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Table 3 List of Mushrooms species with their Ethno-mycological uses

From: Diversity and ethnomycological importance of mushrooms from Western Himalayas, Kashmir

No. Name of Species Family Edibility Status Ethno-mycological uses Ecology Voucher specimen Number Region Reference
1 Agaricus amicosus Kerrigan. Agaricaceae Edible Not used Saprobic, scattered in fir litter TS-106 Neelum AJK Present study
2 A. campestris L. Agaricaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, growing in a grassy area TS-107 AJK [49, 50]
3 A. silvicolae-similis Bohus & Locsmándi Agaricaceae Edible Not consumed Saprobic, growing on decomposed wood TS-110 AJK [49, 50]
4 A. subrutilescens (Kauffman) Hotson & D. E. Stuntz Agaricaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobe, growing under coniferous forest TS-109 AJK Present study
5 Amanita fulva Fr Amanitaceae Inedible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with conifers or hardwoods TS-110 AJK Present study
6 A. hemibapha (Berk. &Broome) Sacc Amanitaceae Poisonous Poisonous Saprobic TS-111 AJK Present study
7 A. muscaria (L.) Lam Amanitaceae Poisonous Poisonous Mycorrhizal with pine and oak TS-112 AJK Present study
8 A. phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Link Amanitaceae Deadly poisonous Poisonous Mycorrhizeal with oaks TS-113 AJK [75]
9 A. vaginata (Bull.) Lam Amanitaceae Edible Not consumed as food Mycorrhizeal with pines and oaks TS-114 AJK Present study
10 Apioperdon pyriforme (Schaeff.) Vizzini Agaricaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food Saprobic on deadwood of hardwoods or conifers TS-115 Pak [51]
11 Armillaria gallica Marxm. & Romagn Physalacriaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprophytic, on organic matter and soil TS-120 AJK Present study
12 A. mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm Physalacriaceae Edible Consumed as food Parasitic on the hardwoods, on conifers produce white rot in the wood TS-121 Neelum AJK Present study
13 Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Quel Auriculriaceae Edible/medicinal Used in weakness after childbirth, anti-hypertension Grows in groves of trees, on logs and dead branches TS-122 AJK/KPK [52]
14 A. gentilis (Quél.) Pouzar Boletaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with conifers TS-123 AJK Present study
15 Boletus aureissimus (Murrill) Singer Boletaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with oaks TS-124 AJK Present study
16 B. chrysenteroides Snell Boletaceae Edible Used as food Mycorrhizal with oaks and conifers TS-125 AJK Present study
17 B. edulis Bull. Herb. Fr Boletaceae Edible Used as food Mycorrhizal with hardwoods TS-126 AJK/KPK [51, 52]
18 Bovista utriformis (Bull.) Fr Agaricaceae Edible Consumed as food Sandy ground TS-127 AJK Present study
19 Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson Psathyrellaceae Medicinal Used in traditional medicines Saprobic grow on decaying wood TS-10 AJK Present study
20 Calvatia cyathiformis (Bosc) Morgan Agaricaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, grow in grass SG-16 Kaghan Valley Ahmed, 1950
21 C. gigantea (Batsch) Lloyd Agaricaceae Edible when young Consumed as food Saprobic, growing on grass, lawn, open places SG-20 AJK Present study
22 Cantharellus cibarius Fr Cantharellaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food Coniferous forest associated with moss TS-003 Pakistan [70]
23 C. ignicolor (R.H. Petersen) Dahlman Cantharellaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food Mycorrhizal with oaks, found in the cluster on mosses and grass PC-132 AJK Present study
24 Chlorophyllum rhacodes (Vittad.) Vellinga Agaricaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, found in roadside, lawns, etc. PC-133 AJK [75, 76]
25 C. olivieri (Barla) Vellinga Agaricaceae Potentially dangerous Consumed as food Found in open areas SG-134 AJK Present study
26 Clavaria fumosa Pers Clavariaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, found in a dense cluster in grass TS-135 AJK Present study
27 Clavariadelphus ligula (Schaeff.) Donk Clavariaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, associated with fir needles on the ground TS-138 AJK Present study
28 Desarmillaria tabescens (Scop.) R.A. Koch & Aime Physalacriaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic on oaks TS-139 AJK Present study
