plenty of it in the forest (VII)  
  rdest (III, IV)
derdes (III)
Persicaria amphibia (L.) Delarbre, Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre It grows in wet meadows, in acidic places; similar species grow in crop fields (III) Wet meadows and crop fields It has willow-like leaves; there are a few types of rdest, some of them are smaller, some of them more massive (III); it is rare here (IV)   Cattle eat it only when they have to (IV)   
  wilczy gnat (III) Wolf bone Sium latifolium L In slightly elevated places; small mineral islands in wet meadows (III) In the 1st zone behind the river (III) It has a very hard stem; it could blunt a freshly sharpened scythe; it blossoms white (III)   Cattle do not want to eat the old form (III)   
  koluch (IV) Spine-like Sparganium erectum L It grows where bobik grows; by the ditches (IV); in biele, (wet meadows) (IV, VII); it grows in grass for the first mowing, not for the second (VII) In the middle places between river and forest (VII); in further zones (IV) It has flowers on one side (III); it is spiny (III, IV)    We did not have much of it back then, now we have more (VII)  
  koczki (III)
pałka (IV)
Typha spp. In muddy wet meadows; on the edges of the lakes (IV)   It has a fluff that blows with the wind (IV) People used to mow it with a scythe to clean the lakes (IV)    
  skołojrza (III, IV)
babka (II)
Plantago media L., Plantago lanceolata L        Medicinal plants, leaves are collected and sold (II, IV); people used it na obryw (kind of folk disease) and put it on abscesses on the skin (IV)
  świńska trawa (III, IV) Pig grass Polygonum aviculare L        a medicinal plant, collected and sold
  jaskrawiec (IV) jaskier—Polish botanical name of buttercup
Ranunculus repens L., Ranunculus flammula L Grows in smugi (pastures)   It is a burning plant—when put on skin on the inner part of the wrist, it makes a wound (IV)   Cattle do not eat it   
shrubs and trees krzewina (all)
rodzina łozinowatych (VII)
łoza—Polish common name for Salix cinera
łoza family
Shrubby forms of Salix spp., e.g. Salix cinerea L Wet meadows (VII); grows by the rivers and stabilises the edges (II, III) In all wet meadows (VII); by the river and lakes (II, III) It is a small wierzba (a tree from of Salix) (VI, VII); has broader leaves and darker bark (compared to wierzba) (III, V, VII); leaves are shiny (VII); there are a few types of krzewina: green, red, hard and soft; it is twisted (II) It was used to build a structure under the haystack (III, IV, V, VI, VII); it was used for small poles stuck in the ground (platform) under the haystack; the branches were used as material layered on pole platforms (III, IV, V, VI, VII); straight trunks of harder krzewina were used as ballasting poles interposed on the top of the haystack (II, IV, VI, VII); branches used to mark the borders of the plots during haymaking in wetlands (IV, V); if you encounter it in the grass during mowing, then you immediately blunt your scythe, it is so hard (VII)   It started to grow everywhere when we stopped mowing meadows (VI, VII)  
  krzewina (all) Shrub-like Shrubby forms of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Frangula alnus Mill     It was used to build a platform under the haystack (III, IV, V, VI, VII); it was used for small poles stuck in the ground under the haystack; used as material layered on the pole platform (III, IV, V, VI, VII); trunks used as ballasting poles on the top of haystack (IV, VI, VII); to mark the borders of the plots during mowing in wetlands (IV, V)    
złotooki (IV)
Golden eyes
Flexible types of Salix spp.    It is very flexible; there are three specific taxa of flexible wiklina: yellow, red (named rózga, rod) and green (IV)     
  wierzba (III, VII)
wierzbina (V, VII)
Tree form of Salix spp. e.g. Salix alba L It does not grow on the edges of rivers and lakes as opposed to krzewina (VII)   There are a few species of it; has narrow leaves and fair bark (III); it grows very tall; is usually fragile (VII)     
  brzoza (III, IV, V, VI, VII)
brzezina (I, II, VII)
brzózna (II)
