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Table 4 A summary of the main co-occurring thematic explanations of individual responses for each of the plant behavioral examples asked in the questionnaire

From: Understanding interdisciplinary perspectives of plant intelligence: Is it a matter of science, language, or subjectivity?

Co-occuring thematic explanations Habituation in Mimosa pudica L Conditioned learning in Pisum sativum L Salt avoidance in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh Host preference in Cuscuta pentagona Engelm Nectar in plant–ant relationships Resource exploitation by roots of Pisum sativum L Counting and memory in the Venus fly trap Mycoheterotrophic plants Tomato plant turns herbivore into cannibals
Uncertain 5 2 3 1 1 3 2 2
Response to external stimuli 4 4 7 2 1 2 1
Depends on definition 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1
Physiological response 6 3 3 2 1 2 1
Automated response 4 1 8 9 7 3 5 5 3
Evolutionary process 1 2 6 17 3 8 26 17
No conscious thought involved 3 1 8 6 5 3 6 6 3
Chemical response 1 5 1 5
Threshold response 5 1
Tropism 4 3 2
Expresses concern about the study 4 6 2 4
  Case-specific themes
  Saving energy       Not considered counting Mimicry/parasitism is not intelligent Response not directed by plant
  3       5 4 7
Total number of respondents 53 45 49 47 42 42 43 57 52
  1. The numbers represent the occurrence of one theme being mentioned per behavioral example. Case-specific explanations were themes unique to a behavioral example. A theme was only produced if it was mentioned more than three times in any of the behavioral examples. For the definition board where all themes were explained, see appendix Table 6. The last two behavioral examples on the right were behaviors not intended as indicators of plant intelligence but, instead, of mere adaptation