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Table 1 Demarcation plants or trees noted in reprints of documents of different types of disputed land boundaries between 1648 and 1867 in Hitachi Province and a part of Shimousa Province (present-day Ibaraki Prefecture)

From: Anthropogenic legacies shaping the present composition of demarcation trees in a temperate upland field landscape in Japan

Demarcation tree species or methods Upland fields Divided forest Paddy fields Buddhist invocation hall Rental land (unknown land use) Residence Shrine Border between upland fields and communal land Border between upland fields and goshuinchi (temple-held grasslands) Communal land Village border Total
Pinus 1 2         9 2 14
Dwarf bamboo           2 3 5
Gleditsia japonica Miq 1       1 1   2   5
Celtis sinensis Pers      1 1      1 3
Demarcation trees (unknown species) 2          1   3
Salix        1   1   1 3
Castanea crenata (L.f.) D.Don       1      1 2
Pourthiaea villosa (Thunb.) DC   1 1          2
Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. trichotomum       1       1
Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D.Don   1           1
Sambucus racemosa L. subsp. Sieboldiana (Miq.) H.Hara     1         1
Small tree planting (unknown species) 1            1
Symplocos sawafutagi Nagam 1            1