Betula pendula Roth., Betula pubescens Ehrh Grows in wet meadows and on sandy mineral islands (II)    Used for small poles stuck in the ground (platform) under the haystack (IV, VI, VII); trunks used as ballasting poles interposed on the top of the haystack (I, II, III, V, VI, VII); material used for nosidła—wooden rods used to carry hay to the haystack (III, IV, V); material for the scythe (V) Cattle can eat the leaves   A medicinal plant; leaves are collected and sold (II, III, IV, V, VII)
  kruszewina (III, IV, VII)
kruszyna (VII)
Alder buckthorn-like
Alder buckthorn
Frangula alnus Grows in olsyna Alnusforest (III, IV); grows in forests (VII) We have a lot of it in the olsyna Alnus forest (III)      A medicinal plant; we cut the branches, then peeled off the bark, then dried it out and sold it; wood used as firewood (VII)
  dębina (II, III, VII)
dębiak (VII)
Quercus spp. In elevated places in wetlands such as mineral islands (II, III, VII) On many mineral islands (VII)   Used for small poles under the haystack; branches put on the pole platform structure under the haystack; trunks used as ballasting poles on the tops of the haystacks (VII)   On some mineral islands it used to grow very well, but it wilted (VII)  
  jegla (III, VI, VII)
świerk (all)
jegielka (II, III)
choja (IV)
jodła—Polish botanical name of Abies alba, so might be translated as fir-like
maybe from choinka—Christmas tree
Picea abies (L.) H.Karst In sandy places (VII)   There are two specific taxa: red and white; red has a reddish wood after cut and darker needles, the white one has light wood and lighter needles (III, V, VII); it turns red when infected by woodworms; wood is more yellowish (VII) The trunks were used for nosidła (wooden rods used to carry hay to the haystack) due to certain qualities of wood, which is strong, tough and light (all); used for small poles (platform) under the haystack or as ballasting poles interposed on the top of the haystack (IV); material used to make a scythe (V); the white one is better for nosidła because it is lighter when dries out (VII)    The roots were used to make brodnie (type of drag net for fishing) (VI)
  olsza (III, IV)
olcha (II, IV, V, VII)
olszyna (all)
olska (II)
Alnus glutinosa In lowered places; muddy soils; in wet places it can form a forest (all); it grows everywhere in wet meadows (III) Forms a forest in further zones (III, VII)   Used for small poles stuck in the ground (platform) under the haystack (I, III, IV, V); the branches were used as material layered on the platform (I, IV, V); trunks used as ballasting poles interposed on the top of the haystack (I, IV, V, VII); used for nosidła, wooden rods used to carry hay to the haystack (III, IV); it was not suitable to be used as ballasting poles put on the haystack because it was too fragile (VI)    
  sośnina (III)
sosna (III, VI, VII)
Pinus sylvestris L In sandy places (VII)    Used for small poles stuck in the ground (platform) under the haystack (VII); used for nosidła, wooden rods used to carry hay to the haystack (III)    The roots were used to make brodnie (type of drag net for fishing) (VI)
  lipa (III, V, VI, VII) Lime Tilia spp.   We do not have a lot of it (III)   Branches put on the pole platform under the haystack in the winter time (VII); best material to use for nosidła; wooden rods used to carry hay to the haystack because it is strong and light wood (III)    When a cow ate too much of the young sprouts in the springtime, then it had inflammated urine with blood in it; it could be healed with 0,5 l of spirit vinegar; because of this, back then everyone had to have vinegar at home (VI)
  leszczyna (III, VII)
lescyna (VIII)
Corylus avellana L     Branches covered the pole platform under the haystack (VII)    
  osa (III, VII)
osika (III)
Populus tremula L Also grows in wet meadows (III)   The wood is soft (VII) The trunks used for nosidła, wooden rods used to carry hay to the haystack (III)    
  grabina (III, VII) Hornbeam-like Carpinus betulus L On mineral islands (VII) On many mineral islands (VII)      In grabina forest one can collect Armillaria mushrooms (III)
  porzeczka czarna (all) Blackcurrant Ribes nigrum L Grows in olsyna Alnus forest (II, III)       A medicinal plants, leaves are collected and sold
  1. The Roman numerals in parentheses indicate the village: I—Sośnia, II—Pluty, III—Brzostowo, IV—Rutkowskie, V—Kołodzieje, VI—Gugny, VII—Olszowa Droga