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Table 2 List of WEFs and their collection seasons, availability, and uses in eastern Bhutan

From: Ethnobotanical study of wild edible fruits in eastern Bhutan

Family Botanical names Local name Collection number Number of citations Collection season Availability Consumption mode and other uses References
Trashigang Trashiyangtse
Actinidiaceae Actinidia callosa Lindl.a Zhimpeykotong/Phangkulomsey KN015 5 0 Oct–Nov Mo Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. Stems used for making ropes and seeds for raising rootstock  
Anacardiaceae Rhus chinensis Milla Roptang sey KN013 10 0 Jul–Aug Ra Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. Stems and trunks are used as firewood and fencing poles. To treat snakebite and stomachache [48]
Anacardiaceae Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.b Amsey KN014 4 5 Jul–Aug Mo Fruits are consumed raw and as pickles [49]
Anacardiaceae Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L.Burtt & A.W.Hillb Phrumchung sey KN012 14 0 Jul–Aug Ra Fruits consumed raw and as pickle [49]
Araceae Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schottb Bozong KN016 1 1 Jan–Feb Ra Corms are boiled and consumed as snacks, curry, and soup. Leaves used to wrap dairy products and as a plate [21, 23, 48, 49]
Bignoniaceae Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurzb Namkaling KN020 2 0 Aug–Sep Ra Flowers are consumed as a vegetable and used for religious purposes. To treat burns and wounds, relieve cough and gastritis [48, 49]
Combretaceae Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.a Baru KN025 1 5 Nov–Feb Ra Dried fruits are chewed for medicinal purposes. Fruits used for traditional medicine and religious purpose, used for cough and sore throat, diarrhea, ingestion, asthma, constipation, dye extraction [21, 23, 49]
Combretaceae Terminalia chebula Retz.a Aru KN021 1 5 May–June Ra Dried fruits are chewed for medicinal purposes. Used for traditional medicine and religious purpose. To treat cough, asthma, diarrhea, and constipation [23]
Cornaceae Cornus capitata Wallc Maminpa sey/poitse sey PY001 42 20 Sep–Oct Mo Fruits are consumed raw  
Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigtc Khakhari sey   2 0 June–July Mo Fruits are consumed as a vegetable [21, 48]
Dioscoraceae Dioscorea bulbifera L.a Borang joktang KN022 19 3 Oct–Nov Ra Aerial and underground tubers are consumed by boiling or roasting. Stems are used as rope for fencing [21]
Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus L.b Amdrebu sey/ gundum KN024 6 9 Sep–Oct Mo Fruits are dried and consumed. Seeds are used to raise rootstock  
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus latifolia L.a Dangmaling sey PY002 44 27 Jul–Aug Ab Fruits are consumed raw or processed into wine  
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus lanceifolius Roxba Gashathung sey KN023 24 10 Jul–Sep Ra Fruits are consumed raw as a pickle. The wood is used as a construction material, to make tea boxes and charcoal  
Ericaceae Vaccinium retusum (Griff.) Hook.f. ex C.B.Clarkea Shakshingma sey PY008 35 17 Oct–Nov Mo Fruits consumed raw on ripe. Used for religious purposes and to treat a skin problem  
Fabaceae Tamarindus indica L.a Tetari KN026 5 0 Mar–April Ra Pods are consumed raw or as pickles used to relieve constipation, as an appetizer, and spice/condiment [48]
Fabaceae Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC.c Tsha tsha sey KN030 18 9 Oct–Nov Mo Nuts are consumed raw, after boiling and roasting. The wood is used as firewood and furniture making  
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L.c Khesey KN027 53 30 Sep–Oct Ab Nuts are consumed raw, wood for Furniture, nut cover as a yeast, flowers as tea leaves, and seeds as butter in butter tea [23]
Lardizabalaceae Holboellia latifolia Wall.a Throkchang sey KN029 27 9 Nov–Dec Mo Fruits consumed raw on ripe. Stems used as a rope for plowing and fencing  
Lauraceae Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.c Neng KN028 22 7 Jul–Aug Ra Fruits are consumed as salad, dried, and processed into powder. Used as a spice in the food  
Lauraceae Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob.a Kherim sey PY009 1 4 Sep–Aug Ra Consumed as a spice. Used for oil extraction. Used as a cooking oil  
Lauraceae Machilus edulis King ex Hook. f.b Goli PY011 21 13 Sep–Aug Ra Fruits are consumed as a substitute for curry with rice. Wood is used for firewood, seeds used to raise rootstock  
Lauraceae Parasassafras confertiflora (Meisn.) D.G.Longc Singsi KN031 16 2 Aug–Sep Ra Fruits are used for oil extraction, used as cooking oil, wound treatment, skin lotion  
Moraceae Ficus auriculata Lour.c Chongma sey KN035 32 18 Jul–Aug Ab Fruits are consumed raw or as dried fruit. Leaves and stems as fodder, leaves are used to wrap dairy products. The latex used to treat wounds and cuts, roasted fruits for treating diarrhea and dysentery [21, 23, 49]
Moraceae Ficus semicordata Buch.Ham. ex Sm.c Barchongma sey KN033 17 21 Jul–Aug Mo Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. leaves and stems as fodder, fruit paste for fever and menstrual disorder [21, 49]
