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Table 2 Association between the location of six demarcation tree species recorded in 2011 and land use in the 1880s in the Rapid Survey Map

From: Anthropogenic legacies shaping the present composition of demarcation trees in a temperate upland field landscape in Japan

  Total number of individuals Farmland Forest Shrub- and grassland
Number of individuals (%) Standardized residual Number of individuals (%) Standardized residual Number of individuals (%) Standardized residual
Deutzia crenata Siebold et Zucc 985 615 (62.4) 5.3*** 287 (29.1) − 3.5** 83 (8.4) − 3.3**
Pourthiaea villosa (Thunb.) DC 149 46 (30.9) − 6.9*** 68 (45.6) 3.7** 35 (23.5) 5.6***
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze 120 85 (70.8) 3.1* 34 (28.3) −  0.9 1 (0.8) − 3.6**
Euonymus japonicus Thunb 88 48 (54.5) − 0.6 29 (33.0) 0.1 11 (12.5) 0.7
Celtis sinensis Pers 74 35 (47.3) − 1.8 32 (43.2) 2.1 7 (9.5) − 0.2
Morus ssp. 70 26 (37.1) − 3.5** 28 (40.0) 1.4 16 (22.9) 3.5**
Total 1486 855 (57.5)   478 (32.2)   153 (10.3)  
  1. The standardized residual values labelled with asterisk(s) were significantly different from the expected values (* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; residual analysis with the Holm correction)