29 Clavulinopsis fusiformis (Sowerby) Corner Clavariaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, under hardwoods or conifers TS-140 Neelum AJK Present study
30 Clavulina alta Corner Clavulinaceae Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal with conifers TS-141 Neelum AJK Present study
31 C. cinerea (Bull.) J. Schrot Clavulinaceae Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal association with conifers TS-142 Neelum AJK Present study
32 C. coralloides (L.) J. Schröt Clavulinaceae Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal with conifers and hardwoods SG-027 Neelum AJK Present study
33 Clitocybe acicula Singer Tricholomataceae Edible Not consumed On debris of conifers TS-143 AJK Present study
34 C. nebularis (Batsch) P. Kumm Tricholomataceae Edible/uncommon/medicinal Not consumed Found under conifers TS-76 AJK Present study
35 Clitopilus prunulus (Scop.) P. Kumm Entolomataceae Edible Not consumed Saprobic, under, or conifers PC-88 AJK Present study
36 Coprinus coffeicola Massee, Bull Hymenochaetaceae Inedible Inedible Saprobic, under hardwoods TS-144 AKJK Present study
37 C. commatus (O. F. Mull.) Pers Coprinaceae Edible when young Not consumed Widely in grassland TS-145 AJK Present study
38 Crepidotus applanatus (Pres.) P. Kumm Cortinareaceae Edible Not consumed Under forest TS-146 AJK Present study
39 Desarmillaria tabescens (Scop.) R.A. Koch & Aime Physalacriaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprophytic on oaks TS-150 AJK Present study
40 Exidia recisa (Ditmar) Fr Auriculareaceae Inedible Not consumed Underwood and conifers PC-89 Neelum AJK Present study
41 Floccularia luteovirens (Alb. & Schwein.) Pouzar Russulaceae Edible Not consumed Ecto-Mycorrhizal, grow on the ground with pines SG-19 AJK Present study
42 F. straminea (P. Kumm.) Pouzar Agaricaceae Inedible Not clear Under confers TS-151 AJK Present study
43 Flammulina fennae Bas Physalacriaceae Edible Not consumed On older tree trunks and under conifers TS-152 AJK Present study
44 F. ononidis Arnolds Physalacriaceae Edible Not consumed On the ground and rotten trees TS-153 AJK Present study
45 Fistulina sp Agaricomycetes Edible/medicinal Consumed as food At the tree trunk of Prunus padis TS-154 Neelum AJK Present study
46 Gyromitra bubakii (Velen.) J. Moravec Discinaceae Edible on choice Not consumed Under forest TS-155 AJK Present study
47 G. intermedia (Benedix) Harmaja Discinaceae Edible on choice Not consumed Under forest TS-156 AJK Present study
48 G. esculenta (Pers.) Ex. Fr Discinaceae Conditionally edible /medicinal Conditionally edible Under Quercus trees TS-157 AJK [27]
49 Ganoderma adspersum (Schulzer) Donk Ganodermataceae Inedible/med Not consumed On the ground and rotten trees TS-158 AJK Present study
50 G. lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst Ganodermataceae Inedible/med Medicinal On the ground and rotten trees TS-159 AJK [45]
51 G. applanatum (Pers.) Pat Ganodermataceae Medicinal Medicinal Under Quercus trees TS-160 AJK [68]
52 Geastrum saccatum Fr Geastraceae Inedible Not consumed Under Quercus trees TS-161 Pakistan [69]
53 G. pedicellatum (Batsch) Dörfelt & Müll. Uri Agaricaceae Unknown Not confirm On grassy ground TS-162 AJK [50]
54 G. triplex Jungh Geastraceae Inedible Not consumed Under Quercus trees SG-173 Pakistan [50, 51]
55 Helvella sulcata Afzel Helvellaceae Edible Consumed s food On decaying hardwoods stumps SG-174 AJK Present study
56 H. elastica Bull Helvellaceae Inedible Inedible On the ground, on decaying wood SG-175 AJK Present study
57 H. crispa (Scop.) Fr Helvellaceae Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal. Growing under conifers or hardwoods SG-176 Kaghan Valley [69]
58 H. lacunosa Afzel Helvellaceae Conditionally edible/medicinal Consumed as food Not consumed SG-177 Kaghan Valley [69]
59 H. fibrosa (Wallr.) Korf Helvellaceae Edible Not consumed On confers or wood of hardwoods SG-178 Pakistan [69]
60 Hohenbuehelia sp. T-62 (LAH, 1193) Pleurotaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food Saprobic grows on decaying sticks and branches in damp spots on the forest floor SG-179 Neelum AJK Present study
61 Hydnum repandum L Hydaneceae Edible/medicinal Consumed s food Under Quercus trees SG-180 AJK Present study
62 Hygrocybe acutoconica (Clem.) Singer Hygrophoraceae Edible Consumed s food On confers or wood of hardwoods SG-181 AJK Present study
63 H. flavescens (Kauffman) Singer Tricholomataceae Inedible Not consumed On confers or wood of hardwoods SG-182 AJK Present study