Moraceae Morus serrata Roxb.b Shagongma sey PY003 6 2 Jul–Aug Ra Fruits are consumed raw. leaves used as a fodder  
Musaceae Musa acuminata Collab Laisey KN032 7 8 June–July Mo Fruits are consumed raw and processed into chips. leaves to wrap dairy products, as fodder for cattle  
Myricaceae Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D.Dona Tsutsu sey PY004 50 8 Jul–Aug Mo Berries are consumed raw on ripe. Used for cough and cold, leaves as fodder [21, 49]
Myrsinaceae Ardisia macrocarpa Walla Thakchung sey PY005 8 1 Dec–Jan Ab Fruits are consumed raw on ripe [21]
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Lb Bebsey KN034 7 5 Nov–Dec Mo Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. leaves paste for hair growth and dandruff. Leaves are used as a green tea [49]
Myrtaceae Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeelsa Mintse PY006 5 0 Jun–July Ra Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. Used as firewood and fodder, to treat diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery [21, 23, 49]
Nephrolepidaceae Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presla Ata khaw khaw KN036 1 0 July–Aug Ra Underground nodules are consumed as a refreshment. Used to treat hypertension and diabetes [21]
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Simsb Zargong KN040 5 0 Aug–Sep Mo Fruits are consumed raw on ripe [48]
Pinaceae Pinus roxburghii Sarg.a Tongphu shing KN037 1 1 Nov–Dec Mo Seeds are consumed raw or after roasting. Wood as a construction material  
Punicaceae Punica granatum L.b Tshalem/Thalem KN038 4 11 April–May Mo Fruits are consumed raw on ripe [23]
Phyllanthaceae Phyllanthus emblica L.a Chorgen sey KN039 11 25 Dec–Feb Ab Fruits are consumed raw or processed into a pickle, dried fruit, and wine. Used to treat hypertension, cough, and cold. Used for traditional medicine and religious purpose [21, 23, 48, 49]
Rhamnaceae Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.a Khangaring KN041 9 19 Feb–Mar Ab Fruits are consumed raw and processed into pickles and wine. for traditional medicine. Used for cuts and ulcers, ingestion, and fever [21]
Rosaceae Chaenomeles lagenaria (Loisel.) Koidz.b Khomang KN042 19 0 Sep–Oct Mo Consumed raw or processed into a pickle. Used as a dye. Used for treating cough and cold, to remove the rust  
Rosaceae Docynia indica (Colebr. ex Wall.) Decne.C Thungkakpa PY010 49 37 Nov–Dec Mo Fruits are consumed raw, after boiling or roasting, and as dried fruit. Used as an appetizer and to cure diabetes [49]
Rosaceae Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) Lacaitaa Sagong KN043 34 21 June–July Ab Berries are consumed raw and processed into juice  
Rosaceae Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Donc Letong KN044 18 15 Oct–Nov Mo Fruits are consumed raw, like dried fruit, and processed into wine. Seeds used as a rootstock material [23]
Rosaceae Rubus ellipticus Sm.c Sergong PY007 49 40 May–June Ab Berries are consumed raw and processed into juice [21, 23]
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC.a Gee KN045 33 22 Aug–Sep Mo Berries are used as a spice. Used to ward off evil spirits [23]
Rutaceae Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingleb Kapur KN050 4 16 Nov–Dec Ra Fruits are consumed raw as a salad, processed into a pickle. Used to remove dandruff [23]
Rutaceae Citrus medica L.b Lumpang KN048 7 13 Nov–Dec Mo Fruits are consumed raw and processed into juice and pickle. Used to relieve pain and inflammation, treat skin disorder and itching [23]
Rutaceae Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.a Berkang sey/Lebi sey KN046 3 6 July–Aug Mo Fruits are consumed raw. Used as a condiment in curry [21, 23, 49]
Rubiaceae Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.a Ngyerthung sey KN047 5 2 Nov–Dec Ra Fruits are consumed raw on ripe  
Sapotaceae Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J.Lama Fin sey/Phinlung KN049 15 7 June–July Ra Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. Used for oil extraction. Used as cooking oil, butter lamp, to treat a pimple, boils, burns, headache and rheumatism [21]
Schisandraceae Illicium verum Hook.f.c Wunba tsinang KN053 2 0 Sep–Oct Ra Seeds are consumed with betel leaf. Used as a spice in tea and curries  
Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L.c Pokpokma sey KN050 2 0 June–July Ra Fruits are consumed raw or cooked as a vegetable. To treat diabetes and hypertension  
Symplocaceae Symplocos paniculata Miq.a Thulu sey/ Pangtse shing KN052 1 0 Aug–Sep Ra Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. Used for oil extraction which is used as cooking oil. Leaves used as a dye  
Thymelaeaceae Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Dona Desho shing KN051 0 7 May Ra Fruits are consumed raw on ripe. The bark is used for making paper and rope  
  1. References—commonly listed species in Nepal, India, Laos, and Myanmar
  2. Availability—Ab: Abundant; Mo: Moderate; Ra: Rare
  3. Botanical names—aforest, bField surrounding, cBoth