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Table 2 Kedayan local ecological calendar and the ecological events that serve as local seasonal indicators

From: The fading popularity of a local ecological calendar from Brunei Darussalam, Borneo

Gregorian months Musim (season) Seasonal indicator Events (landscape management and withdrawal of provisioning ecosystems services)
Celestial indicator Local seasonal indicator
January–February Musim mengatam padi (Paddy harvest season) Season when the paddy is mature and ready for harvest (around January to February). For the Kedayan community, the harvesting of paddy was usually initiated by the orang pandai (healer), followed by other members of Kedayan community. The Kedayan associate harvesting season with happy mood
  Musim udang galah (season of bighead prawn) Increasing saltiness of freshwater Season of hot weather when freshwater turns salty, driving upstream migration of bighead prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). It is the optimal time to harvest bighead prawn
March–April Musim burung sengkaput (season of Indian cuckoo) Indian cuckoo (Cuculus micropterus) calls from the jungle Considered to be a lean season for the Kedayan. Call of Indian cuckoo signifies the approaching of flowering season of local fruit trees in the following 2–3 months
April–May Musim taduh tahun (Calm season of the year) Calm waves in the sea Calm waves in the sea signifies favorable time for fishing. There would be abundance of fish such as bebatik (Gnathanodon speciosus), usus (Sillago sihama) and gulama (Johnius coitor)
  Musim bubuk (Krill season) Krill move closer inland where the waves are not strong. Harvesting krill is a major cultural and economic activity for the Kedayan. Notable food made from krill is belacan or shrimp paste
May–June Musim angin punay (season of emerald dove wind) A continuous wind with scattered drizzles coupled with the sighting of emerald dove (Chalacophaps indica) The emerald doves are ‘skinny’ at this time of the year, and thus unfit for hunting. According to Maxwell [12], the wind could be alternatingly strong and calm
Angin punay indicates imminent arrival of paddy season
June Musim bunga (Flowering season) A season influenced by the southwest monsoon. Local fruit trees begin flowering before the onset of mass fruiting season
June–July Payama padi/musim padi (Paddy season) Rising of Pleiades above the horizon in the dawn. Subsequently, rising of rahang is observed. Lastly, binkasan is observed The blooming of salimbudan (Mussaenda glabra Vahl) indicates the appropriate time for felling of trees and preparation of paddy field [12] Rising of Pleiades marks the onset of paddy season. Around 4 weeks’ time is allocated for burning the vegetation and debris in the field as rainfall is sparse at this time of the year. These constellations are all important for planning agricultural activities
  Musim pohon sadaman, marakit dan makubung berbuah (Sadaman, makubung and marakit fruiting season) Fruiting of sadaman (Macaranga trachyphylla), marakit (Macaranga conifer) and makubung (Macaranga gigantea) During this time of the year, fruits of the trees are ripe and falling. Emerald doves migrate to fruiting localities, which concurrently occurs with the cutting and clearing of vegetation. After the emerald doves have finished consuming the fruits, they gain weight. While working in the paddy field, the Kedayan also trap the punay (dove) for subsistence
  Musim makan tahun Kedayan (Kedayan annual feast) Makan tahun is conducted to celebrate good harvest of paddy. The Kedayan annual feast is a pre-Islamic indigenous thanksgiving/harvest festival usually conducted after the end of the paddy season
July Musim kulat tahun (Mushroom season) Copious blooming of Agaricus sp. A season that brings plenty of rain (a rainy season) due to the influence of Southwest monsoon. Agaricus sp. bloom copiously in the ecotones close to Kedayan paddy fields. Collection of these mushrooms is a major activity for the Kedayan
July–August Musim rebung buluh (Bamboo shoots season) Rising of Pleiades Growth of bamboo shoots (Bambusa spp.) The season of bamboo shoots is also known as kartika dalam tanah (Pleiades inside the ground/soil) as it is associated with the position of kartika (Pleiades) star. The rising of Pleiades indicates that it is time for the young bamboo shoots to grow. If the Pleiades is not yet seen above the horizon, the bamboo shoots are still inside the ground and when it is observed above the horizon and passes the zenith, the bamboo shoots are ready for harvest. Here, the rising of Pleaides is considered as analogous to the growth of bamboo shoots. The rising of Pleiades also indicates fruiting of Nypa fruticans. Kedayan used to tap the Nypa infructescence in the twentieth century for its sweet nectar, which was consumed as such or converted into gula anau, a sweetener [11]
August Musim menyamai banih padi (Paddy sowing season)   Fruiting of salimbudan (Mussaenda glabra) indicates the time to sow paddy seeds The season of paddy sowing usually takes place during the hot humid categories before the coming of first wet season
Setting of Mussaenda fruits calls for the sowing of paddy which has to be completed by the time Mussaenda is denuded of all bracts and is in fruiting [12]
August–October Musim buah (Fruiting season)   Horseflies approach terap (Artocarpus odoratissimus) fruits Season usually starts with the fruiting of terap (Artocarpus odoratissimus), followed by cempedak (Artocarpus integer) and kembayau (Canarium odontophyllum), mambangan (Mangifera pajang), and durian (Durio spp.). The approaching of terap (Artocarpus odoratissimus) fruits by horseflies indicate beginning of season. Season usually ends with the fruiting of tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) and rambai (Baccaurea motleyana)
November–December Musim penyu bertelur (Sea turtle season) Full moon indicates best timing for turtle egg harvest The Northeast monsoon brings abundant rain. Sea turtles arrive to nest and lay their eggs especially when the nights are clear or during full moon. Bulan penuh (13th to 15th of lunar calendar) or full moon is considered as the best time to harvest sea turtle eggs (Chelonioidea spp) as the night is clear and bright
  Musim hayarga (season of strong winds) Strong winds flowing inland from the sea accompanied by huge waves in the sea A season influenced by the Northeast monsoon when strong winds blow from the sea to the inland. This period therefore refers to the time of the year when the waves of the sea were huge and strong. Thus, there is limited possibility to engage in fishing