64 Hygrophorus piceae Kuhner Hygrophoraceae Edible Unknown On confers or wood of hardwoods SG-183 AJK Present study
65 H. persooni Arnolds Hygrophoraceae Edible /medicinal Unknown On confers or wood of hardwoods SG-184 AJK Present study
66 Imleria pallida (Frost) A. Farid, A.R. Franck, & J. Bolin Boletaceae Unknown Not consumed Mycorrhizal with oaks TS-185 AJK Present study
67 Laccaria amethystina Cooke Hydnangiaceae Edible on choice/medicinal Not consumed Mycorrhizal with oaks TS-186 AJK Present study
68 L. bicolor Maire Hydnangiaceae Conditionally edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with conifers, found in mosses TS-187 AJK Present study
69 Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray Russulaceae Edible/medicinal Not consumed Mycorrhizal with conifers TS-188 Pak [51]
70 Lactarius sp Russulaceae Edible Consumed as food grows under conifers on acidic soils TS-189 AJK Present study
71 L. helvus (Fr.) Fr Russulaceae Poisonous Poisonous Mycorrhizal with conifers TS-190 AJK Present study
72 L. quieticolor Romagn Russulaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal TS-200 AJK Present study
73 L. torminosus (Schaeff.) Pers Russulaceae Inedible Inedible Mycorrhizal, mixed forest HP-007 AJK Present study
75 Lactifluus piperatus (L.) Roussel Russulaceae Edible/medicinal Inedible On oak SG-192 AJK [50]
76 Lepista ovispora (J.E. Lange). Gulden Tricholomataceae Conditionally edible/med Not consumed Open grassland SG-193 AJK Present study
77 Laetiporus sulphureus Bull. Murrill Fomitopsidaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food On oak, prunus, Salix, etc. TS-201 AJK [51]
78 Lepiota cristata. (Bolton) P. kumm Agaricaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, on forest, lawns, etc. TS-202 Sohawa Shareef AJK Present study
79 L. magnispora Murill Agaricaceae Inedible Inedible Saprobic, Found under hardwoods and conifers TS-203 Neelum AJK Present study
80 Lepista luscina (Fr.) Singer Tricholomataceae Edible Not consumed In mixed forest TS-204 AJK Present study
81 L. irina (Fr.) H.E. Bigelow Tricholomataceae Unknown Not consumed In mixed forest TS-205 AJK Present study
82 Lycoperdon perlatum Pers Agaricaceae Edible when young/medicinal Consumed as food and wound healing Open areas, grassy ground TS-210 Pak [69]
83 Leucopaxillus giganteus Calonge & M Stereaceae Inedible Inedible Saprobic on deadwood of oaks TS-002 AJK Present study
84 Morchella tridentina Bres Morchallaceae Edible/medicinal Used in cough and cold, highly medicinal Saprobic on deadwood or conifers T-05 & T-06 AJK Present study
85 M. deliciosa Fr Morchellaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food and medicinal On humus-rich soil T-02 AJK Present study
86 M. costata Pers Morchellaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food and medicinal On leaf litter T-04 Pak [72]
87 M. conica Pers Morchallaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food and medicine under grass and conifers T-07 Pak [72]
88 M. esculenta Pers Morchallaceae Edible/medicinal Used in cough and cold, highly medicinal Saprobic on deadwood of hardwoods or conifer T-08 AJK [69]
89 M. elata Fr Morchallaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food and medicinal On grasses T-09 Pak [72]
90 Marasmius abrubtipes Corner Marasmiaceae Inedible Not used On humus-rich soil TS-65 AJK Present study
91 M. abundans Corner Marasmiaceae Inedible Not used On leaf litter TS-66 AJK Present study
92 M. rotula (Scop.) Fr Marasmiaceae Inedible Not used Saprobic on deadwood, hardwoods of conifer TS-68 AJK Present study
93 M. strictipes (Peck.) Singer Marasmiaceae Inedible Not confirmed Saprobic on deadwood of hardwoods or conifer TS-69 AJK Present study
94 M. acerinus Peck Marasmiaceae Inedible Not confirmed On grasses TS-70 AJK Present study
95 Pleurotus dryinus (Pers.) P. Kumm Pleurotaceae Edible when young Consumed as food and medicinal Saprobic, growing on oaks TS-72 AJK present study
96 P. ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm Pleurotaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic on wood TS-65 AJK [75]
97 Pholiota brunnescens A.H. Sm. & Hesler Strophariaceae Inedible Not consumed Saprobic on wood TS-212 AJK Present study
98 Polyporus septosporous P.K. Buchanan & Ryvarden Polyporaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food Saprobic on decaying hardwood logs, etc. TS-213 AJK Present study
99 Ramaria fennica (P. karst.) Ricken Gomphaceae Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal with hardwoods TS-214 AJK Present study
