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Table 1 Corpus and praxis of TVM by Mapuche and non-Mapuche campesinos, southern Chilean Andes

From: “The climate itself must have hidden some medicines”: traditional veterinary medicine of indigenous and non-indigenous campesinos of the southern Andes

Corpus Praxis
Season of year Description Category Animal management Description
Winter Praxis organized by corpus related with lower grassland productivity, snow in mountainous sectors, and availability of shrubs and/or trees (AT) (LIT) (BIO) Supplementary feeding Feeding animals with bales, concentrate, oats, bamboo (Chusquea spp.), and palo trébol (Dasyphyllum diacanthoides) to supplement production deficit of pastures
  Praxis organized by corpus represented by temperature minimums, snow in mountainous sectors, abundant rainfall, and the presence of predators (AT) (BIO) Animal shelter The practice of providing shelter for animals in pens, sheds, pigsties, coops, and trees
Spring Praxis organized by corpus about increase in temperatures, drop in rainfall, increased grassland productivity, and animal reproduction cycles (AT) (BIO) Calving Planning of calving for different species to reduce neonatal and postnatal deaths associated with feed deficits and extreme weather conditions. The organization of calving permits a supply of animal protein for consumption and/or sale at different times of the year
  Praxis planned on basis of corpus related to increase in temperatures and the cycle of the trune (Acaena ovalifolia) and pimpinela (Acaena pinnatifida) species (AT) (BIO) Shearing Planning of shearing before the trune (Acaena ovalifolia) and pimpinela (Acaena pinnatifida) species go to seed in order to prevent these seeds from sticking to the wool
  Praxis organized by corpus related to the waning phase of the moon and cloudy days with low temperatures during the summer (AS) (AT) Tail docking The tail docking of ewes to facilitate the mating and lambing of future breeding ewes is carried out during the waning moon, which is associated with a decrease in body fluids, preventing hemorrhages and facilitating the coagulation of the cut
Summer Praxis organized by corpus about increase in temperatures, drop in grassland productivity, the reproductive cycles, and vegetation units in mountains (AT) (LIT) (HID) (BIO) (EG) Cattle transhumance The practice of transhumance in which cattle are moved to mountainous areas from December to March for feeding and mating
  Corpus about the effect of salt in preventing mice from entering the shed where fodder is kept. In addition, adding salt makes the feed more palatable in winter (AT) (BIO) Fodder storage The practice of storing unbaled grass with salt in sheds
  Praxis organized by corpus related to the availability of seeds for improving pasture (AT) (BIO) Seed harvesting The seeds of cat grass (Dactylis glomerata), clover (Trifolium spp.), ryegrass (Lolium spp.), and meadow soft grass (Holcus lanatus) are selected and harvested for grassland improvement. The seeds are harvested from the grassland as well as from the sheds where fodder is stored
  Praxis organized by corpus about the reproductive cycles of sheep and increase in temperatures (AT) (BIO) Ram separation The ram is separated from the sheep flock in order to send the ewes to early mating, scheduling lambing for a season with greater forage availability and better weather conditions
  The right time to implement this praxis is determined by a corpus related to the presence of a waning moon and cloudy days with low temperatures in summer (AS) (AT) Castration The practice of removing the testicles of cattle destined to become steers or bullocks and pigs reserved for fattening during a waning moon
Autumn Corpus related to reduction in hours of daylight, the characteristics of the reproduction cycle of sheep, and reduction in temperatures (AT) (BIO) Mating This practice consists of bringing together the previously separated rams with the flock of ewes for mating in April and/or May
Annual Corpus about the presence of different ectoparasites in poultry (BIO) Adding ash to chicken coops The practice of using ash in chicken coops to control ectoparasites such as bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)
  Corpus about the presence of slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) in the apex of grass (AT) (BIO) Late release of sheep The practice of releasing the flock of sheep confined in barns, sheds, and/or pens after 9 am to prevent the animals from ingesting slugs (Deroceras reticulatum), which cause swelling and death of the sheep
  Corpus about the positive effect of animal manure on the soil and the productivity of grassland used for animals (LIT) (BIO) Fertilization with animal manure Incorporation of animal manure into the grassland for fertilization. There are different methods such as: spreading and incorporating the fresh manure left by the livestock when grazing; leaving the sheep manure to dry in sheds and then incorporating it into the meadows; preparing a mixture of manure from different animal species for incorporation into the meadows once it has dried; and mixing animal manure with different organic waste
  1. Nomenclature: Knowledge categories: (AS): Astronomical; (AT): Atmospheric; (BIO): Biological; (EG): Eco-geographic; (HD): Hydrosphere; (LIT): Lithosphere