100 R. barenthalensis Franchi & M Russulaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with trees and shrubs TS-215 AJK Present study
101 R. stricta (Pers.) Quel Gomphaceae Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal and Saprobic TS-216 AJK Present study
102 Rhodocollybia butyracea (Bull.) Lennox Omphalotaceae Inedible Not consumed Saprobic, decomposing the litter of conifers TS-217 AJK Present study
103 Russula amoenolens Romagn Russulaceae Conditionally edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers TS-218 AJK Present study
104 R. brevipes Peck Russulaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with conifers TS-219 Pakistan [71]
105 R.cinereovinosa Fatto Russulaceae Inedible Inedible Mycorrhizal with conifers, fir TS-220 AJK Present study
106 R. collina Velen Frost Russulaceae Inedible Inedible Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers T-46 AJK Present study
107 R. cremoricolor Earle Russulaceae Unknown Not clear Mycorrhizal, mixed forests T-47 AJK Present study
108 R. cystidiosa Murrill Russulaceae Unknown Not clear Mycorrhizal with oaks T-48 AJK Present study
109 R. delica Fr Russulaceae Edible Consumed as food Found under broadleaved and coniferous wood T-49 AJK Present study
110 R. densifolia Secr. ex Gillet Russulaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with conifers PS-34 AJK Present study
111 R. fragrantissima Romagn Russulaceae Inedible Inedible Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers PS-35 AJK Present study
112 R. integra (L). Fr Russulaceae Conditionally edible Inedible Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers ND-09 AJK Present study
113 R. acriuscula Buyck Russulaceae Edible/med Not consumed Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers ND-10 AJK Present study
114 R. tenuiceps Kauffman Russulaceae Inedible Inedible Mycorrhizal with oaks ND-11 AJK Present study
115 R. violacea Quel Russulaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers ND-12 AJK Present study
116 Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda)Th. Fr Rhizopogonaceae Medicinal Consumed as food Ectomycorrhizal fungus ND-16 Bagh AJK Present study
117 Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel, Boletaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with pines ND-17 AJK Present study
118 S. luteus (L.) Roussel Suillaceae Edible Not consumed Mycorrhizal with pines ND-19 Pakistan [68]
119 Suillellus luridus (Schaeff.) Murrill Boletaceae Conditionally Edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal with pines and other hardwoods ND-20 AJK Present study
120 Scleroderma bovista, Fr Sclerodermataceae Inedible Inedible Saprobic on the ground, mycorrhizal with hardwoods PHM-07 Kaghan Valley [72]
121 S. citrinum Pers Sclerodermataceae medicinal/poisonous Consumed as food Attached to soil my mycelial cords PHM-08 Bagh AJK Present study
122 Stromatinia rapulum (Bull.) Boud Pezizaceae Conditionally edible Not consumed Saprobic on well-decayed logs PHM-12 AJK Present study
123 Sparassis spathulata (Schwein.) Fr Sparassidaceae Edible when young Used as stomach tonic and food Pathogenic and Saprobic PHM-13 AJK Present study
124 S. crispa (Wulfen) Fr Sparassidaceae Edible/medicinal Consumed as food/medicinal Pathogenic and saprobic PHM-14 Pakistan [70]
125 Tricholoma portentosum (Fr.) Quel Tricholomataceae Edible and medicinal Consumed as food On Coniferous woods and oaks ND22 AJK Present study
126 Volvopluteus gloiocephalus (DC.) Vizzini, Contu & Justo Pleurotaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, growing aggregates in gardens, lawns, woodchips, etc. ND-27 AJK/KPK [72]
127 Volvariella volvaceae (Bull.) Singer Pleurotaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, growing in woodchips SG-07 AJK/KPK [72]
128 V. bombycina (Schaeff.) Singer Pleurotaceae Edible Consumed as food Saprobic, growing in woodchips CHK-02 AJK/KPK [72]
129 Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) J. Schroet Helvellaceae Conditionally edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal. Found under hardwoods and conifers in early spring PC-01 Neelum AJK Present study
130 V. conica (O.F. Müll.) Sw Helvellaceae Conditionally edible Consumed as food Mycorrhizal. Found under hardwoods and conifers in early spring CHK-02 Neelum AJK Present study
131 Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Bull.) Šutara Boletaceae Edible Food Mycorrhizal with oaks and conifers CHK-03 AJK Present study